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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | October 06, 2016


Newly discovered gut organism protects mice from bacterial infections
While bacteria are often stars of the gut microbiome, emerging research depicts a more complex picture, where microorganisms from different kingdoms of life are actively working together or fighting against one another.
Smallest. Transistor. Ever.
A research team led by Berkeley Lab material scientists has created a transistor with a working 1-nanometer gate, breaking a size barrier that had been set by the laws of physics.
Methane muted: How did early Earth stay warm?
For at least a billion years of the distant past, planet Earth should have been frozen over but wasn't.
Nuclear protein causes neuroblastoma to become more aggressive
Aggressive forms of neuroblastoma contain a specific protein in their cells' nuclei that is not found in the nuclei of more benign forms of the cancer, and the discovery, made through research from the University of Rochester Medical Center, could lead to new forms of targeted therapy.
Reactome announces annotation and release of 10,000th human protein
The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), the New York University School of Medicine and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR) today announced a major milestone in the Reactome project: the annotation and release of its 10,000th human protein, making it the most comprehensive open access pathway knowledgebase available to the scientific community.
Scientists rev up speed of bionic enzyme reactions
Bionic enzymes got a needed boost in speed thanks to new research at the Berkeley Lab.
Solving a cryptic puzzle with a little help from a hologram
A recent discovery provides an innovative technique for calculating the shapes of electrons.
Efficient organic solar cells with very low driving force
Researchers at Linköping University, together with Chinese and American colleagues, have developed organic solar cells with a significantly lower driving force and faster charge separation than previous cells.
Why you smell better with your nose than with your mouth
The marked difference in how much better you recognize odors you breathe in than those that are released when you chew something can be explained by the workings of the epithelium cells that line the nasal cavity.
Shedding light on the limits of the expanded genetic code
In 2014, scientists made a huge news splash when they reported the ability to grow bacteria with an expanded genetic code.
Should patients be allowed to opt out of routine genetic testing of colorectal tumors?
Health-care providers support routine testing of colorectal tumors to identify more individuals who have the most common genetic condition responsible for such cancers, a new study suggests.
New cost-effective silicon carbide high voltage switch created
Researchers at North Carolina State University have created a high voltage and high frequency silicon carbide (SiC) power switch that could cost much less than similarly rated SiC power switches.
Using oxygen as a tracer of galactic evolution
A new study led by University of California, Riverside astronomers casts light on how young, hot stars ionize oxygen in the early universe and the effects on the evolution of galaxies through time.
Novel method creates important industrial chemicals simply, cheaply
A Washington State University research team has used a simple, common industrial process in a new way to create chemicals used widely as fuel additives and as feedstock for plasticizers, detergents, lubricants and cosmetics.
PSA for prostate screening unaffected by changes in screening guidelines
Controversy over prostate cancer screening guidelines that discourage use of PSA tests did not significantly reduce use of the test, a five-year review of more than 275,000 visits at UT Southwestern Medical Center showed.
Loner spiders prevail as pioneers
A spider looking to immigrate to a different environment is three to four times more likely to survive if it goes by itself, as opposed to as part of a group.
When things go wrong after surgery, a patient's fate & bills can vary widely by hospital
A new study shows just how much it costs to care for patients who suffer a complication after surgery, and how widely hospitals can vary in their ability to keep patients from suffering, or dying from, the same complications.
Small droplets feel the vibe
A team of researchers at the University of Bristol have used ultrasonic forces to accurately pattern thousands of microscopic water-based droplets.
Exhaling Earth: Scientists closer to forecasting volcanic eruptions
On average, 40 volcanoes on land erupt into the atmosphere each month, while scores of others erupt into the ocean.
Crizotinib in bronchial carcinoma: New data not informative
After expiry of the limitation period, the manufacturer presented results from a later data cut-off.
Study will test ecopipam's effectiveness in treating stuttering
Stuttering, an interruption in the flow of speech, affects about three million Americans.
Analyzing picture books for nutrition education
Feeding children can be a challenging process for many parents.
Origin of minor planets' rings revealed
A team of researchers has clarified the origin of the rings recently discovered around two minor planets known as centaurs, and their results suggest the existence of rings around other centaurs.
Researchers probe HPV's manipulation of immune system
Researchers from New Zealand's University of Otago have gained fresh insights into how one of the main viruses that cause cervical cancer evades its hosts' immune systems.
Non-smoking planet: Clues for tipping from vicious to virtuous behavior identified
This week in the journal Science, a team of economists, psychologists and ecologists analyzed how unexpected and rapid changes in social norms occur, for example, change in average family size, smoking indoors, foot binding in China, or littering the streets.
Coffee-infused foam removes lead from contaminated water
Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the US, which makes for a perky population -- but it also creates a lot of used grounds.
Protein-like structures from the primordial soup
Experiments performed by ETH scientists have shown that it is remarkably easy for protein-like, 2-D structures -- amyloids -- to form from basic building blocks.
CMI announces domestic rare-earth magnet partnership with INFINIUM
The US Department of Energy's Critical Materials Institute announced today a new partnership with INFINIUM, a metals production technology company, to demonstrate the production of rare-earth magnets sourced and manufactured entirely in the US.
Human neurons continue to migrate after birth, research finds
Researchers at UC San Francisco have discovered a previously unknown mass migration of inhibitory neurons into the brain's frontal cortex during the first few months after birth, revealing a stage of brain development that had previously gone unrecognized.
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in melanoma: Added benefit in certain patients
Treatment-naive patients with BRAF V600 mutation-negative tumor survive longer. This advantage depends on sex, however.
UA psychologist creates tool for measuring memory
When University of Arizona psychologist Jamie Edgin grew frustrated with the lack of an effective test for measuring memory in children with intellectual disabilities, she created her own test.
New method provides a tool to develop nematode-resistant soybean varieties
Many soybean varieties have a naturally occurring genetic resistance to the soybean cyst nematode, a major pest affecting the crop.
Cancer cells have Alzheimer's disease, too
A study published today by researchers at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine describes that certain proteins playing a role in cancer progression and metastasis are stored as amyloid bodies in dormant cancer cells.
Working night shifts unlikely to increase breast cancer risk
New research has found that working night shifts has little or no effect on a woman's breast cancer risk despite a review in 2007 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying shift work disrupting the 'body clock' as a probable cause of cancer.
Unique genetic basis found in autism genes that may lead to earlier diagnosis
One particularly distinct characteristic of autism genes the researchers found is their exceptional genomic length, which is longer than other brain-expressed genes of closely related diseases such as Alzheimer's and schizophrenia.
Measuring forces with oscillations
Researchers at ETH Zurich have discovered a peculiar feature in oscillations similar to that of a child's swing.
Improving participation in cancer screening should be a priority
Early diagnosis of cancer is linked to better survival rates.
Food waste could store solar and wind energy
Saving up excess solar and wind energy for times when the sun is down or the air is still requires a storage device.
One-pot synthesis towards sulfur-based organic semiconductors
Thiophene-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be useful as organic semiconductors due to their high charge transport properties.
RIT engineering faculty awarded NSF grant for high-tech nanofabrication equipment
Jing Zhang, engineering faculty member at Rochester Institute of Technology, received a $305,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to acquire a new etching system for photonic, electronic and bio-device fabrication.
Fast energy transport between unlike partners
Chemists from the University of Würzburg have combined different dye molecules in aggregates and thereby observed surprising properties.
Rapid blood test by GPs can rule out serious infections in children
Using a simple decision rule and a finger prick to test blood, GPs could substantially reduce the number of ill children being referred to hospital, if the test is used on children identified as 'at-risk' of a serious infection.
UV light disinfection significantly reduces Clostridium difficile incidence
Ultraviolet C light disinfection to clean unoccupied patient rooms significantly reduced C. difficile infections (CDI) in high-risk patients who later occupied those rooms, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
Therapists more likely to call back 'Allison' than 'Lakisha' promoting services
If you leave a message with a therapist seeking mental health services you have a better chance of getting a callback that promotes care if you have a white-sounding name than a black one, according to one of the first racial audit field studies set in the context of the mental health profession.
Meeting demand for 'natural' vanilla calls for creativity
In recent years, consumers have increasingly been looking for 'natural' ingredients in their food products.
Type 2 diabetes and obesity -- what do we really know?
Social and economic factors have led to a dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world.
Beer eases final moments for euthanized invertebrates, study finds
A scientist sought a humane way to end the lives of snails in a laboratory.
Antibiotics could be cut by up to one-third, say dairy farmers
Nine in 10 dairy farmers participating in a new survey from the Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers (RADBF) say that the farming industry must take a proactive lead in the battle against antibiotic resistance.
UTA proves organic semiconducting polymers can harvest sunlight to split CO2 into alcohol fuels
Chemists at the University of Texas at Arlington have been the first to demonstrate that an organic semiconductor polymer called polyaniline is a promising photocathode material for the conversion of carbon dioxide into alcohol fuels without the need for a co-catalyst.
Mayflies of Turkey: Two new records for the country species and an annotated catalogue
Mayflies are a fascinating insect group and represent the oldest winged insects, estimated to have appeared on the Earth about 350 million years ago.
Selexipag in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Added benefit not proven
The data in the dossier were unsuitable to show an added benefit: Comparator therapy and division of the population were inadequate.
USU aerospace engineer creates free 3-D aircraft design software
As the use of autonomous aerial vehicles continues to expand, one aerospace engineering expert is offering the public a free online aircraft design tool.
Vigilin, the lock keeper
ETH researchers have discovered a molecule in liver cells that controls the release of fat into the bloodstream.
Beer yeasts show surprising diversity, genome study finds
The yeasts responsible for fermenting your favorite frothy ale have a surprisingly complicated past, according to researchers reporting in Current Biology on Oct.
African-American organ transplant recipients at risk for skin cancer
Non-white transplant recipients, who are at lower risk for developing skin cancer than their white counterparts, should still receive routine, total-body skin examinations, according to new patient data.
Night shift work and breast cancer risk
Despite an assessment in 2007 indicating that night shift work was probably carcinogenic, data from three new studies and from a review of currently available evidence, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, indicate that night shift work has little or no effect on breast cancer incidence.
Apes understand that some things are all in your head
We all know that the way someone sees the world, and the way it really is, aren't always the same.
Efficient low-cost method for hydrogenation of graphene with visible light
An environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost method for hydrogenation of graphene with visible light has been developed by researchers at Uppsala University and AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Sweden.
Study: Hospital rankings may rely on faulty data
Published study concluded that US News and World Report hospital rankings relied on faulty patient safety data that distorted the patient safety scores of academic medical centers where the most seriously ill patients are transferred.
Socioeconomics play key role in Arctic Search and Rescue
Traveling and harvesting on the land and sea is of vital importance to Indigenous communities in the Canadian Arctic and subarctic, with links to food security, cultural identity, and well-being.
Mental illness genetically linked to drug use and misuse
A person's genetic risk for psychiatric disorders is related to his or her vulnerability to substance use and misuse.
Preserving the power of antibiotics
News release describes efforts to address inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in emergency departments and urgent-care centers nationwide, which a JAMA study published this past May found rates as high as 50 percent for acute respiratory infections in US emergency departments.
BMJ Case Reports: Alternative therapy dangers, rapunzel syndrome, tick-born illness
This week in BMJ Case Reports: Doctors warn of the dangers associated with alternative therapies for children; giant hairballs removed from patient with Rapunzel syndrome; and women develops threatening tick-borne illness.
Blappy, a new Bluetooth chat app for people with sensorial disability
Researchers at the Spanish Center of Subtitling and Audiodescription (Centro Español de Subtitulado y Audiodescripción - CESyA), which comes under the Board of Trustees on Disabilities (Real Patronato sobre Discapacidad) and is managed by the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), have developed Blappy, an application that enables chat communication via Bluetooth between two people with functional disabilities.
Record for perovskite/CIGS tandem solar module
Thin-film technologies can dramatically reduce the cost of next-generation solar modules.
Multisensory education enhances patient understanding of orthopaedic conditions
Patient education involving the use of multiple senses (sight, hearing and touch) during a physician-patient conversation about treatment, also known as 'informed consent,' improves understanding of anticipated care and possible outcomes, according to a new study appearing in today's issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.
AIP congratulates its 2016 Science Writing Award winners
The American Institute of Physics announced today the winners of its 2016 Science Writing Awards for Books, Articles, Writing for Children, and Broadcast and New Media.
During infancy, neurons are still finding their places
Researchers have identified a large population of previously unrecognized young neurons that migrate in the human brain during the first few months of life, contributing to the expansion of the frontal lobe, a region important for social behavior and executive function.
Study finds new approach to block binge eating
A new therapeutic target for the treatment of compulsive binge eating has been identified by researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM).
Speedy bacteria detector could help prevent foodborne illnesses
It seems like almost every week another food product is being recalled because of contamination.
New insight into course and transmission of Zika infection
In one of the first and largest studies of its kind, a research team lead by virologists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has characterized the progression of two strains of the viral infection.
What Twitter behavior accompanies mental health crises?
A new study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association indicates that there were two specific types of heightened Twitter discussions in 2014 related to mental health: expected increases in response to planned behavioral health events and unexpected increases in response to unanticipated events.
Enjoying your workout is the best motivation
Emotions may help build the foundation of a sustainable exercise routine, suggests a new study in Frontiers in Psychology.
Tornadogenesis
A dark, greenish sky... a loud roar, similar to a freight train... low-lying clouds -- if you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs, take shelter immediately.
Survey -- most Americans better informed, often rely on instincts to navigate info environment
While the vast majority of Americans believe it is easier to find useful information today than it was five years ago, 78 percent report that the sheer quantity of information can sometimes be overwhelming, according to a new survey conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago on decision-making in an information-saturated world.
Clemson scientist receives $442,000 grant to study molecular causes of autism and epilepsy
Clemson University scientist David Feliciano recently received a three-year, $442,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health to study how alterations to a complex pathway in the developing brain cause a constellation of neurological disorders, including the simultaneous presence of autism and epilepsy.
In India, training informal health-care providers improved quality of care
Training informal health-care providers in India improved the quality of health care they offered to patients in rural regions, a new study reports.
Using satellite images to better target vaccination
Vaccination campaigns can improve prevention and control of disease of outbreaks in the developing world by using satellite images to capture short-term changes in population size.
Brain's biological clock stimulates thirst before sleep
The brain's biological clock stimulates thirst in the hours before sleep, according to a study published in the journal Nature by McGill University researchers.
How gecko feet got sticky
Timothy Higham, a biologist at the University of California, Riverside, and two colleagues have found a gecko, Gonatodes humeralis, in Trinidad and French Guiana that offers a 'snapshot' into the evolution of adhesion in geckos.
NIFA awards $382,650 in grants through the Women and Minorities in STEM program
How can the science workforce reflect a nation that is growing more diverse each year?
Researchers discover how selenium is incorporated into proteins
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have discovered exactly how selenium is incorporated into selenoproteins.
How breast cancer screening could be better and less painful
The breast cancer screening tests offered to women may in many cases be unnecessarily painful.
Online sales of threatened cacti point to the Internet as an open door for illegal trade
International trade of wildlife on the Internet is highly unregulated and has become a threat for species survival.
Research!America to honor medical and health research advocacy leaders
Research!America's 21st annual Advocacy Awards will honor outstanding advocates for research whose contributions to health and medicine have saved lives and improved quality of life for patients worldwide.
NASA sees Hurricane Matthew moving through the Bahamas
Satellites continue to provide forecasters and scientists valuable data on the development and changes in Hurricane Matthew as it moves through the Bahamas and toward the Florida coast.
Climate change intensifies night-time storms over Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria in East Africa will become a hotspot for hazardous thunderstorms due to climate change.
JNeurosci: Highlights from the Oct. 5 issue
Check out these newsworthy studies from the Oct. 5, 2016, issue of JNeurosci.
Holographic imaging and deep learning diagnose malaria
Researchers have devised a method for computers to autonomously and quickly diagnose malaria with clinically relevant accuracy.
NASA sees Tropical Depression Aere moving through South China Sea
Tropical Depression Area, formerly known as 22W continued on a western track and entered the South China Sea as NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of the storm.
Delinquent youths with PTSD need individualized treatment, studies suggest
Juvenile offenders who have a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder are at 67 percent greater risk of entering substance abuse treatment within seven years and may require specialized treatment to stay sober and out of trouble, a new study by University of Illinois scholars Jordan Davis and Gabriel ('Joey') Merrin found.
Online emancipation: Protecting users from algorithmic bias
To establish a system of auditability and build trust and transparency when it comes to internet use researchers from The University of Nottingham, the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh want to learn more about the concerns and perspectives of internet users with the aim of drawing up policy recommendations, ethical guidelines and a 'fairness toolkit.'
More than 10 percent of Americans have high concentrations of persistent pollutants
A study led by researchers at the IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute) and UAB (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) has analyzed the number of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) detected at high concentrations in the population of the US and found relationships with socioeconomic factors.
At last, an inventory of the ocean's dissolved sulfur
The dissolved fraction of organic sulfur in the ocean is the most abundant form of sulfur there by a factor of ten, a new study finds.
Yeast gene rapidly evolves to attack viruses, researchers find
New research from the University of Idaho and the University of Colorado Boulder reveals another way that yeast species can help our species: by demonstrating how viruses interact with their hosts, and how hosts may evolve to fight back.
RIT/NTID audiologist earns 2016 Oticon Focus on People award
Catherine Clark, an audiologist and faculty member at Rochester Institute of Technology's National Technical Institute for the Deaf, is among the individuals honored by the 2016 Oticon Focus on People Awards, a national competition that celebrates people who are helping to eliminate negative stereotypes of what it means to be deaf or hard of hearing.
New curriculum raises kidney awareness
A new series on core curriculum for kidney specialists has been released by the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, the official journal of the Canadian Society of Nephrology.
Alzheimer's treatment innovation pipeline is building
A new analysis of the Phase II Alzheimer's drug pipeline, conducted by ResearchersAgainstAlzheimer's, revealed 57 new Alzheimer's drugs.
Ribosomal quality control
The formation of macromolecular machines within cells is often a complicated endavour.
This flower smells like a bee under attack
A new discovery takes plants' deception of their pollinators to a whole new level.
Observing the birth of quasiparticles in real time
The formation of quasiparticles, such as polarons, in a condensed-matter system usually proceeds in an extremely fast way and is very difficult to observe.
The Lancet: Global Burden of Disease study 2015 assesses the state of the world's health
Today, The Lancet publishes the most up-to-date analysis on the state of the world's health to equip governments and donors with evidence to identify national health challenges and priorities for intervention.
Enhancing the superconducting properties of an iron-based material
By bombarding the material with low-energy protons, scientists doubled the amount of current the material could carry without resistance, while raising the temperature at which this superconducting state emerges.
Safety data support human testing of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for mucopolysaccharid I
Extensive biosafety studies of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy, intended to replace a protein that patients with the inherited disease mucopolysaccaridosis I (MPS I) cannot produce, support clinical testing of the stem cell-based gene addition approach in MPS I patients.
Penn Vet-CHOP partnership probes link between cattle and Crohn's disease
Penn Vet New Bolton Center scientists Marie-Eve Fecteau and Raymond Sweeney are investigating the similarities between Crohn's disease, which affects as many as 700,000 Americans, and Johne's disease, a chronic wasting disease present in nearly 70 percent of dairy cattle herds in the United States.
Pitt scientists identify how repair protein finds DNA damage
New Pitt research shows that first responder protein rapidly scans DNA to find sites of damage, then slows down to identify damage and flag down DNA repair machinery.
Study demonstrates role of gut bacteria in neurodegenerative diseases
Research has revealed that exposure to bacterial proteins called amyloid that have structural similarity to brain proteins may lead to an increase in clumping of proteins in the brain.
A niche for metastases
Pancreatic cancer is an exceptionally aggressive type of cancer. Frequently, metastases already start to grow in other organs, particularly often in the liver, before the original tumor was even detected.
Researchers activate repair program for nerve fibers
Injuries to the spinal cord can cause paralysis and other permanent disabilities because severed nerve fibers do not regrow.
Clemson University scientists receive $1.8 million grant to combat Type 2 diabetes
A pair of Clemson University scientists is using high-tech computer modeling and experimental validation techniques to unveil the intricate molecular causes of adult-onset diabetes, one of the world's most widespread, damaging and costly diseases.
Big data processing enables worldwide bacterial analysis
Sequencing data from biological samples are archived in public databases.
Computer experts identify 14 themes of creativity
The elusive and complex components of creativity have been identified by computer experts at the University of Kent.
NASA sees Hurricane Matthew regain Category 4 status
Satellite imagery showed Hurricane Matthew's clouds already streaming over Florida on Oct.
Symposium promotes versatile, vital pulse crops
International Year of Pulses highlights the role of sustainable crops and nutritious foods.
Adults with disabilities on Medicaid wait list most likely to have unmet service needs
Survey of caregivers for adults with intellectual, developmental disabilities finds that the low-income, racial minorities and those with speech difficulties have the most unmet service needs.
Hubble detects giant 'cannonballs' shooting from star
Great balls of fire! NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has detected superhot blobs of gas, each twice as massive as the planet Mars, being ejected near a dying star.
Causative gene for sensorineural hearing loss identified
A causative gene for a highly common type of hearing loss (sensorineural hearing loss, or SNHL) has been identified by a group of Japanese researchers, who successfully replicated the condition using a transgenic mouse.
Research finds that birds behave like human musicians
The tuneful behavior of some songbirds parallels that of human musicians.
Novel tensor mining tool to enable automated modeling described in big data
Tensors and tensor decompositions, a powerful set of new data mining tools that can be used to model and extract knowledge from multidimensional data, can be automated for more widespread use in Big Data applications.
Are prosthetic interventions for transtibial amputees cost effective?
Recognizing the paucity of economic analyses regarding interventions for transtibial amputees, M.
Groundbreaking immune approach targets humans instead of bacteria
Hebrew University scientists show for the first time how bacterial superantigen toxins work, and how short peptides can block them and save lives.
IU scientists discover 'supramolecule' that could help reduce nuclear, agricultural waste
A study from Indiana University published today in the German scientific journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition provides the first experimental proof for the existence of a chemical bond between two negatively charged molecules of bisulfate, or HSO4.
Patients diagnosed late with HIV infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others
An estimated 1.2 million people live with HIV in the United States, with nearly 13 percent being unaware of their infection.
NCI-grant explores potential of likely tumor-suppressor gene in kidney cancer
A poorly understood gene that appears super-suppressed in African-Americans with kidney cancer may be a biomarker of a patient's prognosis and a new target for improving it, researchers say.
First quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source
Whether for use in safe data encryption, ultrafast calculation of huge data volumes or so-called quantum simulation of highly complex systems: Optical quantum computers are a source of hope for tomorrow's computer technology.
Breast milk protein safely reduces hospital infections in preemies
Responding to a call from the American Academy of Pediatrics to reduce hospital-acquired infections in neonatal intensive care units across the country, researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and Sinclair School of Nursing have found a protein in breast milk to be a safe and efficient solution.
Research gives hope to those with head and facial deformities
When Francis Smith of the University of Colorado recently visited UC Berkeley's Michael Rape, Rape came face to face with someone who could have benefited from his research.
Talimogene laherparepvec in melanoma: Added benefit not proven
The data from the only study cited by the drug manufacturer in its dossier were unsuitable for the assessment.
The life cycle of proteins
Some proteins behave in an unusual way: the older they become, the longer their life expectancy.
Brain cell 'executioner' identified
Despite their different triggers, the same molecular chain of events appears to be responsible for brain cell death from strokes, injuries and even such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's.
Increase in global life expectancy offset by war, obesity, and substance abuse
Improvements in sanitation, immunizations, indoor air quality, and nutrition have enabled children in poor countries to live longer over the past 25 years, according to a new scientific analysis of more than 300 diseases and injuries in 195 countries and territories.
Study questions long-held belief related to hemodialysis care
In analyses of adults who initiated hemodialysis between 2004 and 2012, death rates in patients who had an arteriovenous fistula created prior to starting dialysis were lower than rates in patients who started dialysis using a catheter.
How plants grow new lateral roots
Researchers have used 3-D live imaging to observe the formation process of lateral roots in plants, and clarified part of the mechanism that creates new meristematic tissue.
How airlines are cutting their carbon footprint
The global aviation industry has pledged that by 2050, it will reduce its net carbon emissions to half its 2005 levels.
Iowa State researchers fabricate microfibers for single-cell studies, tissue engineering
Iowa State University researchers are using the science of microfluidics -- the study of fluids moving through channels just a millionth of a meter wide -- to design and fabricate microfiber scaffolds that support cell growth and tissue engineering.
Disney researchers build first tetherless hopping robot
One-legged hopping robots have long been used to study balance issues, but their dependence on off-board power has kept them tethered, literally, to the lab.
The mathematics of music history
New research from Center for Music in the Brain shows that patriotism in music is expressed through use of speech rhythms from the composer's native language.
Warwick to conduct breakthrough research on oral cancers in Pakistan
One of the deadliest and most prevalent cancers in the Indo-Pakistan region could be treated more effectively, thanks to a new research project being undertaken at the University of Warwick.
Decoding of tarsier genome reveals ties to humans
Small enough to fit into the palm of your hand, with enormous eyes and an appetite for meat, tarsiers are an anomaly of nature.
Genes that control cellular senescence identified
A research group has succeeded in identifying genes that control cellular senescence -- permanently arrested cell growth.
Peer victimization in schools: 2 studies explore types and repercussions
Two new studies explore peer victimization in school settings. Study one analyzed research in 17 countries and identified different types of common victimization, while study two looked at how victimization relates to how a child's stress response system develops.
The role of natural killer T cells in acute kidney injury: Angel or evil?
The mechanism of natural killer T (NKT) cells in acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported frequently in recent studies.
Smallest-reported artificial virus could help advance gene therapy
Gene therapy is a kind of experimental treatment that is designed to fix faulty genetic material and help a patient fight off or recover from a disease.
IDRI receives NIH grant to develop RNA-based Zika virus vaccine
As Zika cases continue to rise with associated increases in Guillain-Barre syndrome and congenital birth defects, the need for a safe and effective vaccine to protect against Zika virus is greater than ever.
Simple blood test could vastly improve detection rates of severe liver disease
A new non-invasive method of predicting the risk of developing a severe form of liver disease could ensure patients receive early and potentially life-saving medical intervention before irreversible damage is done.
Tamoxifen, AI therapies linked to reduced risk for contralateral breast cancer in community health
In patients with invasive breast cancer treated in a general community health care setting, tamoxifen therapy was associated with reduced risk for contralateral breast cancer in the opposite breast and that risk progressively decreased as the duration of tamoxifen therapy increased, according to a new study published online by JAMA Oncology.
Researchers use novel materials to build smallest transistor
In a new study published Oct. 7 in the journal Science, University of Texas at Dallas engineers and their colleagues describe a novel transistor made with a new combination of materials that is even smaller than the smallest possible silicon-based transistor.
NASA sees Nicole dwarfed by Hurricane Matthew
Satellite imagery shows that Tropical Storm Nicole is less than half the size of powerful Hurricane Matthew.
30-day hospital readmission is a poor measure of quality
The 30-day window for hospital readmissions -- used by the federal government to penalize hospitals believed to provide lower-quality care because patients return to the hospital following discharge -- should be reduced to a week or less to more accurately measure factors within a hospital's control, new research from UC Davis has found.
Management of fatigue and sleep in chronic illness
The College of Nursing at the University of Massachusetts Amherst recently was awarded a five-year, $1.23 million grant from the National Institute of Nursing Research to create a new center where scientists will develop technologies to help people with chronic illness manage fatigue and impaired sleep.
How solvent molecules cooperate in reactions
Molecules from the solvent environment that at first glance seem to be uninvolved can be essential for chemical reactions.
Harnessing algae for the creation of clean energy
Researchers at Tel Aviv University have revealed how microalgae produce hydrogen, a clean fuel of the future, and suggest a possible mechanism to jumpstart mass production of this environmentally friendly energy source.
Apes demonstrate human-like understanding of what others believe
Apes can correctly anticipate that humans will look for a hidden item in a specific location, even if the apes know that item is no longer there, a new study reveals.
Touchscreens may boost motor skills in toddlers
The effects of using touchscreens on young children are a concern for some parents and policymakers.
Climate change to have 'little effect' on common landslides
The frequency of common landslides is not likely to increase as a result of more rainstorms brought about by future climate change, new research from Cardiff University has shown.
Why tumors evade immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is a new and highly promising form of treatment for cancer, but in many patients, tumors recur.
Modest training may improve unlicensed health care, globally
In the developing world, a large portion of health care providers have no formal medical training.
Vaccinating babies without vaccinating babies
Scientists have long understood that mother's milk provides immune protection against some infectious agents through the transfer of antibodies, a process referred to as 'passive immunity.' A research team at the University of California, Riverside now shows that mother's milk also contributes to the development of the baby's own immune system by a process the team calls 'maternal educational immunity.'

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#538 Nobels and Astrophysics
This week we start with this year's physics Nobel Prize awarded to Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz and finish with a discussion of the Nobel Prizes as a way to award and highlight important science. Are they still relevant? When science breakthroughs are built on the backs of hundreds -- and sometimes thousands -- of people's hard work, how do you pick just three to highlight? Join host Rachelle Saunders and astrophysicist, author, and science communicator Ethan Siegel for their chat about astrophysics and Nobel Prizes.