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Science News and Current Events for October 20, 2016


Sink your teeth into this: How the three-part jaw evolved
The unearthing of a fossil in China has shed light on the evolution of the three-part jaw, revealing a previously unknown stage of jaw evolution in an extinct class of armored, prehistoric fish known as placoderms.
Novel mechanisms of action discovered for skin cancer medication Imiquimod
Imiquimod is a medication successfully used in the treatment of skin diseases.
Drexel study shows mismatched cuisine could make your meal more enjoyable
Ordering an Italian main course? According to a Drexel University food science researcher, if you want to be certain you'll enjoy your meal, you should probably get the spring rolls to start.
Women, diversity in STEM focus of ADVANCE grant to Clemson
With $3.4 M NSF grant, Clemson will increase women and underrepresented minorities in STEM, and increase diversity and inclusion across campus.
System changes improve prenatal care for Medicaid beneficiaries
Oregon's 2012 shift to an incentivized, accountable-care system for Medicaid beneficiaries led to positive changes for expectant mothers and their babies.
New 13-year study tracks effects of changing ocean temperature on phytoplankton
A new multiyear study has shown for the first time how changes in ocean temperature affect a key species of phytoplankton.
Scripps awarded $2.9 million NIH grant to study text messaging in diabetes management
Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute has received a five-year, $2.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to fund an innovative clinical trial that will use mHealth technology and text messaging to improve type 2 diabetes management among high-risk Hispanic patients in San Diego County.
Mobilizing our immune system to fight viruses
Last week marked the 20th anniversary of Professors Doherty and Zinkernagel's Nobel Prize in Medicine for discoveries concerning the immune system.
Game theory: Army of agents to tackle corrupt officials, tax evaders, terrorists
Game theory has long been used to apply mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.
HIV active in tissues of patients who were treated, study shows
UCSF researchers have found in autopsy tissue samples of patients treated with antiretrovirals that the virus evolved and migrated among tissues similar to the way it did in patients who had never received antiretroviral treatment, despite the fact that the treated patients had undetectable levels of virus in their blood.
A novel noninvasive imaging probe for fast and sensitive detection of cancer
The ultimate goal of cancer diagnostics is to develop sensitive imaging techniques for reliable detection of tumor malignancy in the body.
TB tricks the body's immune system to allow it to spread
Tuberculosis tricks the immune system into attacking the body's lung tissue so the bacteria are allowed to spread to other people, new research from the University of Southampton suggests.
Ancient proteins shown to control plant growth
A UCLA-led international team of life scientists reports the discovery of new mechanisms regulating plant growth that quite possibly provide new insights into how the mammalian biological clock affects human health.
Study offers different perspective on entrepreneurial opportunities
In entrepreneurship research, the idea that entrepreneurial opportunities are waiting to be discovered has been challenged by researchers who believe that they are instead created by the entrepreneurs.
Analysis challenges notion that women face higher kidney risks after heart surgery
Women are more likely than men to develop kidney damage following cardiovascular surgery, but researchers found no association between sex and risk of kidney damage when they analyzed studies that took patient characteristics and other factors into account.
Amazonian frog has its own ant repellent
Special chemicals covering the skin of a tiny yellow-striped Amazonian frog provide a protective shield that wards off leaf-cutting ants allowing it to live comfortably among them.
Oligodendrocyte selectively myelinates a particular set of axons in the white matter
The research team in National Institute for Physiological Sciences (Okazaki, Aichi, Japan) developed a novel method for labeling a single oligodendrocyte and revealed characteristics of selective myelination by individual oligodendrocytes.
Researchers describe how tumors recruit and use stem cells to support tumor growth and progression
A new study has identified a mechanism used by tumors to recruit stem cells from bone and convert them into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that facilitate tumor progression.
Immune system of African-Americans responds more strongly to bacterial infection
A Canada-US study published in Cell has demonstrated that Americans of African descent have a stronger immune response to infection compared to Americans of European descent.
10/31/16 Academic Symposium: Probabilistic Modeling in Engineering and Science
On Monday, October 31, Lehigh University is hosting a symposium to advance the understanding and usage of probabilistic modeling in science and engineering academia, especially across in the U.S.
Music may help make high-intensity interval training viable option for average person
In a recently published study, researchers Kathleen Martin Ginis and Matthew Stork studied the attitudes of moderate exercisers towards high-intensity interval training, which they hadn't been exposed to before.
Emory Vaccine Center-India partnership sheds light on Dengue immune response
A recent study published in the Journal of Virology, by joint efforts among scientists from Emory, India and Thailand, sheds novel insights on the properties of a class of immune cells known as CD8 T cells, which are involved in fighting dengue virus infection.
'Mean girl' meerkats can make twice as much testosterone as males
Testosterone. It's often lauded as the hormone that makes males bigger, bolder, stronger.
Fast-food calorie labeling unlikely to encourage healthy eating, finds NYU study
Researchers from New York University show why fast-food menu calorie counts do not help consumers make healthy choices in a new study published in the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing.
Study estimates ADHD symptom persistence into adulthood
Sixty percent of children with ADHD in a recent study demonstrated persistence of symptoms into their mid-20s, and 41 percent had both symptoms and impairment as young adults.
Nanoparticle vaccinates mice against dengue fever
Every year, more than 350 million people in over 120 countries contact dengue fever, which can cause symptoms ranging from achy muscles and a skin rash to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever, and researchers have struggled to create effective vaccines against dengue virus.
New compound shows promise in treating multiple human cancers
A new compound, discovered jointly by international pharmaceutical company Servier, headquartered in France, and Vernalis (R&D), a company based in the UK, has been shown by researchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and Servier to block a protein that is essential for the sustained growth of up to a quarter of all cancers.
More American men with early-stage prostate cancer could opt out of immediate treatment
A new report on Swedish men with non-aggressive prostate cancer suggests that a lot more American men could safely choose to monitor their disease instead of seeking immediate radiation treatment or surgery.
In the name of the popes: How the Church shaped Europe
How did Europe become what it is today and what role did the institution of the Church play?
First complete sabotage attack demonstrated on a 3-D printed drone propeller
In their paper titled 'Dr0wned,' researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), the University of South Alabama and Singapore University of Technology and Design detail how to sabotage the quality of a 3-D-printed functional part, which leads to the destruction of a device.
Groundbreaking QUT review on counteracting mobile phone distraction while driving
With mobile phone use by drivers now a reality, a groundbreaking QUT review has recommended further research into how to make the practice safer.
Study finds earliest evidence in fossil record for right-handedness
By examining striations on teeth of a Homo habilis fossil, a new discovery led by a University of Kansas researcher has found the earliest evidence for right-handedness in the fossil record dating back 1.8 million years.
Genome study identifies risk genes in African Americans with inflammatory bowel disease
In the first genome-wide association study of genetic risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in African Americans, a research team has identified two regions of the genome (loci) associated with ulcerative colitis only in people of African descent.
Safe new storage method could be key to future of hydrogen-powered vehicles
One of the main obstacles facing hydrogen fuel technology has been the lack of a lightweight, safe on-board hydrogen storage material.
New study questions the safety of caspase inhibitors for the treatment of liver disease
Many acute and chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic hepatitis, result from apoptotic (programmed) cell death mediated by the enzyme caspase.
Cover leading social and personality psychologists at SPSP 2017 in San Antonio
Explore the latest scientific research on a diverse array of topics -- the psychology behind prejudice and discrimination, understanding non-verbal communication, strategies for interpersonal relationships, social factors that influence our decisions, and much more.
Drosophila study hints at diet-based treatment for NGLY1 deficiency
Researchers have found that in Drosophila fruit flies, providing a common dietary supplement prevents death caused by Pngl deficiency, the fly analog of the human genetic disorder N-Glycanase 1 deficiency.
Clemson students name novel Legionella strain: Clemsonensis
The Clemson family has gained a new namesake: Legionella clemsonensis, a novel strain of the Legionella bacteria, the most common cause of waterborne bacterial outbreaks in the United States.
Blast of thin air can reset circadian clocks
We might not think of our circadian clock until we are jetlagged, but scientists continue to puzzle over what drives our biological timepiece.
Argonne researchers posit way to locally circumvent Second Law of Thermodynamics
For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know.
Exploding smartphones: What's the silent danger lurking in our rechargeable devices?
Dozens of dangerous gases are produced by the batteries found in billions of consumer devices, like smartphones and tablets, according to a new study.
New perovskite solar cell design could outperform existing commercial technologies
Stanford and Oxford scientists have created new perovskite solar cells that that could rival and even outperform conventional cells made of silicon.
Agronomy, crops and soils lectures live streamed
Variety of topics available for media registration.
How snakes lost a blueprint for making limbs
Snakes lost their limbs over 100 million years ago, but scientists have struggled to identify the genetic changes involved.
'Gene therapy in a box' effective, reports Nature Communications
A table-top device that enables medical staff to genetically manipulate a patient's blood to deliver potential new therapies for cancer, HIV and other diseases would eliminate the need for multi-million-dollar 'clean rooms,' making gene therapy more possible for even the poorest of countries.
Allina Health researchers present LifeCourse findings at national palliative care conference
Allina Health researchers find that late life care can be sustainable and improve quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.
ALS study reveals role of RNA-binding proteins
Although only 10 percent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases are hereditary, a significant number of them are caused by mutations that affect proteins that bind RNA, a type of genetic material.
Self-healable battery
Electronics that can be embedded in clothing are a growing trend.
Receding glaciers in Bolivia leave communities at risk
A new study published in The Cryosphere, an European Geosciences Union journal, has found that Bolivian glaciers shrunk by 43 percent between 1986 and 2014, and will continue to diminish if temperatures in the region continue to increase.
Uncertainty about your social rank might be bad for your health
Having strong social connections has many benefits, from splitting the tab on a pizza to having someone with whom to binge watch Netflix.
The versatility of pronouns and shifting identity
A new scientific study reveals the fascinating ways in which we use pronouns to negotiate social identity.
Twenty-five life scientists join EMBO Young Investigator network
Heidelberg, 20 October 2016 - EMBO announced today the selection of 25 young researchers as EMBO Young Investigators.
Scientists show how plants turn a 'light switch' on and off
In research published today in Science, an international team of researchers led by scientists at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science in Japan, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China, and the University of California, Los Angeles, have uncovered the mechanisms through which cryptochrome 2 -- a key photoreceptor that allows plants to respond to blue light -- is switched on and off, allowing plants to remain responsive to light.
Researchers develop new tool to predict early ICU readmission for surgical patients
Health care providers can identify which patients are likely to be readmitted to the surgical intensive care unit within several days of leaving it by using just seven common variables that almost all critical care patients have measured, according to study results presented at the 2016 Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons.
Overlooked molecules could revolutionize our understanding of the immune system
Thousands of new immune system signals have been uncovered with potential implications for immunotherapy, autoimmune diseases and vaccine development.
Exceptionally preserved fossil fish from Silurian of China illuminates jaw evolution
In a study published Oct. 20 in Science, paleontologists from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology and Uppsala University in Sweden reported a second Silurian maxillate placoderm, Qilinyu rostrate, which bridges the gnathal and maxillate conditions.
Science sheds light on 250-year-old literary controversy
The social networks behind one of the most famous literary controversies of all time have been uncovered using modern networks science.
Discovery of first binary-binary calls solar system formation into question
Everything we know about the formation of solar systems might be wrong, says University of Florida astronomy professor Jian Ge and his postdoc, Bo Ma.
Diet and exercise may improve physical function and quality of life in older obese adults
A recent review and analysis of published studies since 2005 found low-to-moderate evidence that dietary and exercise interventions can improve physical function and quality of life in older adults with obesity.
Zika virus infection alters human and viral RNA
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to modifications of both viral and human genetic material.
Molecular selfie reveals how a chemical bond breaks: Proton is seen escaping the molecule
Scientists can now directly track the locations of all the atoms of an entire molecule while one of its bonds breaks and a single proton escapes.
Scientists reveal link between cell metabolism and the spread of cancer
A team led by Massimiliano Mazzone has demonstrated that the metabolism of macrophages, a particular type of white blood cell, can be attuned to prevent the spread of cancer.
Scientists build a better cancer drug to pass through blood-brain barrier
In efforts to develop new treatments for brain cancer, scientists from Johns Hopkins Drug Discovery and the Kimmel Cancer Center's Bloomberg -- Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy report they have altered the structure of an experimental drug that seems to enhance its ability to slip through the mostly impermeable blood-brain barrier.
Most US states now expanding early intervention initiatives for young people with psychosis
A special session at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Electronic records help link genes to age-related hearing loss
A study of patient electronic medical records and genome sequences from adults with age-related hearing impairment by researchers at UC San Francisco and Kaiser Permanente Northern California, identified two genetic variations linked to the hearing disorder.
Mt. Aso could erupt much sooner, scientists warn
Damage from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake could hasten Mt. Aso's eruption, volcanologists warn.
International study finds high levels of adherence to use of rectal microbicide gel
Participants enrolled in a rectal microbicide study were just as likely to follow through using an anti-HIV gel with anal sex as they were to using daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, according to adherence results presented today at HIV Research for Prevention.
Muscles have circadian clocks that control exercise response
Scientists have discovered circadian clocks in muscle tissue that control the muscle's metabolic response and energy efficiency depending on the time of day.
TSRI and Calibr sign strategic affiliation to accelerate the development of new medicines
The Scripps Research Institute and the California Institute for Biomedical Research (Calibr) -- two leading non-profit research organizations -- today announced the signing of a strategic affiliation that combines the two organizations into a new biomedical research entity with the tools and know-how to rapidly translate its scientific discoveries into life-saving medicines for the public benefit.
Europeans and Africans have different immune systems, and neanderthals are partly to thank
It's long been clear that people from different parts of the world differ in their susceptibility to developing infections as well as chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Leisure activities, job crafting can make company 'misfits' more productive
Finding meaning outside of work and proactively tailoring duties on the job may help people who fail to gel with a company's culture stay engaged and become more productive workers, according to researchers.
Risk analysis for common ground on climate loss and damage
The Paris Agreement included groundbreaking text on the need for a mechanism to help identify risks beyond adaptation and support the victims of climate-related loss and damage -- but how exactly it will work remains unclear.
Rat brain atlas provides MR images for stereotaxic surgery
Researchers at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois and the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine in Springfield have collaborated on creating a comprehensive, interactive rat brain atlas.
Life on the edge is dangerous
Intensive farming, sprawling towns, a dense road network -- the modern world leaves less and less space for animals and plants.
Strong, steady forces at work during cell division
Biologists who study the mechanics of cell division have for years disagreed about how much force is at work when the cell's molecular engines are lining chromosomes up in the cell, preparing to winch copies to opposite poles across a bridge-like structure called the kinetochore to form two new cells.
New research verifies TASINs as viable target for colon cancer therapies
A small molecule called TASIN-1 can selectively kill cells with a mutation that is considered to be a precursor to colon cancer, while sparing related normal cells, UT Southwestern Medical Center cancer biologists have demonstrated.
Mathematical analysis reveals architecture of the human genome
Mathematical analysis has led researchers in Japan to a formula that can describe the movement of DNA inside living human cells.
Engineers, mathematicians and doctors unite to develop new breast cancer-detection option
A technique used to detect damage on structures under the sea was successfully repurposed to identify cancerous nuclei in breast cell images.
Park rangers, gorillas under increasing threat in DRC
WCS is saddened to learn that a park ranger was recently killed in Kahuzi Biega National Park in Democratic Republic of Congo defending critically endangered Grauer's gorillas.
Rac1 protein critical for lung development
A study by researchers from the Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles reveals a promising therapeutic target for improving lung function in infants.
Modified HIV-1 virus can integrate into genome of parasitic flatworm
A modified form of the HIV-1 virus can integrate into the genome of the parasitic flatworm that causes the disease schistosomiasis, according to a new study published in PLOS Pathogens.
University of Florida researchers find genetic change that caused snakes to lose legs
Two University of Florida researchers have discovered the changes in genetic machinery that drove snakes to lose their legs millions of years ago.
Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions
Combining optical and electronic technology, Stanford researchers have made a new type of computer that can solve problems that are a challenge for traditional computers.
Withholding amino acid depletes blood stem cells, Stanford researchers say
A new study shows that a diet deficient in valine effectively depleted the blood stem cells in mice and made it possible to perform a blood stem cell transplantation on them.
The Lancet: Swiss doctors report success of using cells from the nose to repair damaged knee joints 2 years post operation
Writing in The Lancet, Swiss doctors report that cartilage cells harvested from patients' own noses have been used to successfully produce cartilage transplants for the treatment of the knees of 10 adults (aged 18-55 years) whose cartilage was damaged by injury.
Ultralow power transistors could function for years without a battery
A new design for transistors which operate on 'scavenged' energy from their environment could form the basis for devices which function for months or years without a battery, and could be used for wearable or implantable electronics.
Rice-led team shows it can improve quality of supercomputing answers by 1,000 times
Computer scientists from Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have used one of Isaac Newton's numerical methods to demonstrate how 'inexact computing' can dramatically improve the quality of simulations run on supercomputers.
Apocalypse not yet -- surviving the 21st century
Humanity and our civilization are facing the greatest challenge in the million-year ascent of our species.
Researchers find new way to attack gastro bug
Griffith University researchers have discovered a potential way to create an antimicrobial drug that would stop one of the world's most prevalent foodborne bugs causing gastroenteritis in humans.
Parents of children with cancer value sequencing results, even if non-actionable
Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer value the results of whole exome sequencing for a variety of reasons beyond clinical actionability.
Student-designed Hyperloop pod demonstrates magnetic levitation
Students at the University of Cincinnati are among just 30 teams remaining worldwide who will test their Hyperloop prototype as part of Elon Musk's challenge to design a futuristic tube-based transportation system that will carry passengers at the speed of sound.
How human eggs end up with the wrong number of chromosomes
One day before ovulation, human oocytes begin to divide into what will become mature eggs.
Prey-foraging: The collective search or lone-wolf approach?
Many predators either hunt alone keeping the spoils to themselves or in packs sharing the bounty with others.
AAS publishes special issue research collection on severe weather research in China
Since 2013, scientists of the 'Observation, Prediction and Analysis of severe Convection of China (OPACC)' project have published 224 papers on convective weather in peer-reviewed journals.
Studies suggest inflammatory cytokines are associated with depression and psychosis, and that anti-cytokine treatment can reduce depression symptoms
Studies presented at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Newly identified rare Alzheimer's disease gene mutation more common in Icelandic people
People with Icelandic heritage are more likely to carry a novel rare mutation in the TM2D3 gene, which leads to greater risk for Alzheimer's disease, based on a new study published Oct.
Oxford University Press to publish Paediatrics & Child Health
Oxford University Press is pleased to announce its partnership with the Canadian Paediatric Society to exclusively publish Paediatrics & Child Health, the only peer-reviewed paediatric journal in Canada.
Self-assembly of photoresponsive polymer brushes to realize advanced surfaces
Nagoya University-based researchers fabricated coatings of oriented polymer brushes on polymer substrate surfaces using diblock copolymers consisting of two types of units with different properties.
New evolutionary finding: Species take different genetic paths to reach same trait
By studying Andean bird species adapted to high altitudes, University of Nebraska-Lincoln biologist Jay Storz and colleagues found that even if natural selection produces similar beneficial traits in different species, evolutionary changes at the molecular level are idiosyncratic and less predictable.
Smartphones alone not the smart choice for teen weight control, study finds
Teens use smartphones successfully to do almost anything: learn new skills, communicate with friends, do research and catch Pokémon.
The American College of Chest Physicians and Sunovion announce strategic initiative focused on the importance of drug delivery in the management of COPD
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the American College of Chest Physicians have announced a strategic initiative focused on increasing recognition that the way a medicine is delivered should be an important consideration in evaluating a patient's COPD therapy.
Computer simulation breaks virus apart to learn how it comes together
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids.
Imaging technique maps serotonin activity in living brains
MIT researchers have developed an imaging technique that, for the first time, enables three-dimensional mapping of serotonin as it's reabsorbed into neurons, across multiple regions of the living brain.
Patients weigh in on orthopedic surgeons' pay, reimbursement
Most patients don't think an orthopedic surgeon is overpaid but they greatly exaggerate how much a surgeon is reimbursed by Medicare for performing knee surgery, according to a study of patient perceptions by Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.
Move over, lasers: Scientists can now create holograms from neutrons, too
For the first time, scientists have used neutron beams to create holograms of large solid objects, revealing details about their interiors in ways that ordinary laser light-based visual holograms cannot.
Tracking waves from sunspots gives new solar insight
For the first time, researchers have tracked a particular kind of solar wave as it swept upward from the sun's surface through its atmosphere.
Newark company creates novel device to cut tailpipe emissions and eliminate testing lines
4.0 Analytics, a research and development company in NJIT's Enterprise Development Center (EDC), has developed a wireless emissions compliance and reporting technology for cars and trucks that alerts automobile owners in real time -- on their own smart phone devices or computers -- to engine and emission-system malfunctions that can lead to excessive tailpipe releases and poor performance.
Electronic records help identify two genes linked to age-related hearing impairment
A study of electronic records and genome sequences from adults with age-related hearing impairment identified two genetic variations linked to the disorder, report Thomas Hoffmann of the University of California, San Francisco and colleagues at UCSF and Kaiser Permanente Northern California, in a study published Oct.
Texas must reduce nonmedical exemptions to vaccinations
As one of the states with the least restrictive vaccine exemption laws in the country, Texas should make the process of obtaining nonmedical exemptions more rigorous to avoid the public health risks and costs associated with preventable diseases, according to a new brief by science policy experts at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.
Children in the Syrian Civil War
Since 2011 the Syrian Civil War has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history.
Abuse of alcohol and/or illicit drugs is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in later life
New research published at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Exchanging sedentariness for low-intensity physical activity can prevent weight gain in children
As little as 10 minutes of high-intensity physical activity per day reduces the amount of adipose tissue and enhances cardiorespiratory fitness in 6- to 8-year-old children, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland.
Ancient human history more complex than previously thought, researchers say
Relationships between the ancestors of modern humans and other archaic populations were likely more complex than previously thought, involving interbreeding within and outside Africa, according to a new estimator developed by geneticists.
Optical and PET/CT probes detect early signs of atherosclerosis
Researchers at Stanford University have demonstrated for the first time the use of a dual optical and PET/CT activity-based probe to detect atherosclerotic plaques.
A look at the 'marijuana' receptor
Researchers have the clearest picture yet of the receptor that causes the 'high' associated with marijuana.
Move over, solar: The next big renewable energy source could be at our feet
Flooring can be made from any number of sustainable materials, making it, generally, an eco-friendly feature in homes and businesses alike.
Superomniphobic tape can repel virtually any liquid
Arun Kota, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Colorado State University, has made a superomniphobic tape that, when adhered to any surface, gives the surface liquid-repelling properties.
Sixty percent of Americans with diabetes skip annual sight-saving exams
People with diabetes are at increased risk of developing serious eye diseases, yet most do not have sight-saving, annual eye exams, according to a large study.
Research in worms provides path to study diabetic complications
Researchers at the Buck Institute have found a sensor for the reactive molecules linked to diabetic complications.
Lab frog Xenopus laevis genome sequence shows what happens when genomes collide
The common laboratory frog Xenopus laevis has puzzled researchers because it has twice the normal number of genes.
Colorado River Delta flows help birds, plants, groundwater
Two growing seasons after the engineered spring flood of the Colorado River Delta in 2014, the delta's birds, plants and groundwater continue to benefit, according to the latest monitoring report prepared for the International Boundary and Water Commission by a binational University of Arizona-led team.
Modeling shifting beliefs in a complex social environment
A new model is allowing scientists to explore how changing an individual's certainty in the belief on the truth of one statement leads to changes in their beliefs on the truth of others.
New testing method allows more effective diagnosis of genetically based high cholesterol
A new genetic testing method developed at Western University called LipidSeq can identify a genetic basis for high-cholesterol in almost 70 percent of a targeted patient population.
Structure of primary cannabinoid receptor is revealed
New research is providing a more detailed view into the structure of the human cannabinoid receptor.
International team unveils first atomic-level image of the human 'marijuana receptor'
In a discovery that advances the understanding of how marijuana works in the human body, an international group of scientists, including those from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), have for the first time created a three-dimensional atomic-level image of the molecular structure activated by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana.
Smashing metallic cubes toughens them up
Rice University scientists smash silver micro-cubes at near supersonic speeds to see how deforming their crystalline structures can make them both stronger and tougher.
Toxic peptides disrupt membrane-less organelles in neurodegenerative disease
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists reveal how toxic peptides that arise due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia target the integrity of membrane-less organelles and trigger disease.
Designing the future internet
This century, our world will be flooded with hundreds of billions of smartphones, gadgets, sensors and other smart objects connected to the internet.
Texas A&M professor proposes new way to analyze impediments to leisure activities
For decades, behavioral scientists have been interested in understanding why people don't participate in leisure activities, but there has been no consistent method for measuring these factors, said a Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist whose paper recently earned a top award from the Journal of Leisure Research.
First results from long-term, hi-res tracking of eruptions on Jupiter's moon Io
UC Berkeley astronomers who have been tracking volcanic activity on Io at high frequency since 2013 using adaptive optics on the Keck and Gemini telescopes published their first 29 months of observations.
Change is needed to prevent homicides by individuals with mental illness
Following the stabbing death of Dr. Jeroen Ensink, a new father in London who was killed by a mentally ill man who had walked free after attacking a police officer with a knife days earlier, experts are calling for change.
Turning biofuel waste into wealth in a single step
Lignin is a bulky chain of molecules found in wood and is usually discarded during biofuel production.
Cedars-Sinai receives approval to test novel combined stem cell and gene therapy for ALS patients
Cedars-Sinai regenerative medicine investigators have received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to test a combination stem cell-gene therapy they developed to stall the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Male mice model human speech defect
Male mice carrying a mutation in the Foxp2 gene have difficulty putting the syllables of their ultrasonic wooing song into proper order.
Teachers and students pair up to widen the STEM pipeline
NYU Tandon is issuing a call for NYC high schools to join a novel summer program that will bring together teams of teachers and their students who will learn robotics then take their knowledge back to their schools to establish elective courses in the STEM subjects.
Disturbance wanted
Some anticancer agents intend to disturb the function of the p97 protein complex, which is essential for survival of cancer cells.
Study hints at a more targeted approach to stem cell transplants
Researchers have identified an amino acid that's vital to the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells.
Trejo-Pech awarded best paper in academic research by FEA
A paper coauthored by Carlos Trejo-Pech, assistant professor of agribusiness finance in the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, has received the 2016 Best Paper Award in academic research from the Financial Education Association (FEA).
Temperature, not predatory pressures, drives plankton abundance
Plankton blooms in spring are largely driven by temperature-induced increases in cell division, a new study reveals.
Rice's energy-stingy indoor mobile locator ensures user privacy
Rice University computer scientists have created a new system for mobile users to quickly determine their location indoors without communicating with the cloud, networks or other devices.
Report provides options for organic soybean growers
Although soybeans are one of the most widely grown crops in the U.S., few soybean farmers are using organic practices.
Early fossil fish from China shows where our jaws came from
Where did our jaws come from? The question is more complicated than it seems, because not all jaws are the same.
Ultrastructure of a condensed chromosome-like structure in a cyanobacterium
Researchers have discovered that the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942 shows eukaryotic condensed chromosome-like DNA compaction prior to cell division if cultivated under rigorous light/dark cycles and have successfully visualized the ultrastructure of the compacted DNA by means of high-voltage cryo-electron tomography.
CVIA volume 1 issue 4: Major new special issue on cardiovascular risk factors
The Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications journal has just published Volume 1, Issue 4, a Special Issue on Cardiovascular Risk Factors.
Optimal treatment plan for chronic myeloid leukemia suggested by mathematical modeling
A new treatment plan that sequentially combines several drugs for chronic myeloid leukemia has the potential to reduce patients' chance of relapse and increase their life expectancy, according to a study published in PLOS Computational Biology.
Chemical tags affect ability of RNA viruses to infect cells
Large swaths of DNA and RNA are dotted with chemical tags, acting like Post-It notes, that provide additional instructions to the underlying genetic code.
The smart wheelchair
A wheelchair controller that automatically avoids obstacles and knows when the user is tired or stressed is being developed by researchers in India.
Taking out the cellular 'trash' - at the right place and the right time
New insight about how cells dispose of their waste is now given by the group of Claudine Kraft at the Max F.
To prescribe or not to prescribe?
Doctors are more likely to prescribe growth hormones for a child who does not meet federal guidelines for the therapy if the child's family requests it or if the physician believes in its intangible benefits, such as the patient's emotional well-being, new research finds.
Tobacco plants engineered to manufacture high yields of malaria drug
In 2015, a Nobel Prize was awarded in part for the discovery of artemisinin, a plant-derived compound that's proven to be a lifesaver in treating malaria.
Study suggests benefits of laser treatments for dental problems
Researchers use computer simulations to explore selective killing of pathogens by lasers, made possible because of absorption differences in tissues and bacterial colonies
From ancient fossils to future cars
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering have developed an inexpensive, energy-efficient way to create silicon-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries from the fossilized remains of single-celled algae called diatoms.
Children born to parents with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia more likely to suffer mental health issues by age 7 years
New research presented at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Positive clinical trial results on gene transfer to treat macular degeneration
The long-term safety of gene transfer to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD), and the production of two therapeutic proteins encoded by those genes for at least 2.5 years in the eyes of patients with advanced NVAMD are demonstrated in the results of a clinical trial published in Human Gene Therapy.
Scientists can listen to proteins by turning data into music
Transforming data about the structure of proteins into melodies gives scientists a completely new way of analyzing the molecules that could reveal new insights into how they work -- by listening to them.

Best Science Podcasts 2017

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2017. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Oliver Sipple
One morning, Oliver Sipple went out for a walk. A couple hours later, to his own surprise, he saved the life of the President of the United States. But in the days that followed, Sipple's split-second act of heroism turned into a rationale for making his personal life into political opportunity. What happens next makes us wonder what a moment, or a movement, or a whole society can demand of one person. And how much is too much?  Through newly unearthed archival tape, we hear Sipple himself grapple with some of the most vexing topics of his day and ours - privacy, identity, the freedom of the press - not to mention the bonds of family and friendship.  Reported by Latif Nasser and Tracie Hunte. Produced by Matt Kielty, Annie McEwen, Latif Nasser and Tracie Hunte. Special thanks to Jerry Pritikin, Michael Yamashita, Stan Smith, Duffy Jennings; Ann Dolan, Megan Filly and Ginale Harris at the Superior Court of San Francisco; Leah Gracik, Karyn Hunt, Jesse Hamlin, The San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive, Mike Amico, Jennifer Vanasco and Joey Plaster. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Future Consequences
From data collection to gene editing to AI, what we once considered science fiction is now becoming reality. This hour, TED speakers explore the future consequences of our present actions. Guests include designer Anab Jain, futurist Juan Enriquez, biologist Paul Knoepfler, and neuroscientist and philosopher Sam Harris.