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Science News and Current Events for October 21, 2016


Earlham Institute launches first CyVerse-UK hub for 'big data' analysis
The Earlham Institue establishes the first UK dedicated high-performance computing (HPC) cluster for international data portal 'CyVerse' -- providing free, open-source genome analysis for big data research.
JNeurosci: Highlights from the Oct. 19 issue
Check out these newsworthy studies from the Oct. 19, 2016, issue of JNeurosci.
Non-metal catalyst splits hydrogen molecule
Chemists at Goethe University have now developed a new catalyst for the activation of hydrogen by introducing boron atoms into a common organic molecule.
Big-data algorithms could cut analysis times from months to days
Algorithms for labeling and segmenting data could reduce the time required for big-data analysis from months to days.
35 percent of injury-related ER visits in Ghana alcohol-related
Researchers conducted a cross-sectional chart review of 1,085 patients older than 18 who presented to the KATH emergency department within eight hours of an injury and found 382 subjects, or 35 percent, tested positive for any level of alcohol in their systems.
QUT professor honored with prestigious award
A QUT professor has become the first Australian since Professor Ian Frazer to receive the prestigious West Lake Friendship award.
New immunotherapy study at Sanford centers on colorectal cancer
Sanford Health has opened another clinical trial exploring the power of the body's immune system to fight cancer.
New oncogene linked to prostate cancer in African Americans may lead to better diagnostic tools
The new oncogene MNX1 is more active in African American than in European American prostate cancer.
Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance link to unfavorable cardiac function, structure
A study of US Hispanics with diabetes mellitus showed a link between impaired glucose regulation and adverse measures of cardiac function and structure.
Where does cisplatin bind?
Cisplatin is one of the most widely used agents in cancer chemotherapy.
Adverse events affect children's development, physical health and biology
Researchers already knew that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) carry over into adult life, but a new study looked at the effect of these experiences in the childhood years.
Study finds youth motocross racing injuries severe despite required safety gear
Study at Pennsylvania trauma center found competitive youth motocross athletes suffer potentially life-threatening injuries despite wearing helmets and other safety gear required on the sport's popular rough-terrain race courses.
UV light improves smartphone cameras
Scientists found that treating an ordinary polymer based detector with UV light during manufacturing could turn it into a high bandwidth device with an external quantum efficiency of up to 140,000 percent, as compared to the 30 percent measured before UV treatment.
New study to characterize methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations
Colorado State University, home to some of the world's top researchers on methane emissions, will lead a Department of Energy-supported project to analyze emissions from a specific part of the natural gas supply chain: compressor stations.
A new view of the immune system
Pathogen epitopes are fragments of bacterial or viral proteins. Nearly a third of all existing human epitopes consist of two different fragments.
American Academy of Pediatrics announces new recommendations for children's media use
Recognizing the ubiquitous role of media in children's lives, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is releasing new policy recommendations and resources to help families maintain a healthy media diet.
Preparations for the 5th Heidelberg Laureate Forum are underway!
For one week, the recipients of the Abel Prize, the ACM A.M.
Research targets conflict over wind farming and renewable energy in Korea
Griffith University is undertaking a major international project to help address community conflict and disruption over wind farms and their implementation in Korea.
Nanosciences: Genes on the rack
Physicists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have developed a novel nanotool that provides a facile means of characterizing the mechanical properties of biomolecules.
Discovery of blood biomarkers for early pancreatic cancer detection
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer.
Presence of certain oral bacterium in esophageal cancer samples associated with shorter survival
Among Japanese patients with esophageal cancer, those whose cancer tested positive for DNA from the bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum had shorter cancer-specific survival compared with those whose cancer had no DNA from the bacterium.
Pharmaceutical companies are profiting from rare diseases
Incentives intended to stimulate the development of more treatments for rare diseases are being exploited to boost the profits of pharmaceutical companies, new research led by Bangor University shows.
Study shows higher levels of Alzheimer's-related tau protein found in children aged 18 years and under with early onset psychosis
New research presented at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Unusual quantum liquid on crystal surface could inspire future electronics
Researchers at Princeton University and the University of Texas-Austin found that electrons, when kept at very low temperatures where their quantum behaviors emerge, can spontaneously begin to travel in elliptical paths on the surface of a crystal of bismuth.
International team discovers novel Alzheimer's disease risk gene among Icelanders
A novel genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease among Icelanders.
Focusing on pleasure of eating makes people choose smaller portions
New research has found that people can be encouraged to choose smaller, healthier portions, without compromising on enjoyment in a win for public health, business and consumers.
Study shows same day return to play after concussion still common among youth athletes
New research suggests youth athletes often head back into the game the same day after suffering a concussion, despite medical guidelines.
Converting optical frequencies with 10^(-21) uncertainty
An optical frequency divider, which can accurately divide an optical frequency with a preset arbitrary ratio to several other wavelengths, is demonstrated by scientists in China.
NASA measures extreme rainfall with typhoons Sarika and Haima
Two powerful typhoons have hit the Philippines in less than a week.
Cooking fuels contribute to childhood pneumonia in developing countries
Solid fuels used for cooking are the prevailing source of indoor pollution in developing countries.
Climate change impairs survival instincts of fish and can make them swim towards predators
Fish farms may hold key to studying the impact of rising CO2 on marine life, and if fish could adapt to climate change.
Downstate's Dr. LeConté Dill receives APHA Women's Caucus Highest Scoring Abstract Award
Dr. Dill's abstract focuses on the role of gender and gender-based inequities in instances of violence, specifically as they relate to violence experienced by teenage girls in their dating relationships.
Head lice outbreaks in camp settings cause substantial burden on kids, staff
Researchers presenting an abstract of new findings at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2016 National Conference & Exhibition tracked lice infections in more than 500 summer camps over a three-year period and found 30 percent of camps have a 'no nit policy,' which excludes campers based on the presence of lice eggs, despite evidence that no-nit policies are not effective.
The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate -- or is it?
Five years ago, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three astronomers for their discovery, in the late 1990s, that the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace.
The fight against deforestation: Why are Congolese farmers clearing forest?
Only a small share of Congolese villagers is the driving force behind most of the deforestation.
Advances in Alzheimer's research by Dr. Caghan Kizil and his research group
The research team of Dr. Caghan Kizil at the DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden -- Cluster of Excellence at the TU Dresden, achieved a major advance in Alzheimer's research.
Found: Oldest known planet-forming disk
A group of citizen scientists and professional astronomers, including Carnegie's Jonathan Gagné, joined forces to discover an unusual hunting ground for exoplanets.
Researchers caution about potential harms of parents' online posts about children
Parents who post on social media often create their children's first digital footprints, which will follow them into adulthood.
How does friendly fire happen in the pancreas?
In type 1 diabetes, the body attacks its own insulin-producing cells.
New nanomedicine approach aims to improve HIV drug therapies
New research led by the University of Liverpool aims to improve the administration and availability of drug therapies to HIV patients through the use of nanotechnology.
Inflammation triggers unsustainable immune response to chronic viral infection
Scientists at the University of Basel discovered a fundamental new mechanism explaining the inadequate immune defense against chronic viral infection.
Pitt researcher part of team that finds Southern East Africa getting wetter, not dryer
The prevailing notion that the African continent has been getting progressively drier over time is being challenged finding that drought has decreased over the past 1.3 million years and that the continent is on a 100,000-year cycle of wet and dry conditions.
Study reveals potential new strategy to prevent Alzheimer's disease
Sunduing early disease events and the subsequent development of brain pathology in experimental animal models prevents Alzhemer's disease.
Photonics dawning as the communications light for evolving NASA missions
A largely unrecognized field called photonics may provide solutions to some of NASA's most pressing challenges in future spaceflight.
A moving story of FHL2 and forces
Researchers from the Mechanobiology Institute at the National University of Singapore have revealed the molecular events leading to the regulation of cell growth and proliferation in response to stiffness of the extracellular matrix that surrounds them.
A new class of materials could realize quantum computers
Scientists at EPFL and PSI have discovered a new class of materials that can prove ideal for the implementation of spintronics.
Combating drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia with a ceramide-based therapeutic
Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina Hollings Cancer Center have discovered a mechanism that confers resistance to drugs used to treat certain types of acute myeloid leukemia.
Visits to pediatric emergency departments for headache pain in children are on the rise
Evidence shows pediatric emergency departments are seeing a steady increase in the number of children going to the hospital for headaches, and new research to be presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2016 National Conference & Exhibition in San Francisco supports this worrisome trend.
Research highlights problem with cognitive development in sub-Saharan Africa
New research from the University of Liverpool highlights problems impacting on the cognitive development of children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Mouse study reveals genes essential for life and provides insights into human disease
International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium reveals genes essential for life and provides insights into human disease.
Kent State biologist nets grant to study calorie-burning process to fight obesity
A $450,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health will help biology professor Colleen Novak, Ph.D., from Kent State University's College of Arts and Sciences better understand how the body allocates energy and burns fat.
Study examines suicides publicized on social media and teens' ER visits
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among teens and young adults in Canada and the United States.
UA receives $10.3 million to help unlock the mystery of Alzheimer's in women
Why do more women than men get Alzheimer's disease? In their quest to find the answer, neuroscientist Roberta Diaz Brinton, Ph.D., and her colleagues in the Center for Innovation in Brain Science at the University of Arizona Health Sciences, have been awarded a $10.3 million five-year Program Project Grant from the National Institute on Aging.
Study adds to evidence that high strength cannabis is associated with an increased risk of becoming dependent
New data presented at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
CCNY team develops analytics to predict poll trends
As the countdown continues to the Presidential election, new analytical tools by physicists at The City College of New York promise a quicker and remarkably accurate method of predicting election trends with Twitter.
Nanoantenna lighting-rod effect produces fast optical switches
A team of scientists, led by the University of Southampton, have produced a fast nanoscale optical transistor using gold nanoantenna assisted phase transition.
Study links changes in collagen to worse pancreatic cancer prognosis
A study in the current journal Oncotarget provides the first evidence linking a disturbance of the most common protein in the body with a poor outcome in pancreatic cancer.
Mortality & cardiovascular disease: You don't have to be an athlete to reduce the many risk factors
A new study, whose preliminary results will be presented today at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress and soon be published in the Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, shows that even low physical fitness, up to 20% below the average for healthy people, is sufficient to produce a preventive effect on most of the risk factors that affect people with cardiovascular disease.
Uninsured children more often transferred from ERs than those with private insurance
New research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2016 National Conference & Exhibition found that uninsured children in emergency departments had almost four times the odds of being transferred to another facility for admission compared to patients with private insurance.
Most adults surveyed don't know e-cigarette use deposits nicotine on indoor surfaces
Most US adults surveyed agree e-cigarette use should not be allowed in places where smoking is prohibited, yet one-third of them allow the devices to be used within their home.
Paving the road to drug discovery
When treated with an anti-cancer drug, ICRF-193, fission yeast produce an 'arched and snapped' phenotype that may be used to screen for other cancer drugs.
When quantum scale affects the way atoms emit and absorb particles of light
In 1937, US physicist Isidor Rabi introduced a simple model to describe how atoms emit and absorb particles of light.
The importance of the amount of physical activity on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Two new papers published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) reveal the importance of both the amount and timing of physical activity in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as aiding the management of the disease in existing T2D patients.
Rare genetic condition may provide insights on Parkinson's and other late-onset diseases
A new article suggests that an enzyme deficiency seen in the lysosomal storage disorder Krabbe's disease may point to new and contributing mechanisms underlying certain late-onset neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.
Child death rates from motor vehicle crashes vary widely between states
Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among children in the United States, but a new study highlights how widely pediatric crash-related death rates vary from state to state.
Physicists use lasers to capture first snapshots of rapid chemical bonds breaking
Kansas State University researchers are part of an international team that has used a molecule's own electrons to scatter the molecule -- a process called mid-infrared laser-induced electron diffraction, or LIED -- and capture snapshots of acetylene as it is breaking apart.
John Innes Centre scientists solve 60-year-old Septoria mystery
A new paper from scientists at the John Innes Centre in Norwich explains why plant breeders have found it difficult to produce wheat varieties which combine high yield and good resistance to Septoria, a disease in wheat which can cut yield losses by up to 50 percent.
RIT awarded grant to study a globally coordinated vaccine market
Rochester Institute of Technology received a three-year, $374,949 grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for faculty-researcher Rubén Proaño to study and help design a coordinated decision-support system for the global procurement of vaccines.
Free migrant farmworkers clinic program awarded grant
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso has received a $351,721 continuing grant from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB).
Rap1, a potential new target to treat obesity
A new mechanism in the mouse brain that regulates obesity.
Vice President Joe Biden to address Cleveland Clinic's 2016 Medical Innovation Summit
Vice President Joe Biden has been added to the agenda of Cleveland Clinic's 2016 Medical Innovation Summit to discuss how the United States plans to end cancer as we know it, Monday, Oct.
Second research flight into zero gravity
Saturday, a parabolic flight is set to take off from Swiss soil for the second time.
More time on digital devices means kids less likely to finish homework
A new study finds that the more time children spend using digital devices, the less likely they are to finish their homework.
Researchers discover ways to expand temperature stability range of solar cells
University of Virginia researchers have discovered ways to markedly expand the stable range of HOIP solar cells during temperature changes.
Researchers find way to tune thermal conductivity of 2-D materials
Researchers have found an unexpected way to control the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2-D) materials, which will allow electronics designers to dissipate heat in electronic devices that use these materials.
Understanding bacteria's slimy fortresses
Engineers and biologists have for the first time revealed the mechanics of how bacteria build up slimy masses called biofilms, cell by cell.
New findings on the history of the early-Islamic caliphate palace Khirbat al-Minya
Archaeologists from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany started excavations in September 2016 at Khirbat al-Minya, an early-Islamic caliphate palace on the shore of the Sea of Galilee in Israel.
Distinct neurological syndromes can be the result of variations in gene ATAD3A
Rare neurological syndromes for which there was no cause can be the result of variations in the gene ATAD3A.
Study of youth attending mental health service finds low rates of contraception and high rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections
New research published at this year's International Early Psychosis Association meeting in Milan, Italy, (Oct.
Pediatricians update digital media recommendations for kids
New AAP guidelines say parents not only need to pay attention to the amount of time children spend on digital media -- but also how, when and where they use it.
Danish researchers behind new cancer images
A Danish research team has developed a new method for studying how a tracer is distributed in a cancer tumor via its extensive vascular network.

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