Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 24, 2016
Conclusions based on PISA results deserve further attention
The tests results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which often informs the development of academic policies in various countries, often receive rather simplified interpretations.

Modeling belief systems
A collaboration led by a UCSB scholar makes a breakthrough in quantifying belief system dynamics.

'Farming' bacteria to boost growth in the oceans
Marine symbiotic bacteria may help to 'fertilize' animal growth in the oceans.

Uber service faster in low income Seattle neighborhoods, initial study finds
Your wait time for an Uber ride in Seattle is shorter if you are in a lower income neighborhood.

Scientists dicipher the organization of the cellular mechanisms responsible for energy production
Carried out by research scientists at the CNIC, the study helps to explain how different forms of organization affect metabolism and are linked to the tendency to develop certain diseases.

Visualizing Cities -- a global platform for visual urban knowledge production
Understanding our cities is a more complex task than ever before.

Boosting levels of known antioxidant may help resist age-related decline
Researchers have found that a specific detoxification compound, glutathione, helps resist the toxic stresses of everyday life -- but its levels decline with age and this sets the stage for a wide range of health problems.

Comprehensive new coverage on the soils of the USA
'The Soils of the USA' is the first comprehensive coverage of the soils in the US since 1936.

Study uncovers brain changes in offending pedophiles
New research reveals that certain alterations in the brain may be present in pedophiles, with differences between hands-on offenders and those who have not sexually offended against children.

Nanometer-scale image reveals new details about formation of a marine shell
An atom-by-atom picture of a marine shell's first formation shows that magnesium and sodium ions may control how shells grow under different environmental conditions.

World-first demonstration of virtualized 5G architecture
The University of Surrey's 5GIC (part of the Institute for Communications Systems) has -- for the first time worldwide -- produced a full demonstration of its FDC, which points to a significant reduction in deployment, optimization and upgrade costs for network operators.

Nanofiber coating prevents infections of prosthetic joints
In a proof-of-concept study with mice, scientists at The Johns Hopkins University show that a novel coating they made with antibiotic-releasing nanofibers has the potential to better prevent at least some serious bacterial infections related to total joint replacement surgery.

Conference on technology and media in children's development
Over 100 leading developmental scientists from around the globe will present on the role of media and technology in children's development Oct.

New species of extremely leggy millipede discovered in a cave in California
Ninety years ago, a world record-breaking 750-legged millipede was discovered in California.

Abaloparatide benefits a wide range of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
A recent analysis of results from a randomized controlled clinical trial indicates that abaloparatide-SC, a novel therapy for osteoporosis, provides consistent protection against bone fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis regardless of their baseline bone density, age, and previous history of fracture.

Choline deficiency during pregnancy influences milk composition in sows
Researchers at the University of Illinois who study the impacts of nutrition on brain development using the piglet as a model, recently looked at the impact choline deficiency during pregnancy has on the nutrient composition of sow milk up to 19 days after birth.

New method increases energy density in lithium batteries
Columbia Engineering Professor Yuan Yang has developed a new method to increase the energy density of lithium batteries.

Research at MDI Biological Laboratory examines role of early-life stress in adult illness
Scientists have long known that chronic exposure to psychosocial stress early in life can lead to an increased vulnerability later in life to diseases linked to immune dysfunction and chronic inflammation, including cancer, diabetes and heart disease.

Long-term exposure to air pollution linked to high blood pressure
Long-term exposure to air pollution is linked to a greater incidence of high blood pressure, according to the largest study to investigate the effects of both air pollution and traffic noise by following over 41,000 people in five different countries for five to nine years.

Flexible optical design method for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has succeeded in the development of flexible optical design method for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs or SNSPDs).

OPTIMISTIC study: Unique nurse practitioner role leads to safer care in nursing homes
Employing nurse practitioners who use evidence-based elements to improve care on multiple fronts, including proactive chronic care management, urgent care, and robust transitional care services, significantly improves the transfer process between nursing homes and hospitals resulting in fewer errors and safer care according to the OPTIMISTIC study from Indiana University Center for Aging Research and Regenstrief Institute.

Pregnancy increases stroke risk in young women, but not in older women
Pregnancy was not found to raise the risk of stroke in older women, but the risk was significantly higher in young women, according to a study from Columbia University Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian.

Collagen hydrogel scaffold and fibroblast growth factor-2 accelerate periodontal healing of class II
A new regenerative scaffold made of biosafe collagen hydrogel and collagensponge could possess the ability of retaining fibroblastic growth factor-2 (FGF2) and stimulate the periodontal tissue regeneration, according to new research published in The Open Dentistry Journal.

Genetic mutation in whale eyes may increase mortality risks
The study of this whale species, which numbers less than 500 individuals remaining in the Western Atlantic Ocean, may also help scientists better understand how vision works in other mammals, including people.

A new law to accurately measure charged macromolecules
Measuring the size and diffusion properties of large molecules using dynamic light-scattering techniques and the Stokes-Einstein formula has been mostly straightforward for decades, but it doesn't work when they carry an electric charge.

The houseplant with a blueprint for improving energy harvesting
For many people, nanotechnology belongs in the realm of science fiction.

Don't believe your eyes
A research team of Bard Ermentrout from the University of Pittsburgh's Kenneth P.

Expanding role of hospitalist PAs achieves similar clinical outcomes, costs less
More and more medical centers are relying on hospitalists -- hospital-based internal medicine specialists who coordinate the complex care of inpatients.

How is health-related quality of life for kids with postconcussion symptoms?
Children with persistent postconcussion symptoms reported lower overall, physical, emotional, social and school quality of life for at least 12 weeks after concussion than children whose concussion symptoms resolved more quickly, although even those children reported lower school quality of life, according to a new article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

Development of a new thermoelectric material for a sustainable society
Researchers at the Toyohashi University of Technology, in cooperation with researchers at the Nagoya Institute of Technology, have developed a new thermoelectric material, CaMgSi, which consists of non-toxic, cheap, and lightweight elements.

Helping dementia patients recall grandchildren's names
A novel web-based speech therapy program for people with language problems due to dementia significantly improved their ability to recall words they had 'lost.' One woman could once again identify the tulips in her garden.

New target identified to combat deadly allergic reactions
Researchers in France have identified a molecular motor that controls the release of inflammatory factors that cause severe and fatal allergic reactions.

Atom-by-atom growth chart for shells helps decode past climate
For the first time scientists can see how the shells of tiny marine organisms grow atom-by-atom, a new study reports.

Driving mosquito evolution to fight malaria
UC Berkeley and Exeter University researchers propose a novel strategy to keep malarial mosquitoes out of people's homes: combine a repellent with an insecticide.

Psychological science explores the minds of dogs
It's curious that we know relatively little about dogs' cognitive abilities when we know so much about the abilities of other animals, from primates to cetaceans.

Look-alike smart snacks: Are they benefiting student nutrition or brand marketing?
When smart snacks sold in schools -- reformulated versions of less nutritious snacks sold in stores -- are packaged to look like their commercial counterparts, consumer confusion is likely, compromising dietary health gains and affecting perceptions about both brands and schools, according to an article in Childhood Obesity.

What proportion of cancer deaths are attributable to smoking around the US?
The proportion of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking varied across the United States but was highest in the South, where nearly 40 percent of cancer deaths in men were estimated to be connected to smoking in some states, according to a new article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Possible strategy identified for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, other disorders
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an inherited disorder that leads to a gradual loss of motor neurons and, eventually, paralysis.

What the ancient CO2 record may mean for future climate change
A team of researchers led by UC Davis reconstructed the ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide record from 330 to 260 million years ago, when ice last covered Earth's polar regions and large rainforests expanded throughout the tropics, leaving as their signature the world's coal resources.

'Speaking my language': Method helps prepare teachers of dual language learners
Researchers at Lehigh University, led by L. Brook Sawyer and Patricia H.

OU researchers team with citizen scientists to discover a rare circumstellar disk
A team led by a University of Oklahoma astrophysicist discovered a rare and surprising new circumstellar disk: the oldest of its kind.

Study indicates that advances in precision medicine have improved breast cancer treatment
A new study examines how one early example of precision medicine -- tumor genome testing -- is being used in women with breast cancer to reduce overtreatment and maximize the benefits of chemotherapy.

Ice shelf vibrations cause unusual waves in Antarctic atmosphere
Ice shelf vibrations cause unusual waves in Antarctic atmosphere.

New guideline on calcium and vitamin D supplementation
A new evidence-based clinical guideline from the National Osteoporosis Foundation and the American Society for Preventive Cardiology says that calcium with or without vitamin D intake from food or supplements that does not exceed the tolerable upper level of intake should be considered safe from a cardiovascular standpoint.

World's top bodies representing the social and natural sciences vote to pursue a merger
At an extraordinary General Assembly of the International Council for Science (ICSU) and a General Assembly of the International Social Science Council (ISSC), the two organizations' members voted (overwhelmingly/by a narrow margin) that the two organizations should merge.

New maps show where to generate solar energy in South Carolina
Amanda Farthing and the team at Clemson University created maps showing which lands in South Carolina would be most suitable for generating solar energy at utility scale.

Amazon rainstorms transport atmospheric particles for cloud formation
Understanding how tiny particles emitted by cars and factories affect Earth's climate requires accurate climate modeling and the ability to quantify the effects of these pollutant particles vs. particles naturally present in the atmosphere.

Calcium induces chronic lung infections
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a life-threatening pathogen in hospitals.

Scientists trace plant hormone pathway back 450 million years
Purdue scientists got a glimpse into more than 450 million years of evolution by tracing the function of a hormone pathway that has been passed along and co-opted by new species since the first plants came onto land.

Parasitic plants may form weapons out of genes stolen from hosts
Sneaky parasitic weeds may be able to steal genes from the plants they are attacking and then use those genes against the host plant, according to a team of scientists.

Competing attitudes about the homeless complicate public policy
Many people support both policies aimed at helping the homeless and those that make their lives more difficult, such as banning sleeping in public.

Take advantage of evolution in malaria fight, scientists say
Scientists could harness the power of evolution to stop mosquitoes spreading malaria, according to new research by the University of Exeter and the University of California, Berkeley.

Research on rare genetic disease reveals new stem cell pathway
How do you improve a Nobel Prize-winning discovery? Add a debilitating disease-causing gene mutation.

MRSA uses decoys to evade a last-resort antibiotic
The superbug MRSA uses decoys to evade a last-resort antibiotic, reveals new research.

Faulty RASGRP1 gene causes newly discovered human immunodeficiency
A multi-institutional, international team of scientists has discovered the genetic cause and biological mechanisms linked to a new human immunodeficiency and identifies a potential treatment.

Growing stem cells on a chip
A team of researchers has developed a chip-like plate on which hPSCs can be raised in optimal, 3-D conditions.

Study: People can tell if they are voting on a secure system
'Rigged' election rhetoric in the headlines aims to cast doubt about the security of the American voting system; however, people have a sense of whether a voting system is secure, according to new research from Rice University.

Weather forecasts for the past
Analysis of mammal teeth can reveal local environmental conditions. A new study employs data collected from Kenyan national parks over the past 60 years, combined with traits of the teeth of herbivorous mammals.

Big data methods under development at UGA will help tackle diseases
The University of Georgia's Ping Ma will use a new grant to crunch big data numbers, not uncommon for a statistics professor.

Cytomegalovirus infection relies on human RNA-binding protein
Viruses hijack the molecular machinery in human cells to survive and replicate, often damaging those host cells in the process.

International study proves old blood is as good as new
It's been long thought that when blood transfusions are needed, it may be best to use the freshest blood, but McMaster University researchers have led a large international study proving that it is not so.

Fighting cancer with the power of immunity
Researchers at MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research have developed a new strategy for using immunotherapy to treat cancer.

Fifth Annual IDWeek brings together internationally-recognized infectious disease experts
Infectious disease experts nationwide will gather in New Orleans for the 5th annual IDWeek Oct.

International Association for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis hosts conference
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), sometimes referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), a mysterious, debilitating and misunderstood disease that affects an estimated 1 million Americans, will be the focus of an international conference on Oct.

Study determines efficacy of 2 drugs to treat a form of leukemia
Researchers have determined that two Phase 1 drugs (CX-4945 and JQ1) can work together to efficiently kill T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells while having minimal impact on normal blood cells.

Mixing energy drinks, alcohol may affect adolescent brains like cocaine
Drinking highly caffeinated alcoholic beverages triggers changes in the adolescent brain similar to taking cocaine, and the consequences last into adulthood as an altered ability to deal with rewarding substances, according to a Purdue University study.

Oregon scientists find sight-impaired mice may help vision research
Mice may have poor vision when compared to humans, but how their visual system works when they go after prey may provide insights on how human brains make decisions based on visual cues, say University of Oregon researchers.

Remote and poor Australians at greater risk of infectious disease
A unique 21-year study of more than 2.4 million cases of infectious disease across Australia reveals a major social divide where being poorer, living remotely or being an Indigenous Australian means having an increased risk of sexually transmissible infections.

3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensors
Researchers have made the first entirely 3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensing.

Patients report symptom improvement following prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis
Prolotherapy, an injection-based complementary treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, was associated with improved knee-specific symptoms, quality of life, and ability to participate in daily activities among the majority of individuals who participated in several small clinical studies.

New species of pea-size crab parasitizing a date mussel has a name of a Roman god
Tiny crabs, the size of a pea, dwell inside the mantles of various bivalves, living off the particulate food filtered by the host.

Women who opt for laughing gas during labor, may still get an epidural, study shows
The majority of women who chose nitrous oxide (laughing gas) to manage labor pain, ultimately decide to have an epidural, according to new research presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2016 annual meeting.

How hooded seals are transferring contaminants to their pups
Environmental contaminants such as perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be transferred from mother to offspring through the placenta and mother's milk, exposing the young mammal before and after birth.

Increasing muscle strength can improve brain function: Study
Increased muscle strength leads to improved brain function in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), new results from a recent trial led by the University of Sydney has revealed.

How even our brains get 'slacker' as we age
New research from Newcastle University, UK, in collaboration with the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, investigated the way the human brain folds and how this 'cortical folding' changes with age.

Phase 3 analyses in Alzheimer's show clinical benefit of tramiprosate in APOE4 carriers
Results published in JPAD describe analyses of Phase 3 data for the investigational amyloid-targeted drug, tramiprosate, in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

New UTSA study describes method to detect dishonesty online
A new study by Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, associate professor of information systems and cybersecurity and Cloud Technology Endowed Professor at The University of Texas at San Antonio, describes a method for detecting people dishonestly posting online comments, reviews or tweets across multiple accounts, a practice known as 'astroturfing.'

Robotic tutors for primary school children
The use of robotic tutors in primary school classrooms is one step closer according to research recently published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience.

New guidelines published for discontinuing mechanical ventilation in ICU
The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) have published new guidelines for discontinuing mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults.

The Lancet: GP referral to weight loss program is effective, acceptable and takes 30 seconds
Tackling obesity by offering the opportunity to attend a weight loss program during a routine consultation is effective, welcomed by patients and takes 30 seconds of physicians' time, according to a new randomized trial of over 1,800 people published in The Lancet.

Predicting climate impacts on ecosystems will require scientists to widen the lens
In a new paper, two Yale scholars make the case that overly simplistic studies on the climate impacts on ecosystems avoid the inherent complexity and interconnectedness of natural systems.

Rabies vaccine effective even after warm storage
A Washington State University-led research team determined rabies vaccines stored at warmer temperatures still protect against the disease in dogs.

New materials with photonic crystals that filter radiation are designed
A piece of research by the NUP/UPNA-Public University of Navarre has proposed various designs of materials of a photonic crystal type that can be used to filter radiation.

Vitamin A orange maize improves night vision
A new study has found that vitamin A-biofortified orange maize significantly improves visual functions in children.

Surgical repair of phrenic nerve injury improves breathing
A study found that in people with breathing difficulties caused by phrenic nerve injury surgical reconstruction of the nerve can lead to significant improvement in breathing and an increase in regular physical activities.

A key to unlocking the mystery of triple negative breast cancer
The study suggests screening breast cancer patients for the prolactin receptor could improve the prognosis for patient and may help them avoid unnecessary and invasive treatments.

Brain changes seen in youth football players without concussion
Researchers have found measurable brain changes in children after a single season of playing youth football, even without a concussion diagnosis, according to a new study.

Scientists uncover why hepatitis C virus vaccine has been difficult to make
Researchers have been trying for decades to develop a vaccine against the globally endemic hepatitis C virus.

How lying takes our brains down a 'slippery slope'
Telling small lies desensitizes our brains to the associated negative emotions and may encourage us to tell bigger lies in future, reveals new UCL research.

UT Southwestern study links small RNA molecule to pregnancy complication
A family of small RNA molecules affects the development of cells that give rise to the placenta -- an organ that transfers oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus -- in ways that could contribute to a serious pregnancy complication, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report.

New worm strain to facilitate study of Alzheimer's disease
Researchers from Yale-NUS College have partnered with researchers from the National University of Singapore and SingHealth Group to develop a novel Caenorhabditis elegans worm strain which expresses an amyloid beta protein fragment involved in the development of human Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Elderly may face increased dementia risk after a disaster
Elderly people who were uprooted from damaged or destroyed homes and who lost touch with their neighbors after the 2011 tsunami in Japan were more likely to experience increased symptoms of dementia than those who were able to stay in their homes, according to a new study from Harvard T.H.

Early feasibility and first-in-human studies to be highlighted at TCT 2016
Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) is the annual scientific symposium of CRF and the world's premier educational meeting specializing in interventional cardiovascular medicine.

Iron-deficiency anemia in ulcerative colitis -- many patients don't get testing and treatment
Many patients with ulcerative colitis don't receive recommended testing and treatment for the common problem of iron deficiency anemia, reports a study in the October issue of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, official journal of the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA).

Fetal surgery successfully removes life-threatening tumor connected to heart
For the first time, fetal medicine experts have performed prenatal heart surgery to remove a life-threatening tumor, called intrapericardial teratoma.

New research characterizes pediatric injuries onboard commercial airline flights
Researchers at Rainbow Babies & Children's in Cleveland found lap infants may be at greater risk for injury on a commercial airline flight than older children traveling in their own seats.

Questions about quiet group of brain cells lead to new discovery
A new discovery from the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine, in the in the flagship general-interest Biology journal BMC BIOLOGY, is the first to explore a cellular mechanism by which the brain deactivates a group of neurons and then gradually reactivates them when the time is right.

Salk scientists adapt computer program to gauge eye spasm severity
Program also could be used in research and diagnosis of facial tics in disorders like Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease

Ancient burials suggestive of blood feuds
University of Arizona bioarchaeologist James Watson's analysis of ancient graves provides new insight into the social and biological factors that might have motivated violent killings and atypical burials thousands of years ago, and how some of those factors may still be relevant today.

Man-made noise can affect how animals use information from scents
Research by scientists at the University of Bristol has, for the first time, found that man-made noise can have a detrimental impact on an animal's use of scent -- putting them at greater risk of being attacked by predators.

NYU researchers survey drug use in business bathrooms in NYC
This is the first quantitative study of business manager encounters with drug use which suggests overdose recognition and naloxone training, combined with the operation of supervised injection facilities, could save lives.

Researchers find zebrafish want to hang out with moving 3-D robotic models of themselves
Zebrafish engage more with 3-D moving robotic models of themselves than with other stimuli.

Maternal blood test may predict birth complications
A protein found in the blood of pregnant women could be used to develop tests to determine the health of their babies and aid decisions on early elective deliveries, according to an early study led by Queen Mary University of London.

Crowdsourcing and cellphone data could help guide urban revitalization
Combining cellphone data with perceptions of public spaces could help guide urban planning.

Genetic hallmarks of acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtype uncovered
An international team of researchers from the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project (PCGP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG) has identified the genetic changes that underpin a subtype of the most common cancer found in children.

Do patients choose lower-priced facilities after checking procedure prices?
If patients know beforehand how much a procedure will cost do they pick a lower-priced facility?

Tumor markers can reveal lethality of bladder cancers, guide treatment
Tumor cells collected during the removal of a cancerous bladder and transplanted into mice with weakened immune systems could help physicians rapidly identify high-risk cancers, determine prognosis and refine the use of biomarkers to personalize care for patients with this common cancer.

Fragranced products: Risks for people and profits?
A University of Melbourne researcher has found that over one-third of Americans report health problems -- from asthma attacks to migraine headaches -- when exposed to common fragranced consumer products such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, laundry products, scented candles, cologne, and personal care products.

Canada Health Act needs bite: CMAJ urges federal government to strengthen Act and punish violations
A new health accord between federal and provincial governments must uphold the universality, equity and quality of our current system, rather than introduce two-tiered health care, argues an editorial in CMAJ.

Film and television often provide misleading information on brain death
Neurologists who examined how brain death and organ donation are portrayed in film and television found that only a small fraction of productions provide the public with a complete and accurate understanding of brain death.

Public health insurance may be a predictor of pain in post anesthesia care unit
Patients using public health insurance were more likely to experience high pain levels in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) following surgery to remove their tonsils and/or adenoids, according to a study presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2016 annual meeting.

Simple instruction sheet helps patients correctly take regular medications before surgery
Patients may be more likely to take their regularly prescribed medications for chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension correctly before surgery when provided a simple instruction sheet, reveals a study presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2016 annual meeting.

Wildfire management vs. fire suppression benefits forest and watershed
In the West, wildfires have traditionally been suppressed to prevent them from getting out of control.

Black students feel less welcome at schools with excessive suspensions
Black students who attend high schools where they are disproportionately suspended more so than white students feel their school is less fair and less welcoming, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.

Rheological and emulsification behavior of Xinjiang heavy oil and model oils
The existing literatures focus on the flow pattern transition and pressure gradient calculation of model oils.

New subtypes of lung cancer can lead to personalized therapies with better outcome
Analysis of vast amounts of molecular data from a set of more than 1,000 non-small cell lung cancers identifies distinct subtypes, each with its own molecular profile and potentially different response to therapy.

NASA animation shows Seymour becomes a hurricane
Tropical Depression 20 formed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean on Sunday and by Monday at 11 a.m. it exploded into a hurricane named Seymour.

Dr. Robert C. Speth receives Provost's Research and Scholarship Award from NSU
In recognition of his significant contributions to Nova Southeastern University, Robert C.

Despite papal letter, Catholics and the public politically divided on climate change
Among Catholics and non-Catholics, awareness of Laudato Si', the first-ever encyclical or papal letter devoted to the environment, was not associated with an increase in public concern over climate change.

Study suggests that autophagy inhibitors could improve efficacy of chemotherapies
This week in the JCI, research led by Jayanta Debnath at UCSF has shown that inhibiting autophagy does not impair the immune response to tumors during chemotherapy, providing support for the idea that combining autophagy inhibitors with certain chemotherapies may aid cancer treatment.

Dinosaurs of a feather flock and die together?
In the paleontology popularity contest, studying the social life of dinosaurs is on the rise.

Eyetracking data can improve language technology and help readers
New research from the University of Copenhagen shows that recordings of gaze data -- within a few seconds -- can reveal whether a word causes a reader problems.

Taking meds after heart procedures may boost trouble-free survival rate
Regardless of heart procedure, patients who adhered to prescribed medication were more than twice as likely to have event-free rates of survival.

Report reveals a big dependence on freshwater fish for global food security
Freshwater fish play a surprisingly crucial role in feeding some of the world's most vulnerable people, according to a study published Monday (Oct.

Women & infants to participate in project to reduce primary cesareans
Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, a Care New England hospital, has been accepted into the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Reducing Primary Cesareans Project.

Semi-volatile organic compounds diffuse between atmospheric particles
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University's Neil M. Donahue have shown that semi-volatile organic compounds can readily diffuse into the billions of tiny atmospheric particles that inhabit the air, easily moving among them.

Succession of macrobenthos community over past 60 years in southern Bohai sea, China
Macrobenthos plays a vital role in maintaining marine ecosystem functions.

Clearing 'visual noise' to improve underwater vision and deep sea exploration
A team of researchers from Ocean University of China in Qingdao, China, may have helped improve the quality of underwater visualizations.

AAP announces new safe sleep recommendations to protect against SIDS
Infants should sleep in the same bedroom as their parents - but on a separate surface, such as a crib or bassinet, and never on a couch, armchair or soft surface -- to decrease the risks of sleep-related deaths, according to a new policy statement released by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Tufts University chemist, entrepreneur elected to National Academy of Medicine
David R. Walt, Ph.D., has been elected to the prestigious and exclusive National Academy of Medicine, one in a series of accolades from the national and international scientific communities in recognition of his stellar career as a chemist, engineer, innovator and entrepreneur.

How does pregnancy affect risk of stroke in older, younger women?
Younger pregnant women, including the postpartum period up to six weeks after delivery, appeared to be at increased risk of stroke compared with their nonpregnant counterparts, and that increased stroke risk was not associated with older pregnant women, according to a new article published online by JAMA Neurology.

Urbanization: The historical cause of low oxygen conditions in European lakes
A new study shows that hypoxia, i.e. low oxygen conditions, in European lakes started in 1850, becoming more widespread after 1900, long before the use of chemical fertilizers and climate change.

Maze Runners
Working with dot-counting mice running through a virtual-reality maze, scientists from Harvard Medical School have found that in order to navigate space rodent brains rely on a cascade of neural signals that culminate in a single decision that prompts the animal to choose one direction over another.

Hybrid nanostructures hold hydrogen well
Three-dimensional structures that combine boron nitride nanotubes and graphene may be suitable for hydrogen storage for cars, according to calculations by Rice University scientists.

Precision medicine test helps guide breast cancer patients' chemotherapy decision
One of the earliest widespread applications of precision medicine in cancer care is helping patients and physicians decide whether chemotherapy is needed, a new study finds.

Stent, bypass outcomes better for those who stick to medical therapy
Patients who had a stent procedure or heart bypass surgery and continued with their prescribed medical therapy had significantly better outcomes than non-adherent patients, according to a new study.

Women catching up with men in alcohol consumption and its associated harms
Women are catching up with men in terms of their alcohol consumption and its impact on their health, finds an analysis of the available international evidence, spanning over a century and published in the online journal BMJ Open.

The quantum sniffer dog
A new kind of sensor to identify gases has been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), based on quantum-cascade-technology.

Cut dietary omega 6 and boost omega 3 to curb soaring obesity rates, urge experts
Governments and international bodies should ditch their obsession with calories and energy expenditure to curb soaring obesity rates, and instead focus on restoring the correct balance of omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids in the food supply chain and diet, urge experts in an editorial in the online journal Open Heart.

Dietary intake and function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Are they associated?
Is what you eat associated with better function and respiratory function for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis soon after diagnosis?

New bacteria groups, and stunning diversity, discovered underground
One of the most detailed genomic studies of any ecosystem to date has revealed an underground world of stunning microbial diversity, and added dozens of new branches to the tree of life.

Newly discovered, rare immunodeficiency yields unexpected insights into the immune system
A hitherto unknown gene mutation revealed the role of a key molecule for immune cell development.

Creeping gel
Directed motion seems simple to us, but the coordinated interplay of complex processes is needed, even for seemingly simple crawling motions of worms or snails.

New effort aims to prevent surgery-related opioid addiction
A new initiative aims to boost the safety of opioid painkiller medication prescribing by surgical teams in Michigan, as a way of reducing the risk of addiction and overdose among surgery patients.

'Middle England' faces lowest psychosis risk
The risk of developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia is highest for young people, men, ethnic minorities and people living in urban areas and poorer neighborhoods, finds a new UCL study.

Kent study recommends solution to end unsustainable agricultural practices
A University of Kent study has suggested that rural areas can provide for both people and wildlife in biodiversity-rich tropical countries such as Colombia if agriculture is administered in the right way.

The tale of the bats, dark matter and a plastic surgeon
What happens when a plastic surgeon meets a bat expert zoologist and a paleobiologist? is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to