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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 28, 2016


Researchers surprised at the unexpected hardness of gallium nitride
Four Lehigh engineers have reported a previously unknown property for GaN: Its wear resistance approaches that of diamonds and promises to open up applications in touch screens, space vehicles and radio-frequency microelectromechanical systems, all of which require high-speed, high-vibration technology.
Study: Pop-culture news helped destigmatize out-of-wedlock childbirth
Celebrity news reports over the past four decades appear to have contributed to the changing makeup of the traditional American family by helping to destigmatize out-of-wedlock childbirths in the United States, according to a study by a University at Buffalo sociologist.
New drug benefits patients with multi-drug resistant HIV
A new monoclonal antibody, ibalizumab appears to benefit patients with multidrug-resistant HIV, according to phase 3 research being presented at IDWeek.
Novel approach in primary care setting may help identify patients with COPD
With five simple questions and an inexpensive peak expiratory flow (PEF) meter, primary care clinicians may be able to diagnose many more patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Technique reveals the basis for machine-learning systems' decisions
At the Association for Computational Linguistics' Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) will present a new way to train neural networks so that they provide not only predictions and classifications but rationales for their decisions.
Could minority-serving hospitals be unfairly penalized by CMS for readmissions?
A new probe into why colorectal surgery patients end up back in the hospital after surgery suggests that it has less to do with the hospital or treatment received but rather more determined by patient factors such as race, income, and insurance status.
What's the best treatment for positional plagiocephaly in infants? CNS publishes new guidelines
Physical therapy -- with helmet therapy if needed -- is the recommended treatment for most infants with position-related flattening of the skull (plagiocephaly), according to a new set of clinical guidelines in the November issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS).
What's the best way to match the implant to the breast? Evidence on implant size selection systems reviewed
How should plastic surgeons choose the best implant type and size for women undergoing breast augmentation surgery?
ESMO Symposium on Immuno-Oncology 2016
At the ESMO Symposium on Immuno-Oncology starting Friday Nov. 4 in Lausanne, Switzerland, around 600 experts and researchers from all over the world will gather to discuss advances in cancer immunotherapy, from cancer vaccines to antibodies and cell therapies.
Cognitive behavioral therapy effective for older people with insomnia
A team of researchers developed a new cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) treatment program.
Venture capital more impactful than angel investments for tech startups
Technology entrepreneurs who get funding from venture capitalists go public sooner and have more impactful innovation than those who partner with angel investors, according to research from the University at Buffalo School of Management.
A 'transitional fossil' debunked
Snakes are a very diverse group of present-day reptiles, with nearly 3,600 known species.
Science: Public interest high, literacy stable
While public interest in science continues to grow, the level of US scientific literacy remains largely unchanged, according to a survey by the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research.
Satellite sees Post-Tropical Storm Seymour fading
Hurricane Seymour faded fast in the Eastern Pacific and NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an image of the post-tropical cyclone.
Some herbal and dietary supplements can be toxic to the liver
A recent review based on a research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health highlights the potentially damaging effects of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) on the liver.
Physicists make it possible to 3-D print your own baby universe
Researchers have created a 3-D printed cosmic microwave background -- a map of the oldest light in the universe -- and provided the files for download.
New research paves way for anti-cancer treatment
Researchers at the University of Huddersfield have developed a new lab technique that may aid the development and success rate of an important anti-cancer treatment.
Water conflicts between Asian nuclear powers pose global threat; UNU book charts path to cooperation
Potential global in South Asia looms as rapidly rising water demand collides with a diminishing resource on which at least 300 million people depend directly, warns a new book from UN University's Institute for Water, Environment and Health.
Racism still rife against black and minority ethnic teachers in England
A University of Huddersfield professor has developed a theory that black and minority ethnic (BME) teachers and academics in England depend on 'white sanction' in order to fulfill their potential.
Breakthrough in the production of dopamine neurons for Parkinson's disease
Researchers at Lund University, Sweden, are rapidly moving towards the first ever transplantations of embryonic stem cell derived dopamine neurons in persons with Parkinson's disease.
A tiny machine
UCSB electrical and computer engineers design an infinitesimal computing device.
Texas Tech Health Sciences Center research targets medications for those with depression
Researchers from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) have discovered the FDA approved drug bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) blocks the function of the serotonin type 3A receptors (5-HT3ARs) and further characterized bupropion's pharmacological effects at these receptors.
New biochar model scrubs CO2 from the atmosphere
New Cornell University research suggests an economically viable model to scrub carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to thwart global warming.
Chemical analysis demonstrates communal nesting in dinosaurs
The reproductive behaviors of birds are some of their most conspicuous and endearing qualities.
Structure of toxic tau aggregates determines type of dementia, rate of progression
The distinct structures of toxic protein aggregates that form in degenerating brains determine which type of dementia will occur, which regions of brain will be affected, and how quickly the disease will spread, according to a study from the Peter O'Donnell Jr.
New study: Children with autism may be over-diagnosed with ADHD
Pediatric researchers report that children with ASD may mistakenly be diagnosed with ADHD because they have autism-related social impairments rather than problems with attention.
Study identifies potential combination therapy for ovarian cancer
A new study has identified an effective combination therapy for treating ovarian cancer cells.
In low- to middle-income countries, barriers to cleft lip and palate surgery persist
Charitable organizations perform more than 80 percent of cleft lip and cleft palate surgeries in Vietnam -- reflecting the complex and persistent barriers to surgical care in low- to middle-income countries, according to a study in the November issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
Treadmill running with heavier shoes tied to slower race times
Energy expended during treadmill tests with heavier running shoes translates into slower times for athletes in track races, says a new study by University of Colorado Boulder researchers.
Modeling the vertebrate invasion of land
Early tetrapods, such as Ichthyostega, moved onto land from aquatic environments over 350 million years ago.
Conundrum of missing iron in oxygen minimum zones solved
An international research team led by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel has discovered that in anoxic seawater iron is removed through reaction with nitrate instead of oxygen.
Study: Conservation preferred way to protect drinking water
A new study from the University of Delaware found when given the choice, people prefer to invest their money in conservation, such as protecting key areas of a watershed -- also referred to as green infrastructure -- than traditional water treatment plants -- also referred to as gray infrastructure.
UD research to use space lab for 'smart' material investigation
The University of Delaware's Eric Furst is leading one of five projects recently selected to conduct fluid dynamics investigations in the International Space Station's US National Laboratory.
Procedure feared to 'suck brain from skull' safe for malaria patients
A Michigan State University researcher is challenging a widely held African belief that a spinal tap, a procedure safely used to treat other diseases, could suck the brain from the base of the skull and cause death in malaria patients.
Dispersal, the key for understanding marine biodiversity
Dispersal plays a key role to connect populations, and contrastingly, its moderate limitation is one of the main processes to maintain species coexistence and promote regional biodiversity.
Ancient strain of cholera likely present in Haiti since colonial era
A non-virulent variant of the deadly Vibrio cholerae O1 strain has likely been present in Haitian aquatic environments for several hundred years, with the potential to become virulent through gene transfer with the toxigenic strain introduced by UN peacekeepers, according to research published today by scientists at the University of Florida's Emerging Pathogens Institute.
Main reasons of structural wall collapse in Chile 2010 and New Zealand 2011
Earthquakes frequently occur around the world and make us think about in improve our construction systems and design, and considering new or better alternatives for construction in which will reduce damage and casualties.
When fat cells change their color
A team with the Freiburg researchers Prof. Dr. Roland Schuele and Dr.
Always-deadly measles complication more common than believed
A deadly complication of measles called SSPE is less rare than previously believed, emphasizing the importance of vaccination, according to an IDWeek 2016™ study.
Prevalence of immunosuppression among US adults
In a study published online by JAMA, Rafael Harpaz, M.D., M.P.H., of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; an annual health survey conducted via household interviews) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported immunosuppressed adults in the United States.
Novartis drugs Cosentyx® and Gleevec® win Prestigious Prix Galien Awards for 2016 Best Biotechnology Product and 'Discovery of the Decade'
Novartis Drugs Cosentyx® and Gleevec® win prestigious Prix Galien Awards for 2016 Best Biotechnology Product and 'Discovery of the Decade.'
2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium to be held Dec. 6-10
The Cancer Therapy & Research Center at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, the American Association for Cancer Research, and Baylor College of Medicine will be hosting the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, Dec.
Collaboration yields open source technology for computational science
The gap between the computational science and open source software communities just got smaller -- thanks to an international collaboration among national laboratories, universities and industry.
Close up of the new mineral merelaniite
The scroll-like structure of the newly discovered mineral merelaniite grows into tiny, silver-gray whiskers.
Scientists discover way to make milk chocolate have dark chocolate health benefits
Dark chocolate can be a source of antioxidants in the diet, but many consumers dislike the bitter flavor.
How Frankenstein saved humankind from probable extinction, Dartmouth-UC Merced study
In Mary Shelley's novel, 'Frankenstein,' Victor Frankenstein saved humankind from the probability of extinction, according to a new study by Dartmouth-University of California, Merced, to be published in BioScience on Friday, Oct.
High-frequency spinal cord stimulation provides better results in chronic back and leg pain
For patients with severe, chronic back and leg pain, a new high-frequency spinal cord stimulation (SCS) technique provides superior clinical outcomes, compared to conventional low-frequency SCS, reports a clinical trial in the November issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.
University of Miami and Heat Biologics announce Zika Vaccine collaboration
The University of Miami has entered into an agreement with Heat Biologics, Inc., the leader in the development of gp96-based immunotherapies that activate a patient's immune system to fight cancer, to license and develop a portfolio of patents leveraging the gp96 platform to target the Zika virus and other infectious diseases.
Study reveals tremendous clinical and economic burden of common chronic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease worldwide, is increasing in prevalence and is currently estimated to affect approximately one-quarter of the general population.
Novel light sources made of 2-D materials
Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs.
Policy to prevent opioid overdose presented at national meeting
Training Allegheny County Jail inmates in the use of the heroin overdose antidote drug
Colorado River's dead clams tell tales of carbon emission
Scientists have begun to account for the topsy-turvy carbon cycle of the Colorado River delta -- once a massive green estuary of grassland, marshes and cottonwood, now desiccated dead land.
Can we put a price on healthcare innovation in cancer?
Is there evidence that the money spent on innovation 'for the cure' actually benefits cancer patients?
Could DNA from a virus millions of years old hold the key to new neuro tumor therapies?
Dr. Sylwia Ammoun, Senior Research Fellow at Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, has received backing from children's charity Action Medical Research, to investigate new drug treatments for neurofibromatosis 2 -- and the secret may lie in sequences of DNA from viruses that are millions of years old.
When it comes to atomic-scale manufacturing, less really is more
Robert Wolkow is no stranger to mastering the ultra-small and the ultra-fast.
133 million-year-old dinosaur brain fossil found in England
Soft tissues such as hearts and muscles are very rarely preserved in the fossil record.
Study finds that sleep apnea therapy has positive impact on hypertensive patients
A new study shows that positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy for sleep apnea may have a positive impact on sleep-related functional outcomes among patients who also suffer from hypertension.
Activation of 2 genes linked to development of atherosclerosis
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital have found two new potential drug targets for treating arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis.
Bioethicists challenge doctors' right to refuse care
In a recent article, the Editors-in-Chief of two leading ethics journals stress that there should be better protections for patients from doctors' personal values as well as more severe restrictions on the right of clinicians to conscientious objection, particularly in relation to assisted dying.
Cell Press selected to publish Molecular Therapy family of journals
Molecular Therapy, the official journal of The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy (ASGCT), has a new home at Cell Press, a leading publisher of biomedical and chemical research and reviews.
Pitt-developed program improves adult immunization rates at primary care offices
A University of Pittsburgh-developed program successfully boosts vaccination rates in adult patients seen at primary care offices, two recent studies demonstrated.
Expectations may not match reality among cancer patients in some early phase clinical trials
In a study of cancer patients considering whether they should participate in phase I clinical trials, a high percentage were willing to participate after discussions with clinical staff, but nearly half thought that their tumors would shrink, which is much higher than what is realistically achieved.
Fossils under your feet: Ancient sea cow found in Spanish street
Have you ever spotted something unexpected while walking down the street?
Giant extinct salmon fought with spike teeth during upriver spawning events
The ancient coastal waters of the Pacific, roughly 11 to 5 million years ago, were home to a bizarre and fascinating species of giant salmon with large spike-like teeth.
The EMA accepts to assess the MAA from PharmaMar for Aplidin®
PharmaMar (MSE:PHM) has announced today that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has accepted to assess the Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for Aplidin® (plitidepsin) in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM).
Autism spectrum disorder linked to mutations in some mitochondrial DNA
Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have greater numbers of harmful mutations in their mitochondrial DNA than family members, report Zhenglong Gu of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, and colleagues, in a study published Oct.
Is prolactin inducible protein (PIP) protective against breast cancer?
Researchers describe the first evidence linking prolactin inducible protein (PIP) to the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy foreign cells, such as tumor cells.
See how Arctic sea ice is losing its bulwark against warming summers
Arctic sea ice, the vast sheath of frozen seawater floating on the Arctic Ocean and its neighboring seas, has been hit with a double whammy over the past decades: as its extent shrunk, the oldest and thickest ice has either thinned or melted away, leaving the sea ice cap more vulnerable to the warming ocean and atmosphere.
Eyes came before limbs in the transition to land
The transition to land from our fishy ancestors is one of the most iconic, and best documented, transitions in the fossil record.

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