Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 08, 2016
Cancer cells hijack DNA repair networks to stay alive, Pitt study shows
Research by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute has revealed how cancer cells hijack DNA repair pathways to prevent telomeres, the endcaps of chromosomes, from shortening, thus allowing the tumor to spread.

Russian University to hold an international educational forum in India
November 2-4, Tomsk State University (TSU) is to hold an International Educational Forum - Russian Education as an Opportunity Space.

The process of DNA packaging in cell nucleus revealed
Scientists from the Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, a unit of the Lomonosov Moscow State University have proposed a method of labeling active and inactive genes based on difference in their replication timing.

Social networking by doctors may save patients' lives, study suggests
A new study finds that heart surgery patients' chances of survival depends in part on the overall level of previous teamwork among all the physicians who cared for them across their surgery preparation, operation, hospitalization and recuperation.

People power: Technology allows smartphone-based water testing
Ever wondered what's in the neighborhood pond? Technology developed by researchers at the University of Houston will allow you to test for waterborne pathogens by using your smartphone.

Genetic signaling pathway blocks formation of a cancer in the cerebellum
A signaling pathway has the potential to block a type of cancer in the cerebellum, suggests new research from a team at the Krembil Research Institute's Donald K.

Alzheimer's disease found to be a diabetic disorder of the brain
Researchers at Tohoku University have found a promising treatment for Alzheimer's disease, by noticing a similarity in the way insulin signaling works in the brain and in the pancreas of diabetic patients.

Tailored, dense-dose chemotherapy for early breast cancer does not result in significant improvement
Among women with high-risk early breast cancer, the use of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy compared with standard adjuvant chemotherapy did not result in a statistically significant improvement in breast cancer recurrence-free survival, and nonhematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the tailored dose-dense group, according to a study appearing in the Nov.

Tools to understand marine biodiversity and assess the environmental status of our oceans
More than 250 European researchers have collaborated in developing new tools to understand marine biodiversity and assess the environmental status of our oceans, within the project DEVOTES ( (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status).

Giving women HIV self-tests promotes male partner testing
Providing pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa with multiple HIV self-tests can make it more likely their male partners will be tested for HIV compared to a standard approach of distributing invitation cards for clinic-based testing, according to a randomized trial published in PLOS Medicine by Harsha Thirumurthy of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA, and colleagues.

Successful calculation of human and natural influence on cloud formation
Researchers have now used the results from the CLOUD Experiment at Cern for the first time to calculate the production of aerosol particles in all the Earth's regions and at different heights.

New strategy for antidepressant therapies
Activated subclass of nerve cells producing GABA neurotransmitter have been discovered to have antidepressant effects similar to pharmaceutical antidepressants in depressed mice, giving new hope that GABA-enhancing drugs could be rapidly acting and more effective antidepressants.

Entering the field of zeptosecond measurement
Laser physicists in Munich have measured a photoionization - in which an electron exits a helium atom after excitation by light - for the first time with zeptosecond precision.

Mobs are, sometimes, good
Submitting to mob mentality is always a risky endeavor, for humans or hyenas.

PPPL physicists build diagnostic that measures plasma velocity in real time
Physicists at PPPL have developed a diagnostic that provides crucial real-time information about the ultrahot plasma swirling within doughnut-shaped fusion machines known as tokamaks.

The messenger in Huntington's disease
A research effort led by Eulàlia Martí at the Centre for Genomic Regulation reveals new molecular mechanisms of Huntington's chorea.

TUM and JGU activate new source of ultra-cold neutrons
Researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have opened a new chapter in their long-standing collaboration concerning the generation of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN).

McMaster scientists discover autism gene slows down brain cell communication
The researchers discovered an important 'on' button in DIXDC1 protein that instructs brain cells to form mature connections called synapses with other brain cells during development.

HKU Chemists achieve breakthrough in antibacterial drug research
The research team of Dr Xuechen Li at the HKU Department of Chemistry, together with collaborators at the University of Central Florida (Dr Yu Yuan), USA and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Dr Sheng Chen), reported their research findings on the synthesis of a newly discovered

Ketofol an alternative deep sedative for emergency departments
Researchers have shown in a large clinical trial that 'ketofol'- - a combination of ketamine and propofol -- can be used safely and effectively to sedate adults in the emergency department.

Use of bacteria to produce valuable substances from carbon dioxide
Goethe University Frankfurt has now taken charge of a collaborative European project, the aim of which is to advance the development of processes for microbial, CO2-based biotechnology.

Collapse of mitochondria-associated membrane in ALS
Mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) is a contacting site of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and plays a key role in cellular homeostasis.

Semiconductor-free microelectronics are now possible, thanks to metamaterials
Engineers at the University of California San Diego have fabricated the first semiconductor-free, optically-controlled microelectronic device.

NCI grant funds SMU research into cancer-causing viruses that hide from the immune system
The National Cancer Institute is funding research at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, into cancer-causing viruses that hide from the immune system.

Massive 'lake' discovered under volcano that could unlock why and how volcanoes erupt
Scientists from the University of Bristol and partner universities in Germany, France, Canada and Wales, have discovered a huge magmatic lake, 15 km below a dormant volcano in Bolivia, South America.

Farris Foundation donates $1.1 million to fund TSRI Graduate Fellowship in Florida
The Celia Lipton Farris and Victor W. Farris Foundation has made a $1.135 million gift to The Scripps Research Institute to create the Farris Foundation Endowed Graduate Fellowship on the Jupiter, Florida campus.

Master of math
Number theorist Yitang Zhang receives the Qiu Shi Outstanding Scientist Award for his exploration into the nature of prime numbers.

Allen Institute for Brain Science announces 2016 Next Generation Leaders
The Allen Institute for Brain Science announces the newest cohort of Next Generation Leaders: a group of six esteemed young scientists who will provide feedback in both formal and informal settings to researchers at the Allen Institute.

Peat bog reveals more than 1,000 years of Tanzanian history
Scientists at the University of York have charted more than 1,000 years of Tanzanian environmental history using sediments extracted from a peat bog.

Quality of life in late life can be good
New LifeCourse research shows patients' quality of life can improve in the last months of life; caregivers need to understand how patients' goals change with illness, and health professionals can improve late life communications by understanding the whole person needs of caregivers.

HKU chemists develop world's first light-seeking synthetic Nanorobot
A team of researchers led by Dr Jinyao Tang of the Department of Chemistry, the University of Hong Kong, has developed the world's first light-seeking synthetic Nano robot.

Fighting the water army of fake reviewers
Fake reviews do nothing for the confidence of customers buying products and services online, they also damage company reputations and can lead to ill feeling about the online marketplace itself.

Study: Carbon-hungry plants impede growth rate of atmospheric CO2 
New findings suggest the rate at which CO2 is accumulating in the atmosphere has plateaued in recent years because Earth's vegetation is grabbing more carbon from the air than in previous decades.

Blood fats equal risk of pancreatitis
New research from the University of Copenhagen shows that mild to moderate levels of blood fats equal an increased risk developing acute pancreatitis.

More frequent vaping among teens linked to higher risk of heavy cigarette smoking
In a study appearing in the Nov. 8 issue of JAMA, Adam M.

Big data shows people's collective behavior follows strong periodic patterns
New research has revealed that by using big data to analyse massive data sets of modern and historical news, social media and Wikipedia page views, periodic patterns in the collective behaviour of the population can be observed that could otherwise go unnoticed.

Tumors reprogram the liver, causing wasting and short-circuiting body's immune response
A research team today publishes results of experiments demonstrating in mice how pancreatic and colon tumors reprogram liver metabolism, interfering with patients' ability to cope with wasting and causing a release of stress hormones that short circuits the immune response to the tumor.

ESMO Asia 2016: Cancer experts meet in Singapore from Dec. 16-19, 2016
ESMO, the leading professional organization for medical oncology, is pleased to announce the second ESMO Asia 2016 Congress, from Dec.

A public database of macromolecular diffraction experiments
The reproducibility of published experimental results has recently attracted attention in many different scientific fields.

Mismatched light and heat levels can disrupt body clock
Body clock function can break down when light and temperature levels throughout the day are out of sync, finds new research in fruit flies.

Dementia diagnosis delayed by complex referral criteria
Complex and time-consuming memory clinic referral criteria are contributing to delays in the diagnosis of dementia, according to a paper published today by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Gestational age may impact academic performance
A new study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology indicates that being born either too early or too late may have a long-term effect on children's academic performance.

Analog series-based scaffolds: a new definition that may aid medicinal chemistry
University of Bonn researchers present the computational design and exploration of a new scaffold concept for computational medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

Species of giant cockroaches employ different strategies in the mating game
New research suggests that even in the insect world, males must adopt different strategies to win females, depending on their particular physical prowess.

Attosecond physics: A zeptosecond stopwatch for the microcosm
For the first time ever, laser physicists have recorded an internal atomic event with an accuracy of a trillionth of a billionth of a second.

Evolution purged many Neanderthal genes from human genome
Neanderthal genetic material is found in only small amounts in the genomes of modern humans because, after interbreeding, natural selection removed large numbers of weakly deleterious Neanderthal gene variants, according to a study by Ivan Juric and colleagues at the University of California, Davis, published Nov.

NYU research examines country and health system factors on RN and MD personnel production
A key component to achieving good patient outcomes in the healthcare world is having the right number and type of healthcare professionals with the right resources.

Potential targeted therapy found for newly identified leukemia subtype with poor outcome
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital-led study expands understanding of the genetic basis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes and identifies possible targeted therapy for some patients at risk for a poor outcome.

Giving more pregnant women common thyroid medicine may reduce risk of complications
Extending the number of pregnant women given the common drug levothyroxine to boost thyroid hormone levels may lead to a reduced number of stillbirths, early caesarean sections and low-weight babies, according to a new study presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton.

ASH and partners receive grant to address knowledge gaps in AML care
The American Society of Hematology (ASH) has partnered with several organizations on independent educational programming designed to help address knowledge gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Humans proven to recognize partially obscured snakes more easily than other animals
Nagoya University researchers confirmed that humans are more able to identify snakes than other harmless animals in partially obscured conditions.

Medical professors question 'residency placement fever'
In Academic Medicine, two Alpert Medical School professors have examined new data suggesting that the number of student applications for residency programs has gotten out of hand, creating a problem that needs to be solved.

UTHealth receives NIH grant to develop individualized therapies for cocaine addiction
Identifying more effective treatment strategies tailored to individual responses for patients overcoming addiction to cocaine is the focus of a new clinical trial at McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Solving the puzzle of necroptosis
Cells can die in many ways. Apoptosis is a regulated cell death process that ensures the orderly disassembly and removal of the dying cell.

Parents don't notice young children's PTSD -- but may need support themselves
Young children may experience post-traumatic stress disorder for years without it being recognized by their parents according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

New study: Male chimpanzees can be players and good fathers
New research suggests that male chimpanzees are more invested in protecting their own offspring than previously thought.

Decoding the genome of the Japanese morning glory
Researchers in Japan have successfully decoded the entire Japanese morning glory genome.

Brookhaven Lab wins 3 2016 R&D 100 Awards
Innovations in microscopy, catalysis, and nanomaterials are among the 100 technologies and services of the past year selected by R&D Magazine to receive awards.

Scientists identify key evolutionary catalyst for antibiotic resistance
A new study led by scientists at the University of Oxford has found that small DNA molecules known as plasmids are one of the key culprits in spreading the major global health threat of antibiotic resistance.

Lisa Biggs awarded $100,000 from Knight Foundation
Lisa Biggs, assistant professor in Michigan State University's Residential College in the Arts and Humanities, has received $100,000 from the John S. and James L.

Changing views of evolutionary factors at work on earliest mammals
Using 3D-printed replicas of 200-million-year-old mammal teeth and polymers that mimic insect prey, scientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst this week provide the first laboratory-tested evidence that the ability for teeth to damage prey is a more significant factor driving evolutionary changes in tooth shape than either bite force or the animal's energy expenditure.

Marker for aggressive prostate cancer doubles up as a drug target
Researchers have discovered that a marker found on aggressive prostate cancer cells could also be used as a way to guide treatments to the cancer.

Weight loss condition provides insight into failure of cancer immunotherapies
A weight loss condition that affects patients with cancer has provided clues as to why cancer immunotherapy -- a new approach to treating cancer by boosting a patient's immune system -- may fail in a substantial number of patients.

Early exposure to excess hormone causes genital defects in females
University of Florida researchers have identified cells targeted by a male hormone and found that an excess of that hormone at a specific time can cause genital defects in female mice.

David Julius to receive the 2017 HFSP Nakasone Award
The Human Frontier Science Program Organization has announced that the 2017 HFSP Nakasone Award has been awarded to David Julius of the University of California, San Francisco for his 'discovery of the molecular mechanism of thermal sensing in animals.'

Supplemental, nutrient-enriched donor milk does not improve neurodevelopment in VLBW infants
Among very low-birth-weight infants, the use of supplemental donor milk compared with formula did not improve neurodevelopment at 18 months, according to a study appearing in the Nov.

Spin liquid on a peak
Modelling of a magnetic material unveils an unusual state of matter that promises to advance the field of condensed matter.

First month after infection is key time to tackle drug-related HIV spread
Data from the mid-1990s AIDS epidemic in Russia and Ukraine shows that the first month after infection is the key period to control the spread of the virus in drug-using populations, according to a new study by researchers at Oxford University.

Studying structure to understand function within 'material families'
Carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and lead are all part of a family that share the same structure of their outermost electrons, yet range from acting as insulators to semiconductors to metals.

Dr. Barbara Stonestreet receives additional funding to evaluate treatment strategies for perinatal brain injury
Barbara Stonestreet, MD, a neonatal-perinatal specialist at Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, a Care New England hospital, and professor of pediatrics at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, has received a five-year, nearly $2.8 million grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development for her research into determining the most effective strategies for the treatment of perinatal brain injury in full-term and premature infants.

Chimpanzee males court friends in high places
Male chimpanzees that befriended the top-ranking male were more successful at mating with preferred females when in the alpha male's presence.

MAGIC observes a gravitational lens at very high energies
Scientists working with the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observatory report the discovery of the most distant gamma-ray source ever observed at very high energies, thanks to the 'replay' of an enormous flare by a galactic gravitational lens as foreseen by Einstein's General Relativity.

Homeopathy -- The undiluted facts
As a junior doctor, Edzard Ernst worked in a homeopathic hospital, practised homeopathy, and was impressed with its results.

Brookhaven's Robert McGraw receives AS&T's Outstanding Publication Award from AAAR
Robert McGraw's AS&T Outstanding Publication Award from the American Association for Aerosol Research recognizes the novel method he developed nearly 20 years ago to mathematically characterize how the distribution of tiny atmospheric particles called aerosols evolves over time.

Neuroscientists call for deep collaboration to 'crack' the human brain
The time is ripe, the communication technology is available, for teams from different labs and different countries to join efforts and apply new forms of grassroots collaborative research in brain science.

Genetically engineering disease-fighting cells
A new technique improves the safety of cancer immunotherapy.

Trump's political success was a triumph of style over substance: UBC research
Style, not substance, accounts for Donald Trump's U.S. Republican presidential nomination, according to a psychological analysis from the University of British Columbia.

Original dinosaur claw sheath proteins preserved for 75 million years
New research from North Carolina State University shows that a 75-million-year-old Mongolian oviraptor, preserved while brooding its eggs, also preserved the original keratinous claw sheath that covered its digits.

Solved: One of the mysteries of globular clusters
A study shows that the most massive stars in the last stages of their lives are those which contaminate the interstellar medium with new chemical elements, giving rise to successive generations of stars in these 'astronomical fossils'.

Television cooking shows overlook safe food handling practices
Television cooking shows are an important resource for home cooks, but if these shows fail to model recommended food safety measures, it may lead to poor practices among consumers.

Shedding light on the formation of nanodroplets in aqueous solutions of polar organics
Researchers have shed new light on the heterogeneous nature of a polar organic liquid mixed with water.

Shallow reefs off Singapore survive in the face of adversity
An analysis of the health of highly impacted coral reefs off Singapore during a 27-year-long period has shown they are more resilient to the impacts of human activity and warming than expected.

The fate of Neanderthal genes
The Neanderthals disappeared about 30,000 years ago, but little pieces of them live on in the form of DNA sequences scattered through the modern human genome.

Female chimpanzees employ babysitters to wean young faster
A babysitter can make a big difference in a parent's life.

Greenland fossils reveal global ecosystem recovery after mass extinction
A new study published in Scientific Reports shows how higher latitude ecosystems recovered after the World's most cataclysmic extinction event 252 million years ago.

UMass Amherst Environmental Health researcher honored for 'irritating' science
The Cornell Douglas Foundation, an environmental health and justice advocacy group based in Bethesda, Md., has named University of Massachusetts Amherst environmental health scientist Laura Vandenberg one of its 2016 Pearl Award winners in recognition of her

Researcher finds key to drug resistant bowel cancer
Blocking a molecule could bypass bowel cancer's defence against the drug cetuximab, according to new research. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to