Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 22, 2016
Protein and salt drive post-meal sleepiness
Sleepiness after a large meal is something we all experience, and new research with fruit flies suggests higher protein and salt content in our food, as well as the volume consumed, can lead to longer naps.

New studies provide more insight into Zika effects
Three new studies reporting on the effects of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil will be presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Palliative care helpful for cancer patients receiving bone marrow transplants
Integrating palliative care into the treatment of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - commonly known as bone marrow transplantation -- for cancers like leukemia and lymphoma can improve their quality of life, relieve symptoms associated with the procedure, and reduce depression and anxiety.

Innovative technique to curtail illegal copying of digital media
In today's digital world it can be challenging to prevent photos, videos and books from being illegally copied and distributed.

Turkeys were a major part of ancestral Pueblo life
While the popular notion of the American Thanksgiving is less than 400 years old, the turkey has been part of American lives for more than 2,000 years.

New understanding of local heavy rainfall events over Beijing Metropolitan Region
The cold pool outflows associated with precipitation systems around the Beijing Metropolitan Region, the underlying urban surface and the local topography dominated where and when convective initiations and consequent heavy rainfall occurred.

New standard helps optical trackers follow moving objects precisely
To make locating an object -- even a moving one -- in 3-D space more reliable, a public-private team led by the National Institute of Standards and Technology has created a new standard test method to evaluate how well an optical tracking system can define an object's position and orientation -- known as its 'pose' -- with six degrees of freedom: up/down, right/left, forward/backward, pitch, yaw and roll.

Sex, gender, or both in medical research
Only a minority of medical studies take sex and gender into account when analyzing and reporting research results.

Mark Chance, vice dean for research, named AAAS fellow
Mark R. Chance, PhD, vice dean for research at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, has been named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Seven ORNL researchers elected AAAS fellows
Seven researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Bridging the advances in AI and quantum computing for drug discovery and longevity research
Insilico Medicine Inc. and YMK Photonics Inc. announced a research collaboration and business cooperation to develop photonics quantum computing and accelerated deep learning techniques for drug discovery, biomarker development and aging research.

Better surveillance and more cohesive policies needed against Rift Valley fever outbreaks
Research on the mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever in east Africa and the Arabian Peninsula shows that current surveillance systems are unable to detect the virus in livestock before it spreads to humans.

Einstein scientist receives $7.5 million grant for congenital heart disease research
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Bernice Morrow, Ph.D., at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and collaborators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia a five-year, $7.5 million grant to study the genetics of congenital heart abnormalities.

Five fast facts about norovirus
Cruise ships, nursing homes, and daycare centers are common breeding grounds for norovirus, a contagious stomach bug that infects 685 million people around the world each year.

Palliative care interventions associated with improvements in patient quality of life, symptom burden
In a study appearing in the Nov. 22/29 issue of JAMA, Dio Kavalieratos, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, and colleagues examined the association of palliative care with quality of life, symptom burden, survival, and other outcomes for people with life-limiting illness and for their caregivers.

Poisonous amphibian defenses are linked to higher extinction risk
Research published by a Swansea University scientist has found amphibians which have a toxic defense against predators -- such as the iconic poison dart frogs -- have a much higher risk of extinction than species which use other types of defense mechanisms.

Tropical cyclone- and monsoon-induced rainfall variability over southern China
In Taiwan, tropical cyclone-induced precipitation (PTC) and summer monsoon-induced precipitation (PSM) tend to vary inversely on both interdecadal and interannual time scales.

Giving older children preventive malaria drugs reduces cases and transmission
Giving preventive antimalarial drugs to children up to age 10 during the high malaria season in Senegal more than halved cases of malaria in that age group, according to new research published in PLOS Medicine.

Precise nerve stimulation via electrode implants offers new hope for paralysis patients
Patients with spinal cord injuries might one day regain use of paralyzed arms and legs thanks to research that demonstrates how limbs can be controlled via a tiny array of implanted electrodes.

Spray-printed crystals to move forward organic electronic applications
New technology could revolutionize printed electronics by enabling high quality semiconducting molecular crystals to be directly spray-deposited on any surface.

Do children inherently want to help others?
A new special section of the journal Child Development includes a collection of ten empirical articles and one theoretical article focusing on the predictors, outcomes, and mechanisms related to children's motivations for prosocial actions, such as helping and sharing.

Young blood does not reverse aging in old mice, UC Berkeley study finds
A new study from UC Berkeley found that tissue health and repair dramatically decline in young mice when half of their blood is replaced with blood from old mice.

Hypertension and prehypertension underdiagnosed and undertreated in US children
Hypertension and prehypertension in children often go undiagnosed, according to a new study published today in Pediatrics.

Stellar simulators
Astrophysicists at UCSB's Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics will use a supercomputer to explore the driving forces behind mass loss in massive stars.

Right timing is crucial in life
Humans, as well as many other organisms, possess internal clocks.

Palliative care has beneficial effect on quality of life following stem cell transplantation
Among patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the use of inpatient palliative care compared with standard transplant care resulted in a smaller decrease in quality of life two weeks after transplantation, according to a study appearing in the Nov.

Supersonic spray yields new nanomaterial for bendable, wearable electronics
An ultrathin film of fused silver nanowires that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University.

Between a rock and a hard place: USU biologists unearth sandstone-excavating bees
Utah State University entomologists have discovered a sand-excavating bee species in the unforgiving deserts of the American Southwest.

Could green façades cool down cities in the future?
Predictions for temperature rise and the particular sensitivity of urban ecosystems to heat stress pose a pressure to find the best solution for mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Researchers uncover a survival mechanism in cancer cells
Scientists from the Crick Institute, London and the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, discover a protein that plays a key role in turning cancer tumor cells into cancer stem cells that are able to renew outbreaks of the disease.

Social sciences & health innovations: Making health public
The international conference 'Social Sciences & Health Innovations: Making Health Public' is the third event organized as a collaborative endeavor between Maastricht University, the Netherlands, and Tomsk State University, the Russian Federation, with participation from Siberian State Medical University (the Russian Federation).

Emergency video telemedicine positively impacts newborn resuscitation
Approximately 10 percent of newborns require help breathing after birth, and 1 in 1,000 newborns require more intensive resuscitation measures.

Why radiologists should make their practice more personal
When it comes to visibility, radiologists, in many cases, are out of sight.

Novel type of cell death in Huntington's disease may lead to effective new therapies
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU)-led researchers showed that the mutant huntingtin protein causes a previously unknown kind of cell death called ballooning cell death (BCD).

New antiretroviral drugs decrease chances of HIV sexual transmission
IDIBELL researchers prove that a triple antiretroviral regimen based on an integrase inhibitor decreases viral load in semen very quickly, reducing VIH transmission risk

Reshaping our ideas of bacterial evolution
The shape of bacteria does not influence how well they can move -- this is the surprising finding of new research which could have major implications for the future of the scientific and medical industries.

Hope for people who struggle after suffering brain trauma
Pharmacological therapy combined with a rehabilitation program that teaches how to compensate for memory and attention problems offers new hope for people who suffer the consequences of traumatic brain injury.

Road salt can change sex ratios in frog populations, study says
Exposure to common road salt and leaf litter can affect the sex ratios in frog populations and, in some cases, even the size of individual frogs, according to a new study by scientists at Yale and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

New grasses neutralize toxic pollution from bombs, explosives, and munitions
University of Washington and University of York researchers have developed the first transgenic grass species that can take up and destroy RDX -- a toxic compound that has been widely used in explosives since World War II and contaminates military bases, battlegrounds and some offsite drinking water wells.

Minimally invasive autopsies in lower-income countries: Reliability, acceptability
High concordance rates were observed between diagnoses obtained using a simplified minimally invasive autopsy method and those determined from complete autopsies in a series of deceased adult patients in Mozambique, according to research published in PLOS Medicine by Jaume Ordi and colleagues.

Micro-bubbles make big impact
The quest to develop wireless micro-robots for biomedical applications requires a small-scale 'motor' that can be wirelessly powered through biological media.

Research shows preference for non-lethal protection of species
Americans believe endangered species are best protected when their habitats are protected and not when animal predators are killed, according to new Indiana University research.

Trifluridine/tipiracil in colorectal cancer: Added benefit only for some patients
The drug combination offers survival advantages, but has also considerable side effects.

Pre-teens whose dads embrace parenthood may be less prone to behavioral issues
Kids whose dads adjust well to parenthood and feel confident about their new role may be less likely to have behavioral problems in the run-up to their teens, indicates research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Global brain initiatives generate tsunami of neuroscience data
New technologies are giving researchers unprecedented opportunities to explore how the brain processes, utilizes, stores and retrieves information.

UCF research finds google glass technology may slow down response time
Heads-up display technology -- think Google Glass - - offers lots of information to users in seconds, literally in front of their eyes.

Single enzyme controls 2 plant hormones
Scientists at Washington University in St. Louis have isolated the first enzyme shown to be capable of controlling the levels of two distinct plant hormones, involved both in normal growth and in responses to infections.

Diversity without limits
Now, researchers at Temple and Oakland universities have completed a new tree of prokaryotic life calibrated to time, assembled from 11,784 species of bacteria.

Scientists shrink electron gun to matchbox size
In a multi-national effort, an interdisciplinary team of researchers from DESY and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has built a new kind of electron gun that is just about the size of a matchbox.

Malware that turns PCs into eavesdropping devices demonstrated by Ben-Gurion U.
Headphones, earphones and speakers are physically built like microphones and that an audio port's role in the PC can be reprogrammed from output to input creates a vulnerability that can be abused by hackers.

Mayo Clinic investigators pinpoint cause, possible treatment for rare form of sarcoma
Researchers at Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine have discovered a potential cause and a promising new treatment for inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, a rare soft tissue cancer that does not respond to radiation or chemotherapy.

Pembrolizumab in lung cancer: Indication of considerable added benefit
Advantages, e.g. in mortality, notably outweigh the disadvantages in some side effects in comparison with docetaxel.

Rapid synthesis towards optically active α-aminocarbonyl therapeutics
A team of organic chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University, has developed a new reaction to directly install amines into carbonyl compounds using their unique phase-transfer catalyst.

Mars ice deposit holds as much water as Lake Superior
Frozen beneath a region of cracked and pitted plains on Mars lies about as much water as what's in Lake Superior, largest of the Great Lakes, a team of scientists led by the University of Texas at Austin has determined using data from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Photography-based therapy offers new approach to healing for sexual assault survivors
Abigail Rolbiecki, Ph.D., a researcher at the University of Missouri School of Medicine, says that photovoice interventions, where participants express their thoughts and feelings through photos, combined with traditional PTSD treatments, could result in a more complete recovery for survivors of sexual assault.

Do stress and strain lead to deviant behavior?
Chances are good that youngsters growing up around family members who gamble will also start doing so to release the strains of daily living.

Laura DeMarco to receive 2017 AMS Satter Prize
Laura DeMarco of Northwestern University will receive the 2017 AMS Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics 'for her fundamental contributions to complex dynamics, potential theory, and the emerging field of arithmetic dynamics.'

$19.5 million NIH contract targets developing medications for drug-resistant epilepsy
Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program, begun in 1975, wins five-year contract renewal to identify new compounds to prevent or treat 'refractory' epilepsy.

Study examines trends in infectious disease mortality in US
In a study appearing in the Nov. 22/29 issue of JAMA, Heidi E.

AGS sets sights on better care, more responsive policies for 'unbefriended' older adults
Experts at the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) today unveiled new guidance on care and decision-making for a unique and growing group of older adults: the 'unbefriended.' Proposed clinical practice and public policy changes would support some of society's most vulnerable individuals while also helping protect more of us from becoming unbefriended as we age.

Towards a better understanding of the puzzling 'droplets' in the cell cytoplasm
A study published in eLife and headed by the ICREA researcher Raúl Méndez and in collaboration with Xavier Salvatella, both at IRB Barcelona, provides one of the most detailed examples of the regulation of the dynamics of these liquid-like droplets -- which in this case comprise CPEB4 -- during the cell cycle.

ASGCT announces plan to educate the public on gene editing
Gene editing improves outlook for currently incurable genetic diseases.

Deep sea coral in North Atlantic faces threat from climate change
North Atlantic coral populations -- key to supporting a variety of sea life -- are under threat from climate change, a study suggests.

Most nursing home patients refuse dental care during stay, UB study concludes
Nearly 90 percent of patients at long-term care facilities don't take advantage of dental services, even when they are free, a recent study by University at Buffalo researchers has found.

Article proposes theory behind fast magnetic reconnection
Theoretical description of the physics behind fast magnetic reconnection.

Adding ADHD drug to therapy improves cognitive outcomes in traumatic brain injury patients
A combination of the stimulant drug methylphenidate with a process known as cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation is a promising option to help people who suffer from persistent cognitive problems following traumatic brain injury, researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have reported.

Study sheds light on parasite that causes river blindness
The parasite that causes river blindness infects about 37 million people in parts of Africa and Latin America, causing blindness and other major eye and skin diseases in about 5 million of them.

Mizzou biologist receives $1.6m NIH grant to study how genes shape the effects of diets
How genes shape the effects of different diets is the goal of a new five-year, $1.6 million grant to the University of Missouri by the National Institutes of Health Institute of General Medical Sciences.

Diabetes proves deadly for smokers
While it is well known that smoking causes lung cancer, heavy smokers with diabetes are also at increased risk of death from causes other than lung cancer, according to a study being presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Mount Sinai researchers use computer algorithms to diagnose HCM from echos
Computer algorithms can automatically interpret echocardiographic images and distinguish between pathological hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and physiological changes in athletes' hearts, according to research from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

NFL doctors should be loyal to players, not teams
As concerns for the health of current and former players in the National Football League have been mounting, a new report explores the importance of players receiving health care free from conflicts of interest experienced by club doctors and athletic trainers.

Men have a lot to learn about their own fertility
The first large-scale study of its kind has revealed that Canadian men generally lack knowledge about the risk factors contributing to male infertility.

Mystery of how plants produce oxygen soon solved
With the help of experimental studies on molecular level, researchers are acquiring increased knowledge on how plants form oxygen from water molecules.

New mouse model reveals extensive postnatal brain damage caused by Zika infection
A team of scientists led by researchers at the University of Georgia has developed a new mouse model that closely mimics fetal brain abnormalities caused by the Zika virus in humans.

Oxford University Press Partners with the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Oxford University Press (OUP) is pleased to announce its new partnership with the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS).

Mothers' early support boosts children's later math achievement
Many young children can count from 1 to 10 without understanding the meaning of the numbers they're counting.

From champagne bubbles, dance parties and disease to new nanomaterials
Nucleation processes are a first step in the structural rearrangement involved in the phase transition of matter.

2016 winners of FASEB BioArt competition announced
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology is pleased to announce the winners of the fifth annual BioArt competition.

NTU develops thin foam that keeps vehicles and buildings cooler and quieter
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has developed a new material that will make vehicles and buildings cooler and quieter compared to current insulation materials in the market.

Aspartame may prevent, not promote, weight loss by blocking intestinal enzyme's activity
A team of Massachusetts General Hospital investigators has found a possible mechanism explaining why use of the sugar substitute aspartame might not promote weight loss.

TSU has released the world's first dialect dictionary of synonyms
The TSU Publishing House has released the Dictionary of Siberian Dialect Synonyms, which has no analogues in Russia or abroad.

Largest study of its kind finds rare genetic variations linked to schizophrenia
Genetic variations that increase schizophrenia risk are rare, making it difficult to study their role.

Study sheds new insights into global warming 'hiatus'
A new study of the temporary slowdown in the global average surface temperature warming trend observed between 1998 and 2013 concludes the phenomenon represented a redistribution of energy within the Earth system, with Earth's ocean absorbing the extra heat.

Researchers capture first glimpse of important, abundant ocean microbe
A rare microbe that was once thought to be insignificant has turned out to be one of the most abundant single-celled hunters in the ocean, and a team of researchers led by UBC have captured the first glimpse of these elusive predators.

Compounds emitted by phytopathogen microbes encourage plant growth
A wide range of microorganisms, including fungi and phytopathogenic bacteria, are capable of emitting volatile compounds which boost plant growth and flowering, and in accumulating up reserves as demonstrated in a study led by scientific researchers at Navarra's Institute of Agro biotechnology, in northern Spain, which is a mixed centre shared between Spain's National Research Council (CSIC), the Public University of Navarra, and the Regional Government of Navarra.

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Senegalese children lowers overall malaria burden
Giving preventive antimalarial drugs to children up to age 10 during active malaria season reduced the cases of malaria in that age group and lowered the malaria incidence in adults, according to a randomized trial carried out in Senegal and published in PLOS Medicine by researchers from the Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK, and other collaborators.

Study finds cause of pulmonary fibrosis in failure of stem cells that repair lungs
Cedars-Sinai investigators have pinpointed a major cause of pulmonary fibrosis, a mysterious and deadly disease that scars the lungs and obstructs breathing.

Shaking things up with more control
Excessive vibrations -- excessive to the point of injury -- have been prominent in the news, but researchers have developed an algorithm that could help machines avoid getting trapped in resonant motion.

Cancer cells 'talk' to their environment, and it talks back
A Cornell-led team has devised a method for measuring the mechanical force cells exert on their surroundings, which can help scientists design better biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering.

Fly larvae clean bee-eater's nest
Bird nests are home not only to bird parents and their offspring but also to other inhabitants, such as insect larvae.

Pregnant women at risk of getting the flu are not getting vaccinated
Health-care professionals are hesitant to administer the flu vaccine to pregnant women, despite the potential life-saving benefits, according to a UBC study.

Know your flow
There is new insight into the flow of polymer and 'living polymer' solutions.

Palliative care improves quality of life, lessens symptoms
People living with serious illness who receive palliative care have better quality of life and fewer symptoms than those who don't receive it.

Stand up for medical neutrality in war zones, international community urged
The international community needs to stand up for medical neutrality in war zones, and mandate the UN Security Council to act in the face of persistent and blatant breaches of the Geneva Convention, urge global health experts in an editorial in the online journal BMJ Global Health.

Despite upbeat headlines, Detroit still reeling
Reports of Detroit's revival may be premature. Despite the news media's portrayal of Motown as a comeback kid, most revitalization is occurring in a small swath of the city's core, while the rest of Detroit continues to decline, finds a new study led by a Michigan State University scholar.

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology adds embedded 3-D image videos to enhance visualization of me
The current issue of the Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology now features 3-D imaging embedded within its articles for the first time.

Living color: Rainbow-hued blood stem cells shed new light on cancer, blood disorders
A new color-coding tool is enabling scientists to better track live blood stem cells over time, a key part of understanding how blood disorders and cancers like leukemia arise.

Thanksgiving dinner's carbon footprint: A state-by-state comparison
The environmental impact of your Thanksgiving dinner depends on where the meal is prepared.

Black-white earnings gap returns to 1950 levels
After years of progress, the median earnings gap between black and white men has returned to what it was in 1950, according to new research by economists from Duke University and the University of Chicago.

Single photon converter -- a key component of quantum internet
A Polish-British team of physicists has constructed and tested a compact, efficient converter capable of modifying the quantum properties of individual photons.

Scripps Florida scientists find surprising answers to 'food coma' conundrum
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), Florida Atlantic University and Bowling Green State University may have found a reason for the 'food coma' phenomenon.

NUS researchers discover novel mechanism to stop the spread of breast cancer
A team of researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore has found that controlling the levels of the TIP60 protein, which is a tumor suppressor, could potentially prevent the spread of breast cancer cells.

No association between sex-discordant blood transfusions and risk of death
New research from Karolinska Institutet refutes the findings of a previous study indicating a possible higher risk of death after sex-discordant blood transfusions for cardiac surgery.

London 2012 Olympics inspired many local kids to get more involved in sport
The London 2012 Olympic Games inspired many local children to get more involved in sport, reveal the results of a before and after study, published in the online journal BMJ Open.

New dominant ant species discovered in Ethiopia shows potential for global invasion
A team of scientists conducting a recent biodiversity survey in the ancient church forests of Ethiopia made an unexpected discovery -- a rather infamous ant species (Lepisiota canescens) displaying signs of supercolony formation.

Oceans act as 'heat sink'
Study by three universities, NASA, NOAA and NCAR, points to the prominent role global ocean played in absorbing extra heat from the atmosphere by acting as a 'heat sink' as an explanation for the observed decrease in a key indicator of climate change.

How do you mend a broken heart?
Mammalian hearts regenerate using cardiac extracellular matrices of zebrafish.

New 'electron gun' could help enable X-ray movies
In the journal Optica, researchers at MIT, the German Synchrotron, and the University of Hamburg in Germany describe a new technique for generating electron bursts, which could be the basis of a shoebox-sized device that consumes only a fraction as much power as its predecessors.

Study examines rates, causes of emergency department visits for adverse drug events
The prevalence of emergency department visits for adverse drug events in the United States was estimated to be four per 1,000 individuals in 2013 and 2014, and the most common drug classes involved were anticoagulants, antibiotics, diabetes agents, and opioid analgesics, according to a study appearing in the Nov.

Study to examine if music-based play helps young cancer patients and their parents
An Indiana University School of Nursing researcher has been awarded $1.4 million to determine if a music therapy intervention can be used to manage acute distress in young cancer patients ages 3 to 8 and their parents.

Feast without fear: USU scientist says more snake species resist toxin
Scientists from Utah State University and Kyoto University report snakes throughout the globe, some of which never eat toads chemically defended by bufadienolides, nevertheless possess the life-saving mutation that enables them to resist the ill effects of the toxins, which suggests these mutations are highly ancestral and pose no negative consequences for the snakes.

UW-Madison researchers study plant aging, gain insights into crop yields and more
New insights into the mechanism behind how plants age may help scientists better understand crop yields, nutrient allocation, and even the timing and duration of fall leaf color.

Yogic breathing helps fight major depression, Penn study shows
A breathing-based meditation practice known as Sudarshan Kriya yoga helped alleviate severe depression in people who did not fully respond to antidepressant treatments, reports a new study published today in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry from researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Rallies, protests, and Black Friday: Physics finds dangers hiding in plain sight
Inspired by the way people move at heavy metal concerts, an international team of researchers from Uppsala University and Harvard University have learned how to spot danger zones in mass gatherings before disaster strikes.

Secretion rates and amounts of insulin trigger different responses in gene expression
Japanese researchers have found that genes respond differently to the amount and rate of secretions of insulin, a hormone whose malfunction can lead to obesity and diabetes. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to