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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | December 26, 2016


Scientists discover new mechanism of how brain networks form
Scientists have discovered that networks of inhibitory brain cells or neurons develop through a mechanism opposite to the one followed by excitatory networks.
Research reveals the importance of long non-coding RNA regulating cellular processes
Scientific research over the past decade has concentrated almost exclusively on the 2 percent of the genome's protein coding regions, virtually ignoring the other 98 percent.
Military health system will test U-M-developed concept under newly signed defense bill
A health care reform idea originated by University of Michigan faculty will get a major test among members of the nation's military and their families, thanks to a provision in the national defense spending bill signed by President Obama on Friday.
Study: Hospital readmission rates decrease after passage of ACA financial penalties
A new analysis led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard T.H.
Ash dieback: Insect threat to fungus-resistant trees
Ash trees which can resist the killer dieback fungus may be more vulnerable to attacks by insects, according to new research.
Potential drug appears to ease effects of Prader-Willi syndrome
Duke Health researchers have identified a drug-like small molecule that, in animal experiments, appears to be an effective treatment for a genetic disorder called Prader-Willi syndrome.
Novel drug may help repair failing hearts
Cimaglermin, a new experimental drug, may help restore cardiac function after heart failure, according to a first-in-man study published today in JACC: Basic to Translational Science.
Is there such a thing as an emotional hangover? NYU researchers find that there is
Emotional experiences can induce physiological and internal brain states that persist for long periods of time after the emotional events have ended, a team of New York University scientists has found.
Synthetic stem cells could offer therapeutic benefits, reduced risks
Researchers have developed a synthetic version of a cardiac stem cell.
Sugar element of keratan sulfate halts the progress of emphysema
Using a mouse model, scientists from the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology and a number of other institutes have identified a sugar molecule that reduced the inflammatory response and progress of emphysema, a common component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Calcium aids chromosome condensation prior to cell division
Research led by the University of Osaka found that calcium ions help maintain the structure of chromosomes during mitosis by promoting their condensation.
Naturally occurring mechanism of cancer drug-resistance may itself be a treatment target
The use of proteasome inhibitors to treat cancer has been greatly limited by the ability of cancer cells to develop resistance to these drugs.
Mechanisms in reversible infantile liver failure illuminated
Researchers in Japan have used a novel murine model to show that a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme MTU1 has strong effects on the liver and on embryonic development in general.
Researchers map how the brain processes faces from sight to recognition
Researchers used highly sophisticated brain imaging tools and computational methods to measure the real-time brain processes that convert the appearance of a face into the recognition of an individual.
Sprinting towards extinction? Cheetah numbers crash globally
A new study led by ZSL, Panthera and WCS confirms that the iconic cheetah is sprinting towards extinction.
Ash tree genome aids fight against disease
Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have successfully decoded the genetic sequence of the ash tree, to help the fight against the fungal disease, ash dieback.
Fat fuels the road to cancer cell spread
Cancer cells spread to other sites in the body through promoting the growth of new 'roads' to travel on.
Russian physicists measure the loss of dark matter since the birth of the universe
The discrepancy between the cosmological parameters in the modern Universe and the Universe shortly after the Big Bang can be explained by the fact that the proportion of dark matter has decreased.
Preventing too much immunity
Scientists at the Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), Osaka University, Japan, report a new molecular mechanism that could explain the cause of some autoimmune diseases.
Scientists develop novel assay to decode functional elements of genome
Scientists introduce method to identify regulatory sequences in RNA by analyzing their regulatory function in a massive parallel reporter assay during embryogenesis.
Experimental therapy for Prader-Willi syndrome shows promise in mice
Drugs capable of activating silenced genes improve survival and growth outcomes in a mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare and incurable childhood disease, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Biology's 'breadboard'
Understanding how the nervous system of the roundworm C. elegans works will give insights into how our vastly more complex brains function and is the subject of a paper in Nature Methods.
Scientists develop method to warn of toxic algae blooms before they develop
A new study demonstrates that automated monitoring systems that identify 'regime shifts' -- such as rapid growth of algae and then depletion of oxygen in the water -- can successfully predict full-scale algae blooms in advance, and help resource managers avert their development.
Could disease 'tolerance' genes give new life to UK ash trees?
Researchers at the University of York have identified genetic markers for disease tolerance that suggest UK ash trees may have a fighting chance against a fungal infection, which has the potential to wipe out 90 percent of the European ash tree population.
Nanodiscs deliver personalized cancer therapy to immune system
Researchers at the University of Michigan have had initial success in mice using nanodiscs to deliver a customized therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of colon and melanoma cancer tumors.
Shoulder pain linked to increased heart disease risk
After all the lifting, hauling and wrapping, worn out gift givers may blame the season's physical strain for any shoulder soreness they are feeling.
Single protein may hold secret to treating Parkinson's disease and more
New details about a key cellular protein could lead to treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and ALS.
Hospital readmission rates decrease after federal law levies financial penalties
Financial penalties levied under the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program lead to the poorest performing hospitals to achieve the greatest reductions in readmission rates for common conditions.
Dental implants with antibacterial activity
Mouth infections are currently regarded as the main reason why dental implants fail.
Engineers create programmable silk-based materials with embedded, pre-designed functions
Tufts University engineers have created a new format of solids made from silk protein that can be preprogrammed with biological, chemical, or optical functions, such as mechanical components that change color with strain, deliver drugs, or respond to light.
Researchers use world's smallest diamonds to make wires 3 atoms wide
Scientists at Stanford University and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have discovered a way to use diamondoids -- the smallest possible bits of diamond -- to assemble atoms into the thinnest possible electrical wires, just three atoms wide.

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