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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 29, 2016


Racial disparities exist in children's access to kidney transplantation
In a study of children with kidney failure who were followed for a median of 7.1 years, black children had a 36 percent higher risk of dying than white children.
Off-switch for CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system discovered
UC San Francisco researchers have discovered a way to switch off the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system using newly identified anti-CRISPR proteins that are produced by bacterial viruses.
Ancient Chaco Canyon population likely relied on imported food, finds CU study
The ancient inhabitants of New Mexico's Chaco Canyon, the zenith of Pueblo culture in the Southwest a thousand years ago, likely had to import corn to feed the multitudes residing there, says a new University of Colorado Boulder study.
Inactivity in obese mice linked to a decreased motivation to move
Starting a regular program at the gym is a common New Year's resolution, but it's one that most people are unable to stick with for very long.
Varmint hunters' ammo selection influences lead exposure in avian scavengers
Varmint hunters' choice of ammunition plays a role in the amount of lead that scavengers such as golden eagles could ingest, a new study shows, and offers a way to minimize the lead exposure to wildlife.
Image-based modeling
Novel and realistic simulation tool combining high resolution biomedical imaging and supercomputer computational fluid dynamics results in ability to model the exact hydrodynamic microenvironment experienced by cells cultured in bone tissue engineering scaffolds.
Omega-3 supplements can prevent childhood asthma
Taking certain omega-3 fatty acid supplements during pregnancy can reduce the risk of childhood asthma by almost one third, according to a new study from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood and the University of Waterloo.
Genes and the environment equally affect language-related brain activity
Osaka University-led researchers showed that brain activity in the left frontal area is equally affected by environmental and genetic factors.
Flood threats changing across US
A University of Iowa study finds the threat of flooding is increasing in the northern half of the United States and declining in the South.
Diamonds are technologists' best friends
Physicists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University have obtained diamond crystals in the form of a regular pyramid of micrometer size.
Coping with arthritis: What you do isn't associated with how much information you want
Arthritis patients were more likely to be high monitors (health detail oriented) than high blunters (health detail avoidant) in a study led by the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy.
Psychiatric conditions linked to increased risk of long-term opioid use
A wide range of pre-existing psychiatric and behavioral conditions and the use of psychoactive drugs could be important risk factors leading to long-term use of opioid pain medications, reports a study in PAIN®, the official publication of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP).
Scientists opened a new chapter in the study of malaria mosquitoes
In December 2016, the American Journal of Vector Ecology published two articles by Yuri Novikov, a scientist at the TSU Biological Institute devoted to the study of ecology and the distribution one of the species of malaria mosquito of the maculipennis complex and its laboratory cultivation.
Many smokers with serious mental illness want to kick habit
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that although many smokers with serious mental illnesses would like to quit smoking, many psychiatrists and caseworkers aren't aware of their patients' wishes and, consequently, haven't prescribed medications or referred them to services to help them stop smoking.
Hubble gazes at a cosmic megamaser
This entire galaxy essentially acts as an astronomical laser that beams out microwave emission rather than visible light (hence the 'm' replacing the 'l').
A parallel hybrid controller based on the backstepping method
The semi-pelagic trawl is a relatively advanced trawl system which is mainly adopted to catch demersal fish such as squid and butterfish.
Gut microorganisms affect our physiology
Researchers have found evidence that could shed new light on the complex community of trillions of microorganisms living in all our guts, and how they interact with our bodies.
Researchers fabricate high performance Cu(OH)2 supercapacitor electrodes
Conducting electric current in the solution results in the efficient nano structure formatin on the copper substrate. using this technique high performance copper hydroxide supercapacitor electrodes have been fabricated.
Can paint strokes help identify Alzheimer's?
A new University of Liverpool study published Dec. 29, 2016, in Neuropsychology shows that it may be possible to detect neurodegenerative disorders in artists before they are diagnosed.
Anti-aging therapies targeting senescent cells: Facts and fiction
It's an exciting time to be an elderly mouse. Researchers believe that by removing senescent cells (cells with a persistent damage response), which naturally accumulate with age, senior rodents can regrow hair, run faster, and improve organ function.
Most doctors ignore one of the most potent ways to improve health, Penn experts say
Leveraging existing relationships with friends and family may be a more effective way to improve patients' health and encourage new healthy habits and behaviors than increasing interactions with physicians or other clinicians.
Breast and cervical cancer screening rates are low in women with advanced kidney disease
In a recent study, most women with advanced chronic kidney disease had not received breast or cervical cancer screening in recent years.
Researchers produced nitrogen doped bimodal cellular structure activated carbon
New monolithic nitrogen-containing microporous cellular activated carbon was successfully prepared from phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) organic foam for CO2 and H2 adsorption.
Possible treatment targets found for pre-malignant bone marrow disorders
Cincinnati Children's researchers report in Nature Immunology a new mechanism that controls blood cell function and several possible molecular targets for treating myelodysplasia syndromes (MDS) -- a group of pre-malignant disorders in which bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells.
Your microbiota's previous dining experiences may make new diets less effective
Your microbiota may not be on your side as you try improving your diet this New Year's.
Languages still a major barrier to global science, new research finds
Over one-third of new conservation science documents published annually are in non-English languages, despite assumption of English as scientific 'lingua franca.' Researchers find examples of important science missed at international level, and practitioners struggling to access new knowledge, as a result of language barriers.
Round or 'shaped' breast implants? Even plastic surgeons can't tell the difference
Looking at before-and-after photos, plastic surgeons and nurses can't tell whether breast augmentation surgery was done using conventional round implants or newer anatomically shaped implants, reports a study in the January issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Penn experts call for expansion of molecular imaging in precision cancer care
New molecular imaging technologies can make it easier to diagnose, monitor, and treat cancers while potentially saving patients from undergoing therapies that are likely to be ineffective and playing a role in minimizing side effects.
Scripps Florida scientists uncover new way to defeat therapy-resistant prostate cancer
A new study led by scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) sheds light on a signaling circuit in cells that drives therapy resistance in prostate cancer.
Responsive filtration membranes by polymer self-assembly
Polymer self-assembly is a crucial tool for manufacturing membranes using scalable methods, enabling easier commercialization.
The rhythm that makes memories permanent
Every time we learn something new, the memory does not only need to be acquired, it also needs to be stabilized in a process called memory consolidation.
Gene therapy to prevent vision loss: Studies in primates needed to optimize human trials
Many gene therapy-based approaches are in development to combat genetic and other causes of blindness and vision loss, and much can be learned about the safety and effectiveness of these promising new therapies by studying them first in non-human primates before initiating clinical trials, as shown by the results of a study published in Human Gene Therapy.
Iron deficiency anemia associated with hearing loss
In a study published online by JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kathleen M.
Endometrial cancer mutations are detectable in uterine lavage fluid before cancer diagnosis
Mutations that have been linked to endometrial cancer can be found in the uterine lavage fluid of pre- and post-menopausal women both with and without detectable cancer, according to a study published in PLOS Medicine
Biomarker tests in breast cancer: Decision on chemotherapy remains difficult
Omitting chemotherapy can lead to more cases of distant metastasis and deaths.
Is patient satisfaction relevant? Plastic surgeons call for better rating tools
Patient satisfaction has become an important quality measure in the US healthcare system.
Scientists engineer gene pathway to grow brain organoids with surface folding
Whitehead Institute researchers provide insight into a specific gene pathway that appears to regulate the growth, structure, and organization of the human cortex.
Aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer: Advantages over tamoxifen in early-stage disease
Patients survive longer, recurrences occur later, and certain side effects occur less often.
New tool shines light on protein condensation in living cells
Researchers have unveiled a new tool that uses light to manipulate proteins inside cells, causing liquid-like structures known as membraneless organelles to condense out of a cell's watery environment.
Millions of tons of food could be saved with better logistics
Each year, around 88 million tons of food is discarded in the EU.
Scripps Florida scientists develop drug discovery approach to predict health impact of endocrine-disruptors
Breast cancer researchers from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed a novel approach for identifying how chemicals in the environment -- called environmental estrogens -- can produce infertility, abnormal reproductive development, including 'precocious puberty,' and promote breast cancer.

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