Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 17, 2017
New in the Hastings Center Report
What happens when physicians and surrogate decision-makers disagree about what is best for a patient?

Movin' on up? Views on social mobility shape Americans' faith in the status quo
Psychologists at Princeton University and Memorial University of Newfoundland have found that how Americans view social mobility affects their willingness to defend the basic underpinnings of American society -- such as social and economic policies, laws, and institutions.

Asthma not found in high percentage of adults who were previously diagnosed
Among adults with a previous physician diagnosis of asthma, a current diagnosis could not be established in about one-third who were not using daily asthma medications or had medications weaned, according to a study appearing in the Jan.

Research shows driving factors behind changes between local and global carbon cycles
Pioneering new research has provided a fascinating new insight in the quest to determine whether temperature or water availability is the most influential factor in determining the success of global, land-based carbon sinks.

Discovery of a protein that protects against fatty liver
A team co-headed by scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine and the IDIBAPS Biomedical Research Institute (part of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona) has revealed the capacity of the CPEB4 protein to prevent fatty liver disease.

Common heart drug repurposed to treat rare cancer in Europe
A drug that's commonly used to treat high blood pressure is being repurposed for a rare tissue cancer in Europe.

Nursing homes falling behind with end-of-life directives
Advance directives, or living wills, are the legal documents individuals use to communicate their treatment preferences when faced with serious injuries or illnesses.

Bacterium named after UQ researcher
University of Queensland microbiologist Emeritus Professor John Fuerst has a new bacterial genus (a group of related organisms) named in his honor.

Calorie restriction lets monkeys live long and prosper
Settling a persistent scientific controversy, a long-awaited report shows that restricting calories does indeed help rhesus monkeys live longer, healthier lives.

Unveiling the biology behind nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
EPFL scientists have discovered a new biological mechanism behind nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Blocking neuron signaling pathway could lead to new treatments for peripheral neuropathy
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the University of Manitoba and St.

The power of attraction
Hybrid organic-inorganic materials can self-assemble into tiny doughnut-like structures.

TGen identifies compound that could improve drug development against deadly brain cancer
A study led by scientists at TGen has identified 'a potent inhibitory compound' in the elusive hunt for an improved treatment against glioblastoma, the most common and deadly type of adult brain cancer.

Study shines light on how to build better bacteriophage therapies
Researchers have discovered that a subset of bacteriophages, dubbed 'superspreaders,' potentially play a major role in transmitting antimicrobial resistance.

How solvents affect the skin
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have developed a method that makes it possible to see how individual molecules from solvents in skin creams, medicated ointments and cleaning products affect and interact with the skin's own molecules.

Immune responses against a virus-related skin cancer suggest ways to improve immunotherapy
Researchers at Seattle's Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington say a new study suggests ways to improve immune therapy for certain cancers including a virus-associated form of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare, aggressive skin cancer.

Not just small adults: Pediatric liver transplant recipients need special care
A new review discusses important consideration when caring for children who have received liver transplants.

Study examines extent, variation of physician excess charges
Nearly all physicians charge more than the Medicare program actually pays ('excess charges'), with complete discretion to determine the amount charged.

Research makes leap with frog models
UC research finds frogs are valuable and cost-effective tools for demonstrating fetal stress hormone effects on adult chronic diseases.

Bay Area methane emissions may be double what we thought
Emissions of methane, a potent climate-warming gas, in the San Francisco Bay Area may be roughly twice as high as official estimates, with most of it coming from biological sources, such as landfills, but natural gas leakage also being an important source, according to a new study from Berkeley Lab.

Can delayed umbilical cord clamping reduce infant anemia at age 8, 12 months?
A delay of three minutes or more in umbilical cord clamping after birth reduced the prevalence of anemia in infants at 8 and 12 months of age in a randomized clinical trial in Nepal, according to a new study published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

First of its kind cancer stem cell research unlocks clues to treatment resistance
Researchers at Trinity College Dublin have made exciting new findings that could offer a means of fighting resistance to treatment for people with esophageal cancer.

Study challenges potential pancreatic cancer target
A protein thought to fuel pancreatic cancer development plays a much more complicated role, a new study finds.

Delhi's health system: Inadequate progress for a global city
Researcher from Columbia and NYU find that access to effective care remains insufficient to overcome the crushing poverty and inequalities within Delhi.

First study to measure effectiveness of NFL PLAY 60 program shows positive results on youth fitness
The National Football League (NFL) Foundation has invested heavily in its NFL PLAY 60 initiative to promote fitness and health among youth over the past decade.

Weekly diabetes drug provides similar benefits to daily version
A weekly dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor was just as effective at controlling type 2 diabetic patients' blood sugar as a daily DPP-4 inhibitor in a recent randomized clinical trial.

Inactive B2M gene is recurrent in lung cancer and may condition response to immunotherapy
Researchers from the Genes and Cancer research group at IDIBELL have identified inactivating mutations in a number of genes that code for HLA-I histocompatibility complex proteins, which are involved in the immune response and can condition the response of lung cancer patients to immunotherapy.

Commercial interests may drown out patients' voices
Researchers from the University of Sydney and Bond University are urgently calling for greater independence and transparency around industry-sponsored patient advocacy groups, following a growing amount of evidence which raises questions over potential bias in their activities.

NIH scientists identify early impact of Ebola virus on immune system
A new mouse model of early Ebola virus (EBOV) infection has shown National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and colleagues how early responses of the immune system can affect development of EBOV disease.

Moving up the food chain can beat being on top
When it comes to predators, the biggest mouths may not take the biggest bite.

Metabolic pathway regulating key stage of embryo development revealed
Tokyo Medical and Dental University researchers showed that the mevalonate pathway is essential for embryonic development by promoting primitive streak formation, a key landmark for establishing embryo symmetry and gastrulation.

Scientists find sensor that makes synapses fast
Synapses, the connections between neurons, come in different flavors, depending on the chemical they use as transmitter.

Community-acquired pneumonia can spread year-round
New research indicates that community-acquired pneumonia should not be regarded as a seasonal disease, as it occurs throughout all seasons; however, the pathogens that cause the condition are clearly subject to seasonal variations.

Antimicrobial sutures can prevent surgical site infections and save money
New analyses of the published clinical studies indicate that antimicrobial sutures are effective for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs), and they can result in significant cost savings.

Pitching in: USU biologists study development of division of labor among bees
Utah State University biologists tested a variation of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis in solitary, ground-nesting bees of south central Washington State.

Malaria drug successfully treats 26-year-old brain cancer patient
University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in eLife shows anti-authophagy drug chloroquine may be unique way to resensitize some cancer patients to treatment.

Kidney disease patients have higher out-of-pocket costs than stroke and cancer patients
Patients who have chronic kidney disease but are not on dialysis have higher out-of-pocket healthcare expenses than even stroke and cancer patients, according to a Loyola University Chicago study published in BMC Nephrology.

Patients face 'surprise' medical bills from out-of-network specialists
The average anesthesiologist, emergency physician, pathologist and radiologist charge more than four times what Medicare pays for similar services, often leaving privately insured consumers stuck with surprise medical bills that are much higher than they anticipated, new research in JAMA suggests.

Scientists discover drug that increases 'good' fat mass and function
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes identified an FDA-approved drug that can create the elusive and beneficial brown fat.

Better diagnosis of fungal infections key to reducing antibiotic resistance
Poor diagnosis worldwide of fungal disease causes doctors to overprescribe antibiotics, increasing harmful resistance to antimicrobial drugs, according to a paper published today in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Family donates $1.25 million to Be The Match Foundation to support clinical trial candidates
Be The Match, the world's leading nonprofit organization focused on saving lives through bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplantation, has received a generous $1.25 million donation from a patient family to fund a new clinical trial program that will help blood cancer patients identify and enroll in clinical trials more efficiently.

QMUL and BH announce major new initiative in the Life Sciences
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and Barts Health NHS Trust (BH) announce plans for a major new center for Life Sciences in Whitechapel, home to the Royal London Hospital and a campus of QMUL's Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry.

DGIST identifies mechanisms of inflammation-induced animal aging
DGIST experientially proved the 'inflammation-induced aging' hypothesis. It is expected to suggest a new direction for researches on aging recovery as well as anti-aging.

It's freezing inside... that tornado?
With winter upon us in full force, outdoor temperatures are plummeting.

Are you ready to explore your baby's genome?
Newborn screening is mandatory in most states, unless parents refuse for religious purposes or other reasons.

Risk of tree species disappearing in central Africa 'a major concern,' say researchers
Human disturbance may often be criticized for harming the environment, but new research suggests a persistent lack of human attention in the central African forest could actually cause some tree species to disappear.

More with mental illness and substance use disorders have health insurance
Significantly more people with mental illness and substance use disorders had insurance coverage in 2014 due to the expansion of health insurance under the Affordable Care Act, but many barriers to treatment remain, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.

Diabetes in Chinese adults linked to 9 years' loss of life
Among adults in China, those with diabetes diagnosed in middle age lose, on average, nine years of life compared with those without diabetes, according to new research published in the Jan.

Crowdfunding expands innovation financing to underserved regions
Crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, have opened a funding spigot to startups in regions that have suffered from a venture capital drought, a new UC Berkeley study shows.

Tigers could roam again in Central Asia, scientists say
Caspian tigers, some of the largest cats that ever lived -- up to 10 feet long and weighing more than 300 pounds -- roamed through much of Central Asia before they were designated as extinct in the middle of the 20th century.

Massachusetts General researchers identify new target for cancer immunotherapy
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators have found new evidence that the tumor necrosis factor receptor type II may be a major target for immuno-oncology treatments, which induce a patient's immune system to fight cancer.

Opioids produce analgesia via immune cells
Opioids are the most powerful painkillers. Researchers at the Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have now found that the analgesic effects of opioids are not exclusively mediated by opioid receptors in the brain, but can also be mediated via the activation of receptors in immune cells.

Colorado medical students defend physicians' right to recommend marijuana
Colorado students viewed the legalization of marijuana favorably, medicinal or otherwise, and generally felt that the medical use of marijuana is acceptable in the treatment of conditions approved by the Colorado Medical Marijuana Registry.

Genetic mechanisms underlying phenotype convergence of pandas revealed
A research team led by Prof. WEI Fuwen from the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, used comparative genomics to reveal the molecular mechanisms of convergent evolution in both pandas.

NASA's Aqua satellite sees Tropical Depression 01W ending near Southern Vietnam
NASA's Aqua satellite provided a visible-light image of Tropical Depression 01W as it headed toward southern Vietnam for a brief landfall on Jan.

Experts seek to educate orthopaedic researchers on the ethical use of animals in preclinical studies
Recent initiatives by the Orthopaedic Research Society seek to improve animal research and ensure that it is performed to the highest ethical and scientific standards.

New study finds Transcendental Meditation reduces trauma in female prisoners
The first study to specifically focus on reducing stress in female prisoners has found that Transcendental Meditation significantly reduces trauma symptoms.

Delayed clamping prevents anemia
When clamping of the umbilical cord is delayed, iron deficiency up to six months of age can be prevented, according to a new study from Uppsala University, published in JAMA Pediatrics.

Molecular clocks will turn back time on what wiped out the dinosaurs
Scientists from the Milner Centre for Evolution, based at the University of Bath, have been awarded almost £1 million by the Leverhulme Trust to investigate the mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs.

Want to ace an exam? Tell a friend what you learned, Baylor researcher suggests
Students who are given information and tell someone about it shortly afterward recall the details better and longer -- a strategy which could be a plus come test time, says a Baylor University researcher.

Max Planck and Taylor & Francis Group sign open-access agreement
The Max Planck Digital Library and Taylor & Francis Group have signed an agreement which enables researchers based in Max Planck institutes to publish open access in 2,390 journals.

Discovery adds rock collecting to Neanderthal's repertoire
An international group that includes a University of Kansas researcher has discovered a brownish piece of split limestone in a site in Croatia that suggests Neanderthals 130,000 years ago collected the rock that stands out among all other items in the cave.

Why hospital antibiotic management strategies do little to curb resistance
The team have shown that 'determining whether antibiotic cycling or mixing selects best against drug resistant pathogens is not possible, even in standardized questions using mathematical models, let alone in the clinic,' according to lead author Robert Beardmore.

JAMA Internal Medicine publishes collection of articles on conflicts of interest
JAMA Internal Medicine is publishing a collection of articles on conflicts of interest, including two original investigations, two research letters and a commentary.

The mind as a weapon: Helping Marines make faster, better combat decisions
To enhance the decision-making capabilities of Marines, the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines (2/6) -- 'The Spartans' -- recently held a weeklong exercise called Spartan Emerging Technology and Innovation Week at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.

Tufts CTSI and Baim Institute for Clinical Research announce partnership
Leadership from the Baim Institute for Clinical Research (Baim) and Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute (Tufts CTSI) today announced an agreement to collaborate on activities to advance clinical and translational science.

Millions of people with metabolic syndrome may need more vitamin E
New research has shown that people with metabolic syndrome need significantly more vitamin E -- which could be a serious public health concern, in light of the millions of people who have this condition that's often related to obesity.

Racial bias in a heartbeat: How signals from the heart shape snap judgements about threat
Our heartbeat can increase pre-existing racial biases when we face a potential threat, according to new research published in Nature Communications.

New colorectal cancer targeted therapy combination shows promise
New SWOG study results show significantly better outcomes for patients with a treatment-resistant form of metastatic colorectal cancer when the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib is added to a standard treatment.

When it comes to mating, fruit flies can make rational choices
In a paper published Jan. 17 in the journal Nature Communications, University of Washington researchers report that fruit flies -- perhaps the most widely studied insect in history -- show signs of rational decision-making when choosing a mate.

Ludwig study reveals why cancer cells spread within the body
Findings uncover an ancient mechanism that makes cancer cells invasive, explains melanoma's resistance to therapy and opens the door to development of novel cancer therapies

Tiny fruit flies use cold hard logic to select mates
Fruit flies -- the tiny insects that swarm our kitchens over the summer months -- exhibit rational decision making when selecting mates, according to research published today in Nature Communications.

World's first total-body PET scanner takes a big step forward
The UC Davis-based EXPLORER consortium, which aims to build a revolutionary total-body PET (positron emission tomography) scanner, has announced the selection of two industry partners to help build the prototype device.

Key signaling protein associated with addiction controls the actions of oxycodone on pain
RGS9-2, a key signaling protein in the brain known to play a critical role in the development of addiction-related behaviors, acts as a positive modulator of oxycodone reward in both pain-free and chronic pain states.

Plant-derived products may help fight HBV
Researchers have found that certain plant-derived products may help prevent and treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

Biophysics plays key role in immune system signaling and response
How big you are may be as important as what you look like, at least to immune system cells watching for dangerous bacteria and viruses.

National initiative to increase number of faculty from under-represented minorities
The University of Texas at Arlington hosted this weekend the launch of a multi-year collaborative project among 10 leading educational institutions that aims to increase the number of university faculty from under-represented minority groups.

New tool can help policymakers prioritize information needs for synthetic biology tech
New technologies are developed at a rapid pace, often reaching the marketplace before policymakers can determine how or whether they should be governed.

Researchers zero-in on cholesterol's role in cells
For the first time, by using a path-breaking optical imaging technique to pinpoint cholesterol's location and movement within the cell membrane, chemists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have made the surprising finding that cholesterol is a signaling molecule that transmits messages across the cell membrane.

Successful antibody trial in HIV-infected individuals
A research team led by investigators of the Rockefeller University in New York and Prof Florian Klein, University Hospital Cologne and German Center for Infection Research, has tested a new HIV neutralizing antibody, called 10-1074, in humans.

Nanotechnology: Lighting up ultrathin films
Based on a study of the optical properties of novel ultrathin semiconductors, researchers of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have developed a method for rapid and efficient characterization of these materials.

Financial ties between researchers and drug industry linked to positive trial results
Financial ties between researchers and companies that make the drugs they are studying are independently associated with positive trial results, suggesting bias in the evidence base, concludes a study published by The BMJ today.

King Faisal Prize for Würzburg physicist
Another award for Laurens Molenkamp: The physicist won the King Faisal International Prize (KFIP) 2017 in the 'Science' category.

Must-see-TV: Educational shows that entertain have greater impact on faithful viewers
A study of viewing audiences shows that the television programs most effective at imparting an educational message about social behaviors are the ones that keep people watching engaged and coming back for more.

Are you ready to explore baby's genome?
A national consortium of clinical geneticist is studying the ins and outs of potentially using genome sequencing for newborn health screenings and beyond.

Feinstein Institute genetic discovery provides new insight into cognitive disorders
An international team of scientists, led by Todd Lencz, PhD, professor at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research at Northwell Health and Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, have unlocked some of the genes responsible for cognitive ability.The findings bring scientists a step closer to developing new -- and potentially better -- treatments for cognitive disorders of the brain, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Blacks, Hispanics less likely to achieve blood pressure control
Blacks and Hispanics with high blood pressure are less likely than whites to get their condition under control.

Prolonged exposure to work-related stress thought to be related to certain cancers
For men, prolonged exposure to work-related stress has been linked to an increased likelihood of lung, colon, rectal, and stomach cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

First cell culture of live adult human neurons shows potential of brain cell types
Studying brain disorders in people and developing drugs to treat them has been slowed by the inability to investigate single living cells from adult patients.

Penn study identifies potent inhibitor of Zika entry into human cells
Researchers identified a panel of small molecules that inhibit Zika virus infection, including one that stands out as a potent inhibitor of Zika viral entry into relevant human cell types.

Climate policies alone will not save Earth's most diverse tropical forests
Many countries have climate-protection policies designed to conserve tropical forests to keep their carbon locked up in trees.

Mounting challenge to brain sex differences
A meta-analysis of human amygdala volumes reveals no significant difference between the sexes, report researchers at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science.

Candidates for bionic hand reconstruction
Researchers offer a treatment algorithm, or protocol, for identifying patients with global (flail arm) brachial plexus injuries who are likely to benefit from trading in their insensate and nonfunctional hand for a myoelectric prosthetic device.

Researchers devise methods to identify transmission of microbes from mothers to infants
It has been assumed that mothers pass on gut microbes to their infants during and just after delivery, a process called vertical transmission, but because of limits in available technology, the evidence of this occurrence has been limited.

NTU successfully launches its 7th satellite into space
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has successfully launched its 7th satellite into space from the International Space Station (ISS) yesterday evening.

The devil is in the details
Medical University of South Carolina investigators report preclinical research showing that the tumor-promoting properties of neuropilin-2 reside predominantly on isoform NRP2b, while NRP2a has the opposite effects in non-small cell lung cancer, in the Jan.

GeoVax to collaborate with Georgia State on development of hepatitis B therapeutic vaccine
The Georgia State University Research Foundation has entered into a research collaboration agreement with GeoVax Labs, Inc., a Georgia-based biotechnology company developing human vaccines, to advance development of a therapeutic vaccine for treatment of chronic hepatitis B infections.

Why 'platonic' flies don't copulate and what that could mean for humans
By studying the sexual behavior of a mutant strain of fruit fly called 'platonic,' researchers at the Tohoku University Graduate School of Life Sciences have found parallels between humans and flies in the neural control of copulation.

Strength of hair inspires new materials for body armor
In a new study, researchers at the University of California San Diego investigate why hair is incredibly strong and resistant to breaking.

Interactive 'nutrition label' for financial products helps investors make better choices
Junius Gunaratne, a doctoral student, and Oded Nov, an associate professor at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering, created the first online, interactive 'nutrition label' for financial products that, like the ubiquitous information nutrition panels on food and packaged goods, is simple, easy to read and uncluttered.

See how immune cells break through blood vessel walls
Despite the constant assault of immune cells poking holes in your blood vessels, the damage is negligible, and in a study, appearing Jan.

Cell biology: Take the mRNA train
Messenger RNAs bearing the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins are delivered to defined sites in the cell cytoplasm by molecular motors.

Air polluters more likely to locate near downwind state borders
Indiana University research reveals a pattern of companies strategically locating facilities where wind will carry pollution across state lines.

'5-D protein fingerprinting' could give insights into Alzheimer's, Parkinson's
In research that could one day lead to advances against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, University of Michigan engineering researchers have demonstrated a technique for precisely measuring the properties of individual protein molecules floating in a liquid.

New species of moth named in honor of Donald Trump ahead of his swearing-in as president
Days before Donald J. Trump steps forward on the Presidential Inauguration platform in Washington on Jan., 20, evolutionary biologist and systematist Dr.

ReSeqTB Data Platform now available to public
The Rapid Drug Susceptibility Testing Consortium, an arm of the Critcal Path to TB Drug Regimens initiative, announces the public launch of the Relational Sequencing TB Data Platform (ReSeqTB): a user-friendly interface to identify and categorize M.tb mutations associated with drug resistance.

Penn Medicine launches first Apple ResearchKit app for sarcoidosis patients
Penn Medicine today launched its first Apple ResearchKit app, focused on patients with sarcoidosis, an inflammatory condition that can affect the lungs, skin, eyes, heart, brain, and other organs.

Colorado medical students defend physicians' right to recommend marijuana
In the first study of its kind, University of Colorado School of Medicine students expressed support for the legal use of marijuana, including for physical and mental health reasons.

NREL pioneers better way to make renewable hydrogen
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a method which boosts the longevity of high-efficiency photocathodes in photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices.

Personalized treatment for those in blood pressure 'gray zone'
Using data from a national study, Johns Hopkins researchers determined that using heart CT scans can help personalize treatment in patients whose blood pressure falls in the gray zone of just above normal or mild high blood pressure.

Study reveals for first time that talking therapy changes the brain's wiring
A new study from King's College London and South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust has shown for the first time that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) strengthens specific connections in the brains of people with psychosis, and that these stronger connections are associated with long-term reduction in symptoms and recovery eight years later.

Why scientists should research emojis and emoticons :-P
More than 90 percent of online populations now incorporate emojis and emoticons into their texts and emails, and researchers are wondering what the use of (~_^), (>_<), or =D can reveal about human behavior.

Study finds high blood pressure onset in late life may protect against dementia
New study results published online today in Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association suggest that onset of high blood pressure later in life is associated with lower dementia risk after age 90, especially if hypertension is developed at age 80 or older.

ALMA starts observing the sun
New images taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile have revealed otherwise invisible details of our sun, including a new view of the dark, contorted center of a sunspot that is nearly twice the diameter of the Earth.

Bee alert but not alarmed
An Australian-first national analysis of 13 years' data on bites and stings from venomous creatures reveals Australia's towns and cities are a hot-spot for encounters.

Dietary supplement may carry both benefits and risks associated with statins
Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements that are often used by patients with high cholesterol, and it is often proposed as an alternative therapy in those who experience side effects from statins.

Retinopathy of prematurity: New developments are cause for hope
A mini-symposium published in the Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) provides important insights into new techniques and treatments that show promise for eliminating retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) throughout the world.

Hip fractures may have both short and long-term effects on survival in elderly individuals
A new analysis of numerous studies indicates that men and women aged 60 years and older who have experienced a hip fracture are at increased risk of dying not only in the short term after the fracture, but also a number of years later.

Bait knocks out cockroaches -- and asthma symptom days
In homes of children sensitized and exposed to cockroaches, a single intervention -- the strategic placement of insecticidal bait -- results in eradication of cockroaches and improved asthma outcomes for children.

Non-ambient conditions in the investigation and manufacturing of drug forms
To achieve control over the drug forms and the processes used for their robust manufacturing, one needs to take into account both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of their transformations.

Wheat virus crosses over, harms native grasses
Once upon a time, it was thought that crop diseases affected only crops.

Talking to children about STEM fields boosts test scores and career interest
A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds parents who talk with their high schoolers about the relevance of science and math can increase competency and career interest in the fields.

Primary care safety reports on children in England and Wales show areas for improvement
An analysis of patient safety incidents involving sick children in England and Wales, published in PLOS Medicine by Dr.

Discovery could lead to jet engines that run hotter -- and cleaner
Researchers here have made a discovery in materials science that sounds like something from the old Saturday morning cartoon Super Friends: they've found a way to deactivate 'nano twins' to improve the high-temperature properties of superalloys that are used in jet engines.

A tale of two pulsars' tails: Plumes offer geometry lessons to astronomers
Like cosmic lighthouses sweeping the universe with bursts of energy, pulsars have fascinated and baffled astronomers since they were first discovered 50 years ago.

Epigenetic factors linked to obesity-related disease
The study is one of the largest to date to examine the link between BMI, obesity-related disease and DNA methylation -- a type of epigenetic modification that influences whether genes are turned on or off.

Whether our speech is fast or slow, we say about the same
Fast talkers tend to convey less information with each word and syntactic structure than slower-paced speakers, meaning that no matter our pace, we all say just about as much in a given time, a new study finds.

The war on drugs causes massive human rights violations
The war on drugs has had devastating effects on human rights and public health worldwide, argue experts in The BMJ today.

Study shows signs of hope for endangered sea turtles
Bones from dead turtles washed up on Mexican beaches indicate that Baja California is critical to the survival of endangered North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles, which travel some 7,500 miles from their nesting sites in Japan to their feeding grounds off the coast of Mexico.

Rapamycin tones down the toxicity of HIV-1 reactivation strategies
This week in the JCI, work performed in Robert Siliciano's lab at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine suggests that a strategy combining T cell activation with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin could reactivate latent HIV-1 reservoirs without causing toxic side effects.

Microbiologists make big leap in developing 'green' electronics
Microbiologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst report that they have discovered a new type of natural wire produced by bacteria that could greatly accelerate the researchers' goal of developing sustainable 'green' conducting materials for the electronics industry.

Protein isolated from baker's yeast shows potential against leukemia cells
An enzyme identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as brewer's or baker's yeast, has passed in vitro trials, demonstrating its capacity to kill acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells.

Mayo Clinic researchers find cancer-fighting drugs help morbidly obese mice lose weight
Scientific investigations sometimes result in serendipitous discoveries which shift the investigations from one focus to another.

New genomic tool for salamander biology could spur deeper understanding of tissue regeneration
A research team led by scientists at Brigham and Women's Hospital has assembled a catalogue of every active gene in a variety of tissues in the axolotl, a type of salamander known for its striking ability to fully regenerate limbs following amputation.

Structures dating to King Solomon discovered at Tel Aviv University excavation
New discoveries at Tel Aviv University's Timna Valley excavation have revealed intact defensive structures and livestock pens that provide insight into the complexity of Iron Age copper production.

Report highlights national trends in heart disease treatments
Over 93 percent of heart attack patients are receiving stents within the guideline-recommended threshold of 90 minutes after arriving at the hospital, with the median time to stenting only 59 minutes, according to a broad report on trends in heart disease care from the American College of Cardiology's National Cardiovascular Data Registry published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

MIT and Eni extend energy collaboration
Following a stream of research successes in breakthrough technologies in the energy space, MIT President L.

UTSW finds likely cause -- and potential prevention -- of vision deterioration in space
Vision deterioration in astronauts who spend a long time in space is likely due to the lack of a day-night cycle in intracranial pressure.

Largest Populus SNP dataset holds promise for biofuels, materials, metabolites
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have released the largest-ever single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset of genetic variations in poplar trees, information useful to plant scientists as well as researchers in the fields of biofuels, materials science, and secondary plant metabolism.

Study finds 33 percent of adults recently diagnosed with asthma do not have it
A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that 33 percent of adults recently diagnosed with asthma by their physicians did not have active asthma.

Birds of a feather flock together to confuse potential predators
Scientists from the universities of Bristol and Groningen, in The Netherlands, have created a computer game style experiment which sheds new light on the reasons why starlings flock in massive swirling groups over wintering grounds. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to