Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

February 23, 2017
Fasting-mimicking diet may reverse diabetes
In a study on mice and another study on human pancreatic cells, researchers discover that a scientifically designed fasting diet can trigger the generation of new pancreatic cells to replace dysfunctional ones and stabilize blood glucose.

People with epilepsy: Tell us about rare risk of death
People with epilepsy want their health care providers to tell them about a rare risk of death associated with the disorder, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 69th Annual Meeting in Boston, April 22 to 28, 2017.

Parkinson's disease may have link to stroke
Parkinson's disease may be linked to stroke, much like Alzheimer's disease and stroke are linked.

Liquid hydrogen may be way forward for sustainable air travel
With sustainable solutions in mind, a new study published by eminent physicist Jo Hermans in MRS Energy and Sustainability--A Review Journal (MRS E&S) looks at the energy efficiency of current modes of transportion.

Web-based tool helps lima bean growers assess downy mildew risk
A free online tool developed at the University of Delaware with support from the US Department of Agriculture will help lima bean growers assess the risk of having their fields hit with downy mildew.

Mouse model could shed new light on immune system response to Zika virus
A new mouse model with a working immune system could be used in laboratory research to improve understanding of Zika virus infection and aid development of new treatments, according to a study published in PLOS Pathogens.

Top professional performance through psychopathy
The term 'psychopath' is not flattering: such people are considered cold, manipulative, do not feel any remorse and seek thrills without any fear -- and all that at other's expense.

Colorado School of Mines and Virginia Tech to create minerals industry consortium
Colorado School of Mines is teaming with Virginia Tech to develop an integrated approach to locating, characterizing and visualizing mineral resources.

Diabetic mice on fasting-mimicking diet repair insulin-producing pancreas cells
Research in mice and human cells suggests that a fasting-mimicking diet may reprogram pancreas cells that are unable to produce insulin and enable them to repair themselves and start making it.

Researchers ponder the shape of birds' eggs
The shape of birds' eggs varies considerably, for reasons that are unclear.

Tumor protein could hold key to pancreatic cancer survival
A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is often a death sentence because current chemotherapies have little impact on the disease.

Understanding the impact of delays in high-speed networks
In a world increasingly reliant on high-speed networks, introducing microsecond delays into such systems can have profound effects.

Gambling adverts on TV can 'mislead' football fans
Football fans are being 'misled' by complex gambling adverts on television, a University of Stirling study has found.

AOSpine North America provides a glimpse into the future of spine care
AOSpine North America has brought together experts to provide a glimpse into the next generation of spine care leading to a supplement in Neurosurgery on the 'Future Advances in Spine Surgery.'

Anti-aging gene identified as a promising therapeutic target for older melanoma patients
Scientists at The Wistar Institute have shown that an anti-diabetic drug can inhibit the growth of melanoma in older patients by activating an anti-aging gene that in turn inhibits a protein involved in metastatic progression and resistance to targeted therapies for the disease.

Gene mutations cause leukemia, but which ones?
Watanabe-Smith's research, published today in the journal Oncotarget, sought to better understand one 'typo' in a standard leukemia assay, or test.

Trilobite eggs in New York
Despite a plethora of exceptionally preserved trilobites, trilobite reproduction has remained a mystery.

Nematode resistance in soybeans beneficial even at low rates of infestation
Soybeans with resistance to soybean cyst nematodes seem to have a yield advantage compared to susceptible varieties when SCN is present.

Bored by physical therapy? Focus on citizen science instead
Researchers have devised a method by which patients improved their repetitive rehabilitative exercises by contributing to scientific projects in which massive data collection and analysis is needed.

Adolescent sleepiness may contribute to future crimes
In a recent study of adolescents, those who reported being sleepy during the day were more likely to be antisocial, and they were 4.5-times more likely to commit crime by age 29.

Many stroke patients do not receive life-saving therapy
Many ischemic stroke patients do not get tPA, which can decrease their chances for recovery.

NASA sees another quick Tropical Cyclone demise in South Pacific
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of the end of Tropical Cyclone 8P as it was being sheared apart by strong vertical wind shear.

New research on rape kit processing sees improvements
BYU professor Julie Valentine is on the front lines of sexual assault kit processing reform.

New grant expands reach of St. Jude gene therapy program for 'bubble boy' disease
The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has awarded a five-year, $11.9 million grant to St.

Brains of the operation -- NASA team develops modular avionics systems for small missions
In just two years' time, a team of NASA engineers accomplished what some thought impossible: the group created a smaller, more capable 'brain' for smaller spacecraft.

Public lecture on brain fitness, press room, and more: CNS 2017 only 4 weeks away
The CNS 2017 conference - only 4 weeks away - will bring together more than 1,500 scientists at the Hyatt Regency in San Francisco from March 25-28.

Changes in brain connectivity can help diagnose and predict outcomes of mild TBI
A new study shows that patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even without evidence of brain lesions, may exhibit changes in brain connectivity detectable at the time of the injury that can aid in diagnosis and predicting the effects on cognitive and behavioral performance at six months.

Children more vulnerable to psychological problems after a stroke
Children who have suffered ischemic (clot-caused) strokes are more likely to have psychological problems, including anxiety and behavioral difficulties, than children who have not had a stroke.

Researchers pave the way for ionotronic nanodevices
Ionotronic devices rely on charge effects based on ions, instead of electrons or in addition to electrons.

Boston researcher receives global surgery award
Maunil Bhatt, M.D., a post graduate resident in the Department of Surgery at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center (BMC), was recently honored with a Global Surgery Research Fellowship Award by the Association for Academic Surgery (AAS) at their 12th Annual Academic Conference.

Computer bots are more like humans than you might think, having fights lasting years
Bots appear to behave differently in culturally distinct online environments.

Bees can learn to use a tool by observing others
Simply by watching other bees, bumblebees can learn to use a novel tool to obtain a reward, a new study reveals.

Patients registered in a heart failure registry lived longer
Heart failure patients registered in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry receive better medication and have a 35 percent lower risk of death than unregistered patients, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.

Experts seek to jump-start vaccine development
Although many infectious diseases lack vaccines, current vaccine research is limited, primarily due to an understandable but unfortunate lack of commercial interest.

Impossible (but working!) recipe for ultrashort laser pulses
Pulse lasers built entirely on optical fibers are increasingly readily being used by industry.

ESC on eHealth revolution: A new vision for cardiovascular medicine
How are smartphones and computer programs transforming healthcare, especially when it comes to preventing, diagnosing and treating heart disease?

Hitching a ride with a predator
A new study by researchers at the University of Alberta's Department of Biological Sciences is the first to comprehensively examine existing literature to identify broader patterns and suggest ways in which the phenomenon is important for plant populations and seed evolution.

Fructose is generated in the human brain
Fructose, a form of sugar linked to obesity and diabetes, is converted in the human brain from glucose, according to a new Yale study.

Many patients do not obtain medications when first prescribed
A new analysis indicates that not obtaining a medication the first time it is prescribed -- called initial medication non-adherence -- is common among patients within the Catalan health system in Spain.

UVA targets mysteries of deadly Duchenne muscular dystrophy with $2.5 million grant
If we know the cause, why can't we save boys from this deadly disease?

Lack of training contributes to burnout, survey of preschool teachers finds
Studies have shown that early childhood education programs can have a positive impact on a child's success later in life.

Researchers use laser-generated bubbles to create 3-D images in liquid
Researchers have developed a completely new type of display that creates 3-D images by using a laser to form tiny bubbles inside a liquid 'screen.' Instead of rendering a 3-D scene on a flat surface, the display itself is three-dimensional, a property known as volumetric.

The role of weight in postmenopausal women's longevity
In a large multiethnic study, being underweight was linked with an increased risk of early death among postmenopausal women.

Navy win-win: Energy research expands, student veterans advance
From cyber security to reducing energy costs for the military, a program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is offering a double-win for the nation: Navy and Marine Corps veterans are being connected to advanced internships in energy fields, with the ultimate goal of long-term energy sustainability for the future fleet and force.

Almost 4 decades later, mini eyeless catfish gets a name
Discovered in a 1978-79 expedition, a pale, eyeless catfish that doesn't even measure an inch long is now known as Micromyzon orinoco, for the South American river in which it was discovered.

Rates of bowel disease in Denmark continue to rise
New research indicates that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease -- including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) -- in Denmark is on the rise and is among the highest in the world.

Many patients receive prescription opioids during treatment for opioid addiction
More than two in five people receiving buprenorphine, a drug commonly used to treat opioid addiction, are also given prescriptions for other opioid painkillers -- and two-thirds are prescribed opioids after their treatment is complete, a new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health study suggests.

Reconfigurable single-shot incoherent optical signal processing system for chirped microwave signal
Incoherent photonic generation and processing of microwave signals has attracted great interest for a wide range of important applications.

English learners treated differently depending on where they go to school
As the number of English learners continues to grow across the nation, new research indicates these students are being treated differently depending on where they go to school.

New paper published in Phytobiomes may lead to novel methods of Rhizoctonia solani control
In a research paper just published in Phytobiomes, a fully open-access journal of The American Phytopathological Society, University of Florida researcher Ken Obasa and colleagues identified a novel and important biological aspect of R.

Saturn's rings viewed in the mid-infrared show bright Cassini Division
Researchers has succeeded in measuring the brightnesses and temperatures of Saturn's rings using the mid-infrared images taken by the Subaru Telescope in 2008.

Trapped Amazonian mosquitos reveal their last meals: humans, birds, and small mammals
The mosquito Anopheles darlingi is the main vector of malaria in Central and South America, but little has been investigated about its behavior.

Europeans brought new strains of ulcer-causing bacterium to pre-Columbian Americas
A genomic study of a harmful stomach bacterium finds that foreign strains intermingled with and replaced local strains after the arrival of Europeans and African slaves across the Americas.

New role of cholesterol in regulating brain proteins discovered
A study demonstrates that the cholesterol present in cell membranes can interfere with the function of an important brain membrane protein, through a previously unknown mode of interaction.

Diabetic kidney disease is decoded, offering new avenues for diagnosis and treatment
Mount Sinai researchers say their study represents hope for a complication considered incurable and deadly.

A prescription with legs!
Research shows that physician-delivered step count prescriptions, combined with the use of a pedometer, can lead to a 20 per cent increase in daily steps, as well as measurable health benefits, such as lower blood sugar and lower insulin resistance, for patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes.

Foot pain often occurs in clusters
A new study indicates that particular areas of foot pain are more likely to occur together, and these clusters have specific characteristics.

Gene-edited pigs show signs of resistance to major viral disease
Scientists have produced pigs that may be protected from an infection that costs the swine industry billions each year.

43rd Annual Meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
During its 43rd Annual Meeting, the EBMT will acknowledge the work that stems from the pioneering observations made by E.

Scientists present El Nino
The ecological effects of the strong 2015-2016 El Niño. Carbon burial in aquatic ecosystems.

Using dogs to find cats
Investigators are using specially-trained detection dogs to determine the numbers and distribution of cheetah in a region of Western Zambia.

Values gap in workplace can lead millennials to look elsewhere
Much has been made in popular culture about millennials as they join the working world, including their tendency to job hop.

Some neurons choose mom's gene and others choose dad's
For over a century, scientists have thought that most of our cells express genes from both parents' chromosomes relatively equally throughout life.

Government of Myanmar unveils new plan to protect marine wildlife and resources
The Government of Myanmar and WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) announced today a comprehensive plan to protect the country's diverse fisheries and marine life -- including dolphins, sea turtles, and other species -- and other marine resources.

Removing barriers to early intervention for autistic children: A new model shows promise
Acting on recommendations from the South Carolina Act Early Team, South Carolina changed its policies to pay for early intensive behavioral intervention in children under three revealed to be at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by a two-stage screening process.

Why is pancreatic cancer so hard to treat? Stroma provides new clues
Why are pancreatic tumors so resistant to treatment? One reason is that the 'wound'-like tissue that surrounds the tumors, called stroma, is so dense, likely preventing cancer-killing drugs from reaching the tumor.

E-cigarettes may pose the same or higher risk of stroke severity as tobacco smoke
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarettes) vaping may pose just as much or even higher risk as smoking tobacco for worsening a stroke.

How blood can be rejuvenated
Our blood stem cells generate around a thousand billion new blood cells every day.

Air pollution may have masked mid-20th Century sea ice loss
Humans may have been altering Arctic sea ice longer than previously thought, according to researchers studying the effects of air pollution on sea ice growth in the mid-20th Century.

More day cares near by, more germs? Maybe not, according to Drexel whooping cough study
A team of Drexel University researchers looking into how a higher density of day care facilities may affect the prevalence of illness in a neighborhood and found that it doesn't really have much of an effect.

Biological, not chronological age, better predictor of stroke recovery
Findings suggest biological age is an important factor in a patient's recovery after stroke and better stroke recovery is another benefit of healthy aging.

AAAS and March for Science partner to uphold science
AAAS, the world's largest general scientific organization, announced Thursday that it will partner with the March for Science, a nonpartisan set of activities that aim to promote science education and the use of scientific evidence to inform policy.

Researchers uncover a role for HSP90 in gene-environment interactions in humans
Researchers at the Whitehead Institute have now uncovered a role for the protein-folding chaperone HSP90 in humans, not only as a modifier of the effects of mutations, but as a mediator of the impact of the environment on the function of mutant proteins.

First systematic study of deadly, antibiotic-resistant fungus reported
The deadly fungus, Candida auris, which has been found in hospitals, is resistant to entire classes of antimicrobial drugs, limiting treatment options for those infected.

Back after a century, for-profit medical schools could make impact
Long discouraged, for-profit medical education has established a renewed foothold in the US, leading a trio of Brown University scholars to examine in JAMA what that rise could mean.

New assay may lead to a cure for debilitating inflammatory joint disease
Current treatments for rheumatoid arthritis relieve the inflammation that leads to joint destruction, but the immunologic defect that triggers the inflammation persists to cause relapses.

Business Secretary Greg Clark announces £100 million investment for new research institute
A major new £100 million investment by the government into the development of an innovative multi-disciplinary science and technology research center was announced today by Business Secretary Greg Clark.

Psychiatric illness may increase stroke risk
Short-term stroke risk appears higher in patients hospitalized or treated in the emergency room for psychiatric illness.

Broad cancer vaccine may be out of reach
The high level of genetic diversity between individual tumors suggests that if it were to be developed, a broad cancer vaccine would be unlikely to work for more than 0.3 percent of the population, according to new research published in the open access journal Genome Medicine.

Penn study finds sons of cocaine-using fathers have profound memory impairments
Fathers who use cocaine at the time of conceiving a child may be putting their sons at risk of learning disabilities and memory loss.

Scientists close in on cracking 'Enigma Code' of common cold
Scientists at the Universities of York, Leeds, and Helsinki say they are a step closer to cracking, what researchers have dubbed, the 'enigma code' of the common cold virus.

HIV+ kidney failure patients face hurdles in receiving necessary transplants
From 2001 to 2012, HIV+ kidney failure patients on the transplant waiting list were 28 percent less likely to receive a transplant compared with their HIV- counterparts.

New gene sequencing software could aid in early detection, treatment of cancer
A research team from the United States and Canada has developed and successfully tested new computational software that determines whether a human DNA sample includes an epigenetic add-on linked to cancer and other adverse health conditions.

Meditation benefits patients with ALS
An eight-week mindfulness-based meditation program led to improved quality of life and psychological well-being in clinical trial of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

NIST patents first DNA method to authenticate mouse cell lines
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been granted a patent for the world's first mouse cell line authentication method using short tandem repeat (STR) markers, tiny repeating segments of DNA found between genes.

NASA eyes Pineapple Express soaking California
NASA has estimated rainfall from the Pineapple Express over the coastal regions southwestern Oregon and northern California from the series of storms in February, 2017.

Long-term stress linked to higher levels of obesity
People who suffer long-term stress may also be more prone to obesity, according to research by scientists at UCL which involved examining hair samples for levels of cortisol, a hormone which regulates the body's response to stress.

Osteoporosis screening and treatment fall short for women with hip fractures
It's important to identify and treat osteoporosis following hip fracture, but a large study found low rates of assessment and treatment in postmenopausal women who had suffered a hip fracture.

Tired teens 4.5 times more likely to commit crimes as adults
University of Pennsylvania professor Adrian Raine discovered that teenagers who experience sleep problems and exhibit anti-social behavior are more likely to commit violent crimes as adults.

CU researchers develop model for studying rare polio-like illness
Scientists, led by researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, have developed the first animal model for studying paralysis caused by virus linked to a polio-like illness that paralyzed 120 children in 2014.

Light-driven reaction converts carbon dioxide into fuel
Duke University researchers have developed tiny nanoparticles that help convert carbon dioxide into methane using only ultraviolet light as an energy source.

New polymer additive could revolutionize plastics recycling
Only 2 percent of the 78 million tons of manufactured plastics are currently recycled into similar products because polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), which account for two-thirds of the world's plastics, have different chemical structures and cannot be efficiently repurposed together.

Direct-to-consumer genomics: Harmful or empowering?
In a recent paper, Joel Eissenberg, Ph.D., professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Saint Louis University, explores questions that stem from new advances in direct-to-consumer DNA tests, which have the effect of separating the physician-patient relationship from access to new personal health data.

Dating the undatables
New research recently published in the scientific journal, Molecular Biology and Evolution, by a team of scientists from Ireland and India resolved a 195-year old confusion regarding relationships between the species of Asian Horned Frogs, an enigmatic group of frogs often with horn-like projections over their eyes.

Novel mutation may be linked to prostate cancer in African-American men
Researchers have identified a novel mutation that may be associated with prostate cancer in African-American men, according to a new study published in PLOS Computational Biology.

New research explains why a common bacterium can produce severe illness
How can the same infection result in dramatically different levels of illness in two different people?

Inadequate access to affordable, nutritious food may increase stroke risk factors
Food insecurity -- the state of being without reliable access to adequate amounts of affordable, nutritious food -- is a common issue and may lead to increased stroke risk factors, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

Receiving a clot-buster drug before reaching the hospital may reduce stroke disability
A preliminary study shows that giving a clot-busting drug in a mobile stroke unit ambulance may lead to less disability after stroke, compared to when the clot-buster is given after reaching the hospital.

AAV gene delivery vectors and cancer -- The debate continues
Overwhelming evidence from the biomedical literature shows that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2), a viral vector often used to deliver therapeutic genes, is not associated with cancer and, in fact, may protect against cancer.

#Unfiltered: Instagram has become a haven for people making sensitive self-disclosures
New research from Drexel University is steadily uncovering the areas of social network sites where the sufferers are finding solace.

NASA-funded balloon recovered a year after flight over Antarctica
After a 12-day flight spent examining solar flares while tethered from an enormous balloon, the GRIPS telescope endured a one-year layover alone on the Antarctic snowscape before scientists could retrieve their hardware.

Study: Two-thirds of clinicians lack knowledge of diabetes-related foot complication
A new study investigated how much non-foot-specialist clinicians know about Charcot neuroarthropathy in an effort to understand how to better focus future educational forums on the topic.

Oil and gas wastewater spills alter microbes in West Virginia waters
Wastewater from oil and gas operations -- including fracking for shale gas -- at a West Virginia site altered microbes downstream, according to a Rutgers-led study.

Diving deep into the dolphin genome could benefit human health
A new database of bottlenose dolphin DNA and associated proteins just completed by researchers working for the National Institute of Standards and Technology could possibly aid in dolphin care and research of human medical problems such as stroke and kidney failure.

Executive indiscretions can hurt the bottom line
Adam Yore, an assistant professor of finance in the University of Missouri Trulaske College of Business at the University of Missouri, shows that personal indiscretions by executives can have multimillion dollar consequences for the companies that employ them.

UC researchers teach drones to land themselves on moving targets
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati's College of Engineering and Applied Science are using artificial intelligence called fuzzy logic to get drones to navigate and land themselves on moving platforms.

A new dimension in chemical nanoimaging
Researchers from the Basque institutions CIC nanoGUNE, Ikerbasque and Cidetec, and the German Robert Koch-Institut report the development of hyperspectral infrared nanoimaging.

Just how early is spring arriving in your neighborhood? Find out ...
These maps from the USGS-led USA National Phenology Network provide a quick national overview of just how early spring is arriving: spring is now making an appearance in coastal California, southern Nevada, southeastern Colorado, central Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

Three layers of graphene reveals a new kind of magnet
Scientists at TIFR discover the magnetism of electrons in three layers of graphene.

Warming temperatures could trigger starvation, extinctions in deep oceans
Researchers from 20 of the world's leading oceanographic research centers today warned that the world's largest habitat -- the deep ocean floor -- may face starvation and sweeping ecological change by the year 2100.

Researchers identify patterns of protein synthesis associated with increased longevity
Aging is a complex process that involves multiple metabolic and regulatory pathways.

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
Attacks by robber bees result in the evolution of larger guard bees and thus promote the division of labor in the hive.

Mayo Clinic researchers discover link between aging, devastating lung disease
A Mayo Clinic study has shown evidence linking the biology of aging with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that impairs lung function and causes shortness of breath, fatigue, declining quality of life, and, ultimately, death.

Melting sea ice may be speeding nature's clock in the Arctic
Spring is coming sooner to some plant species in the low Arctic of Greenland, while other species are delaying their emergence amid warming winters.

New link found between sex and viruses
Sexual reproduction and viral infections both rely on a functionally identical protein, according to new research.

Who sweats more: Men or women?
Sex differences in heat loss responses are dependent on body size and not sex, meaning that larger individuals sweat more than smaller ones during cycle exercise in warm and tolerable conditions.

The truth about catnip (video)
Catnip is notorious for its euphoric effects on our feline companions.

PI3K/mTOR inhibitors may be effective against some uterine sarcomas
The protein P-S6S240 may serve as an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with a hard-to-treat type of uterine sarcoma called leiomyosarcoma, and preclinical data suggest that patients whose tumors have this protein may respond to PI3K/mTOR inhibitors.

Contact tracing and targeted insecticide spraying can curb dengue outbreaks
Contact tracing -- a process of identifying everyone who has come into contact with those infected by a particular disease -- combined with targeted, indoor spraying of insecticide can greatly reduce the spread of the mosquito-borne dengue virus, finds a study led by Emory University researchers funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Vast luminous nebula poses a cosmic mystery
Astronomers have found an enormous, glowing blob of gas in the distant universe, with no obvious source of power for the light it is emitting.

Young doctors working in infectious diseases suffering burnout and bullying
One in five physicians working in medical microbiology and infectious diseases is suffering from burnout, bullying and poor work-life balance.

Minister Johnson unveils £128 million investment in Henry Royce Institute
Today, Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation, will confirm £128 million of funding for research equipment and facilities to develop advanced materials.

Julia Hirschberg elected to the National Academy of Engineering
Professor Julia Hirschberg has been elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), one of the highest professional distinctions awarded to an engineer.

Study reveals proven ways to improve doctor-patient communication
A hospital-wide communication training program, outlining best practices for doctors to follow in interactions with patients, improved patients' perception of doctor communication by 9 percent, according to new research.

New gene for atrazine resistance identified in waterhemp
Waterhemp, a common agricultural weed, has become increasingly resistant to atrazine and other herbicides.

Child's vaccination data handily available via Kasvuseula service
Parents can now follow their tots' vaccinations via the Kasvuseula online service, which provides analytical data on the child's growth.

Kidney damage diagnosis may be inaccurate for many, suggests study
An analysis of patient records reveals that, for many, an initial diagnosis of 'acute kidney injury' using current clinical diagnostic methods may have been inaccurate.

Preventive measure during procedures using contrast material unnecessary
Contrary to what international guidelines have prescribed for many years, preventive hydration to protect renal function during procedures using contrast material appears to have no added value.

Official naming of surface features on Pluto and its satellites: First step approved
The New Horizons flyby of Pluto and its satellites returned a scientific treasure trove of information about these distant and surprisingly complex worlds, showing a vast nitrogen glacier as well as ice mountains, canyons, cliffs, craters and more.

Nicotinamide riboside (vitamin B3) prevents nerve pain caused by cancer drugs
A new study in rats suggests that nicotinamide riboside (NR), a form of vitamin B3, may be useful for treating or preventing nerve pain (neuropathy) caused by chemotherapy drugs.

Playing favorites: Brain cells prefer one parent's gene over the other's
It has long been thought that each copy of our DNA instructions -- one inherited from mom and one from dad -- is treated the same.

Study reveals PGK1 enzyme as therapeutic target for deadliest brain cancer
Discovery of a dual role played by the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) may indicate a new therapeutic target for glioblastoma, an often fatal form of brain cancer, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Neanderthal DNA contributes to human gene expression
The last Neanderthal died 40,000 years ago, but much of their genome lives on, in bits and pieces, through modern humans.

Sugar's 'tipping point' link to Alzheimer's disease revealed
For the first time a molecular 'tipping point' has been demonstrated in Alzheimer's, linking high blood sugar with this debilitating disease

A new methodology quickly reveals metabolic fluxes in cells
A group of researchers from the URV, CIBERDEM and IRB Barcelona have developed a new methodology that uses nuclear magnetic resonance to study the metabolism.

Is back pain killing us?
Older people who suffer from back pain have a 13 per cent increased risk of dying from any cause, University of Sydney research has found.

Flat-footed competitors have fighting advantage
A heel-down posture -- a feature that separates great apes, including humans, from other primates -- confers advantages in fighting, according to a new study published today in the journal Biology Open.

Modified Atkins diet helps children with rare form of epilepsy
Doose syndrome or myoclonic-astatic epilepsy is a rare syndrome accounting for one to two percent of childhood epilepsies.

Electrons use DNA like a wire for signaling DNA replication
A Caltech-led study has shown that the electrical wire-like behavior of DNA is involved in the molecule's replication.

Global vaccine injury system needed to improve public health
In an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Sam Halabi, University of Missouri associate professor of law, argues that a global vaccine injury compensation system administered through the World Health Organization would address the global public health issue of vaccine injuries.

Study finds resistant infections rising, with longer hospital stays for US children
Infections caused by a type of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics are occurring more frequently in US children and are associated with longer hospital stays and a trend towards greater risk of death, according to a new study published in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

Computing with biochemical circuits made easy
A software tool and a systematic wet-lab procedure proven in practice are an advance in the design and construction of circuits made of DNA.

Melting polar ice, rising sea levels not only climate change dangers
'Discussions of climate change usually are focused on changes occurring in polar and temperate zones, but tropical regions also are expected to experience changes in regional precipitation,' said Dr.

Study: Viruses support photosynthesis in bacteria -- an evolutionary advantage?
Viruses propagate by infecting a host cell and reproducing inside.

Drugs similar to aspirin, ibuprofen could help treat sepsis, study suggests
A potentially life-saving treatment for sepsis has been under our noses for decades in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) most people have in their medicine cabinets, a new University of Colorado Boulder study suggests.

New 'tougher-than-metal' fiber-reinforced hydrogels
Scientists have succeeded in creating 'fiber-reinforced soft composites,' or tough hydrogels combined with woven fiber fabric.

Last year's El Niño waves battered California shore to unprecedented degree
Last winter's El Niño may have felt weak to residents of Southern California, but it was one of the most powerful weather events of the last 145 years, scientists say.

Tiny cavefish may help humans evolve to require very little sleep
We all do it; we all need it -- humans and animals alike.

Agricultural robot may be 'game changer' for crop growers, breeders
A robot under development at the University of Illinois automates the labor-intensive process of crop phenotyping, enabling scientists to scan crops and match genetic data with the highest-yielding plants.

PERK protein opens line of communication between inside and outside of the cell
PERK is known to detect protein folding errors in the cell.

Eight a day is clearly best for the heart
A comprehensive meta-analysis of 142 articles from 95 population studies shows that the risk of dying prematurely from all causes was reduced by almost a third, and the risk of cardiovascular disease by about a quarter in people who ate 800 grams of fruit and vegetables-- or eight a day -- compared to those who ate very little or no fruits and vegetables.

Nursing home residents need more activities to help them thrive
In a survey of staff from 172 Swedish nursing homes, most residents had been outside the nursing home during the previous week, but only one-fifth had been on an outing or excursion.

Ball-rolling bees reveal complex learning
Bumblebees can be trained to score goals using a mini-ball, revealing unprecedented learning abilities, according to scientists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).

Researchers find new clues for nuclear waste cleanup
A Washington State University study of the chemistry of technetium-99 has improved understanding of the challenging nuclear waste and could lead to better cleanup methods. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to