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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | April 21, 2017


That's what friends are for
Friendships play a vital role in helping people get through substantial challenges in life, according to a new study.
AATS consensus statement helps manage treatment of coronary anomalies
Researchers are still trying to fully understand anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) and its relationship to adverse health outcomes in humans, especially children.
Fecal microbiota transplants improve cognitive impairment caused by severe liver disease
A study presented today found that fecal transplantation of bacteria from one healthy donor into patients that suffer from hepatic encephalopathy, is safe and improves cognitive function compared with standard of care treatment for the condition.
Facebook plays vital role in reducing government corruption, researchers find
In new research, Sudipta Sarangi of the Virginia Tech Department of Economics, analyzed data from more than 150 countries, showing the more Facebook penetrates public usage, the higher the likelihood of government corruption meeting protest.
Treatment of HCV allows for sustained removal from the liver transplant waiting list
A new European study presented today demonstrated that patients with chronic HCV and severe liver damage, taken off the liver transplant list as a result of successful DAA therapy, had a favorable outcome over a year later.
Focused issue on vascular disease in women available now
Vascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide.
New bone-in technique tests therapies for breast cancer metastasis
A new laboratory technique developed by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and other institutions can rapidly test the effectiveness of treatments for life-threatening breast cancer metastases in bone.
Blood donor screening for hepatitis E reveals incidence is higher than previously reported
Results from a study presented today found that the incidence of HEV RNA in asymptomatic blood donors from Germany is higher than previously reported.
Study identifies a distinct type of common gastrointestinal bleeding
In an article published online on April 21, 2017 by the Journal of Investigative Medicine, researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina and elsewhere have identified a unique bleeding syndrome associated with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
Weight expectations: Context and distraction skew what we predict and remember
Context can alter something as basic as our ability to estimate the weights of simple objects.
Opioid addiction increases likelihood of death tenfold in general healthcare settings
People who are addicted to opioids and receiving their medical care in a general health care setting were more than 10 times as likely to die during a four-year period than people without substance abuse problems, UCLA researchers have found.
New digital map shows changing racial diversity of America
A UC geography professor built the most detailed map of racial diversity yet to study the way America's neighborhoods are changing.
When liver immune cells turn bad
A high-fat diet and obesity turn 'hero' virus-fighting liver immune cells 'rogue,' leading to insulin resistance, a condition that often results in type 2 diabetes, according to research published today in Science Immunology.
Data analysis finds lower risk of infection with LASIK than with contacts over time
A meta-data analysis comparing the incidence of microbial keratitis, an infection of the cornea caused by bacteria or a virus, for contact lens wearers versus post-LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) patients indicates that over time the infection rate for the contact lens wearers was higher than for those who had LASIK to correct their vision.
A better way to predict the environmental impacts of agricultural production
Many companies want to know how the creation of their products affects the environment.
Daring declaration
After discovering a highly rare copy of the Declaration of Independence in a small records office in the south of England, Harvard researchers were able to date the document to the 1780s, and say it sheds light on the tumultuous politics of the era just after the Revolutionary War.
Using CRISPR to reverse retinitis pigmentosa and restore visual function
Using the gene-editing tool CRISPR/Cas9, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute at UC San Diego Health, with colleagues in China, have reprogrammed mutated rod photoreceptors to become functioning cone photoreceptors, reversing cellular degeneration and restoring visual function in two mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa.
LSUHealthNO research shows fish oil component helps damaged brain and retina cells survive
A team of researchers led by Nicolas Bazan, M.D., Ph.D., Boyd Professor and Director of the Neuroscience Center of Excellence at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has shown for the first time that NDP1, a signaling molecule made from DHA, can trigger the production of a protective protein against toxic free radicals and injury in the brain and retina.
Antibody delivery mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) based-therapies have revolutionized treatments of cancer and autoimmune diseases because of their specificity and limited toxicity.
Systematic review confirms longstanding caffeine intake recommendations
A rigorous, new scientific Systematic Review paper on caffeine safety confirms the results of the widely-cited Health Canada literature review (2003), which concluded that adverse health effects were not associated with caffeine intake levels at ≤400 mg/day for adults (which is the equivalent of about 4 cups of coffee/day, and 90 percent of Americans typically consume less than this amount ), ≤300 mg/day for pregnant women and ≤2.5 mg/kg-day for children and adolescents.
Molecular libraries for organic light-emitting diodes
FRANKFURT. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for flexible flat displays.
Displaying lab test costs in health records doesn't deter doctors from ordering them
Hospitals nationwide are seeking ways to use price transparency -- displaying the price of lab tests at the time when doctors are placing the order -- to nudge doctors to consider whether the benefits are worth the cost.
Study demonstrates the efficacy of an investigational treatment in hepatitis C subgroup
Study results presented today demonstrate that the oral, once-daily treatment regimen of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir resulted in 95 percent sustained virologic response rates 12 weeks post treatment in patients with HCV genotype 3.
Hubble's cosmic bubbles
Hubble reveals a few of the tenuous threads comprising Sh2-308, a faint and wispy shell of gas located 5,200 light-years away in Canis Major.
Study reveals mystery behind formation of hollowed nanoparticles during metal oxidation
In a newly published Science paper, Argonne and Temple University researchers reveal new knowledge about the behavior of metal nanoparticles when they undergo oxidation, by integrating X-ray imaging and computer modeling and simulation.
Promising mouse model for a devastating genetic deficiency
Researchers from the Global Research Cluster in Japan have developed a potential mouse model for the genetic disorder known as an NGLY1 deficiency.
New findings from research into multiple concussions in hockey players
The relationship between head injuries suffered during contact sport and Alzheimer's disease is now being called into question thanks to research by the Sahlgrenska Academy, which has revealed that hockey players with multiple concussions probably have other injuries in their brains.
Probing into the molecular requirements for antioxidant activity
Free radicals are derived either from normal essential metabolic processes in the human body or from external sources such as exposure to environmental xenobiotics.
Research sheds new light on forces that threaten sensitive coastlines
Wind-driven expansion of marsh ponds on the Mississippi River Delta is a significant factor in the loss of crucial land in the Delta region, according to research published by scientists at Indiana University and North Carolina State University.
Making bins more convenient boosts recycling and composting rates
Want to recycle or compost more? Try moving the bins closer, new UBC research suggests.
AERA to live-stream 31 Annual Meeting Sessions
AERA has announced that it is live-streaming 31 sessions at its 2017 Annual Meeting in San Antonio, Texas, April 27-May 1.
WHO's Global Hepatitis Report sets baseline to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030
The World Hepatitis Alliance today welcomes the publication of the first-ever Global Hepatitis Report by the World Health Organization (WHO), which includes new data on the prevalence and global burden of viral hepatitis.
Patients with hyperpigmentation more likely to use sunscreen, few use other sun-protection measures
Researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC) and Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have found patients with hyperpigmentation, a medical disorder that leads to darkening or increase in the natural color of the skin, are more likely to use sunscreen but do not use other protection measures.
Two-dimensional melting of hard spheres experimentally unravelled after 60 years
After extensive research scientists from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Oxford have found experimental evidence of melting in two-dimensional substances.
Origins of Indonesian hobbits finally revealed
The most comprehensive study on the bones of Homo floresiensis, a species of tiny human discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003, has found that they most likely evolved from an ancestor in Africa and not from Homo erectus as has been widely believed.
Sunflower seeds traced as source of toxic mold, potent liver carcinogen
Michigan State University researchers have shown that sunflower seeds are frequently contaminated with a toxin produced by molds and pose an increased health risk in many low-income countries worldwide.
Study of bacteria's DNA fingerprint suggests it could be spreading via food distribution
Foods should be investigated as a potential source of spread of Clostridium difficile, according to research presented at the 27th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases..
Nanoimprinted hyperlens array: Paving the way for practical super-resolution imaging
Research conducted by Professor Junsuk Rho's team at POSTECH, South Korea, has demonstrated a scalable and reliable fabrication process of a large scale hyperlens device based on direct pattern transfer techniques.
Diet high in animal protein is associated with NAFLD in overweight people
A large epidemiological study presented today found that a diet high in animal protein was associated with a higher risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which fat builds up in the liver.
Atomic-level motion may drive bacteria's ability to evade immune system defenses
A study from Indiana University has found evidence that extremely small changes in how atoms move in bacterial proteins can play a big role in how these microorganisms function and evolve traits, such as antibiotic resistance.
The protein CHIP unfurls anti-aging activity
Not only does our way of life determine how long we live but so too does our genetic material.
Stanford scientist's new approach may accelerate design of high-power batteries
New Stanford study describes a model for designing novel materials used in electrical storage devices, such as car batteries and capacitors.
NASA and NOAA satellites watch Arlene, first Atlantic Tropical Storm of the season
The first tropical storm of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season formed 40 days before the official kick off of the season.
Quantum mechanics are complex enough, for now...
Physicists have searched for deviations from standard quantum mechanics, testing whether quantum mechanics requires a more complex set of mathematical rules.
New survey -- Snapchat & Instagram are most popular social media platforms among American teens
A new nationally representative survey of American teenagers age 13-17 finds that teens have shifted their favored social media platforms and are now most likely to use Instagram and Snapchat.
Nature: 3-D-printing of glass now possible
3-D-printing allows extremely small and complex structures to be made even in small series.
New global report highlights burden and neglect of kidney disease worldwide
Despite one in 10 people worldwide having chronic kidney disease, a new global report -- The Global Kidney Health Atlas -- presented at this week's World Congress of Nephrology in Mexico City and compiled by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and kidney health experts worldwide and published in JAMA -- highlights the huge gaps in kidney disease care and prevention in both developed and developing countries, with many countries not prioritizing kidney health.
Patients with asthma give doctors their thoughts on treatment goals
There is increasing emphasis on the importance of measuring patient-centered outcomes of emergency care; however, the existing and most commonly used discharge metrics, which were developed outside of the emergency department setting, have limited applicability to emergency care and fail to capture the concepts that are most important to patients and families.
Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
How Venus flytrap triggers digestion
The Venus flytrap digests its prey using enzymes produced by special glands.
Northeastern researchers' discovery could aid in detecting nuclear threats
Northeastern researchers Yung Joon Jung and Swastik Kar have developed a way to detect nuclear materials that far outpaces any existing method.
Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors
Pre-lithiated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon (AC) materials were used as anode and cathode respectively for Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs).
Investigational dose of oral interferon-free treatment can cure hepatitis C in children
A study presented today that evaluated an investigational dosage of once-daily ledipasvir 45 mg/sofosbuvir 200 mg (LDV/SOF) in children aged six to 11 years infected with HCV, found that 99 percent of children had undetectable levels of HCV-RNA 12 weeks after treatment.
'Connshing syndrome' named as a new cause of high blood pressure
Research led by scientists at the University of Birmingham has revealed a new cause of high blood pressure which could lead to major changes in managing the disease.
Report recommends ways to improve response to toxic inhalation disasters
Better medical responses to the accidental or intentional release of inhaled toxic chemicals are being developed, but the field faces considerable challenges, according to a new report by an international panel of experts.
DGIST develops 20 times faster biosensor
DGIST's research team develops technology which is 20 times faster than the existing biosensors using micromagnetic pattern of spider web.
Nivolumab produces durable responses & long-term survival in severe liver cancer patients
Results from the CheckMate 040 study presented today found that nivolumab produces durable responses with long-term survival rates, regardless of whether or not patients were infected with Hepatitis B or C.

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