Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 02, 2017
Scientists find giant wave rolling through the Perseus galaxy cluster
Combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio observations and computer simulations, an international team of scientists has discovered a 200,000-light-year wave of hot gas in the Perseus galaxy cluster.

Why space dust emits radio waves upon crashing into a spacecraft
When spacecraft and satellites travel through space they encounter tiny, fast moving particles of space dust and debris.

Scientists develop efficient multifunctional catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation to gasoline
Scientists succeeded in preparing a high efficient, stable, and multifunctional Na¨CFe3O4/HZSM-5 catalyst for the direct production of gasoline from CO2 hydrogenation.

Evolution: On mosaics and melting-pots
Genetic studies of cichlid fishes suggest that interspecies hybrids played a prominent role in their evolution.

Quality of care for peripheral artery disease is low
Less than half of individuals with peripheral artery disease, which is a narrowing of arteries to the limbs, stomach and head, are treated with appropriate medications and lifestyle counseling.

Ecology team finds leaf litter has slower decomposition rate in warm temperatures than previously estimated
Research, published in Global Change Biology with help from Kansas State University ecologists, found that leaf litter is not as sensitive to increases in temperature as ecologists once thought.

Mongoose pups conceal identity to survive
Young mongooses may conceal their identity -- even from their own parents -- to survive.

Cancer-causing virus masters cell's replication, immortality
Duke researchers detail how the Epstein-Barr virus manages to persist quietly inside the immune system's B cells in as many as 90 percent of adults.

New study makes strides towards generating lung tissue
Using Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers have for the first time profiled the complete genetic programs of early lung progenitors identifying genes that control lung formation and have created mini-lung organoids (artificially grown cells that resemble those of an organ) that can be used to model human lungs.

BYU study finds more evidence why depressed dads should seek help
A father's depression has a direct effect on both internalized and externalized behavioral problems in adolescents, according to a recent study out of BYU's School of Social Work.

Deep learning helps scientists keep track of cell's inner parts
High throughput screens of image-based data allow a direct view of proteins' whereabouts in the cell but the lack of fast and accurate analysis tools has been a bottleneck.

Earliest relative of Brachiosaurus dinosaur found in France
Scientists have re-examined an overlooked museum fossil and discovered that it is the earliest known member of the titanosauriform family of dinosaurs.

Weight loss can slow down knee joint degeneration
Overweight and obese people who lost a substantial amount of weight over a 48-month period showed significantly lower degeneration of their knee cartilage, according to a new study.

New look at satellite data quantifies scale of China's afforestation success
China has invested massive resources into halting and reversing tree cover loss.

Researchers find new source of dangerous electrical instability in the heart
Sudden cardiac death resulting from fibrillation -- erratic heartbeat due to electrical instability -- is one of the leading causes of death in the United States.

Erasable ink for 3-D printing
3-D printing by direct laser writing produces micrometer-sized structures with precisely defined properties.

Potential for Saudi Arabian coral reefs to shine
Careful marine management and stricter fishing laws could enable Saudi Arabia's coral reefs to thrive.

Researchers at Illinois gain insights to redirect leading HIV cure strategy
Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has provided the first evidence that viruses and hosts share highly similar regulatory sequences in their promoters -- the initiation sequences of human genes that code for functional proteins.

Losses reduce subsequent risk taking among bettors -- applies to many other risky decisions, too
A new study carried out by the University of Eastern Finland Business School among horse race bettors shows that loss reduces subsequent risk taking, and bettors also tend to avoid loss when betting money they have already won.

Greater life expectancy in patients with recommended mitral valve operations from high-volume surgeons
Patients can maximize chances of high-quality mitral valve repair through referral to surgeons with large annual repair rates.

Bromances flourish thanks to changing anti-gay sentiments
A decline in homophobia is allowing young men to embrace the benefits of a non-sexual bromance with close male friends.

New species of dinosaur increases the already unexpected diversity of 'whiplash dinosaurs'
A new sauropod species has been named Galeamopus pabsti by the same team which recently reinstated the brontosaurus as a distinct genus.

Study uncovers an additional strategy for targeting treatment-resistant prostate cancer
Recently, the observation that an androgen synthesis inhibitor effectively treated a patient's prostate cancer without actually lowering androgen levels led researchers at Duke University to further investigate the drug's therapeutic activity.

Restricting pharmaceutical reps' marketing tactics changes physician prescribing behavior
A team, led by the University of California, Los Angeles' Ian Larkin and Carnegie Mellon University's George Loewenstein, examined restrictions at 19 academic medical centers placed on pharmaceutical representatives' visits to doctors' offices.

Parenting-based therapies are best for children with disruptive behaviors
Therapy that involves the parents in the treatment of children with disruptive behavior disorders shows the best results compared to more than 20 other therapeutic approaches, according to a new study published today in the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, a journal of the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

Pathways leading to beta cell division identified, may aid diabetes treatment
Pancreatic beta cells help maintain normal blood glucose levels by producing the hormone insulin -- the master regulator of energy (glucose).

Researchers create a roadmap of bipolar disorder and how it affects the brain
In the largest MRI study on patients with bipolar disorder, a global consortium published new research showing that people with the condition have differences in the brain regions that control inhibition and emotion.

Astronomers confirm nearby star a good model of our early solar system
Iowa State University's Massimo Marengo is part of a research team that has confirmed a nearby star's planetary system contains separate belts of asteroids, similar to our own solar system.

Study opens new line of attack on spinal muscular atrophy
Scientists have discovered a physiological chain of events in animal models in which motor neurons and their communication with muscle become disrupted by the mutation that causes spinal muscular atrophy.

Rosemary aroma can aid children's working memory
Exposure to the aroma of rosemary essential oil can significantly enhance working memory in children.

Fashion mannequins communicate 'dangerously thin' body ideals
New research from the University of Liverpool shows that the body size of mannequins used to advertise female fashion in the UK are too thin and may be promoting unrealistic body ideals.

Facebook likes don't make you feel better
Receiving 'likes' on social media posts doesn't make people feel better about themselves or improve their mood if they are down.

DNA fingerprinting reveals how malaria hides from our immune system
DNA fingerprinting has revealed how the malaria parasite shuffles genes to create different strains and hide from our immune system.

Prescribing patterns change following direct marketing restrictions
A study of how policies restricting pharmaceutical promotion to physicians affect medication prescribing found that physicians in academic medical centers (AMCs) prescribed fewer of the promoted drugs, and more non-promoted drugs in the same drug classes, following policy changes to restrict marketing activities at those medical centers.

X-ray microscope optics resolve 50-nm features while eliminating chromatic aberrations
A collaborative team led by Osaka University researchers developed an optical system for full-field X-ray microscopes using two monolithic imaging mirrors that eliminates the chromatic aberrations that have previously limited microscope resolution.

Feeding strategies in competing hummingbird species observed in a small area in Brazil
Being the vertebrates with the highest metabolic rate thanks to their rapid wing flaps, the hummingbirds have evolved various feeding behaviors.

Better quality relationships associated with reduced dementia risk
Positive social support from adult children is associated with reduced risk of developing dementia, according to a new research published today.

At last, a clue to where cancer metastases are born
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered why some cancers may reoccur after years in remission.

New study reveals why people pay for news and what it means for future of journalism
Slightly more than half of all US adults pay for news, with roughly half of those subscribing to a newspaper, according to a study conducted by the Media Insight Project, a collaboration between the American Press Institute and The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.

Gluten-free diet not recommended for people without celiac disease
Long term dietary intake of gluten among people without celiac disease is not associated with risk of coronary heart disease -- and restricting gluten may result in a low intake of whole grains, which are associated with cardiovascular benefits, finds a study published by The BMJ today.

Wastewater injection rates may have been key to Oklahoma's largest earthquake
Changes to the rate of wastewater injection in disposal wells may have contributed to conditions that led to last year's Pawnee earthquake in Oklahoma, according to a new report published May 3 as part of a focus section in Seismological Research Letters.

Types and distribution of payments from industry to physicians
In 2015, nearly half of physicians were reported to have received a total of $2.4 billion in industry-related payments, primarily involving general payments (including consulting fees and food and beverage), with a higher likelihood and value of payments to physicians in surgical than primary care specialties and to male than female physicians, according to a study published by JAMA in a theme issue on conflict of interest.

Parkinson's in a dish: Researchers reproduce brain oscillations
Abnormal oscillations in neurons that control movement, which likely cause the tremors that characterize Parkinson's disease, have long been reported in patients with the disease.

NASA to measure greenhouse gases over the mid-Atlantic region in may
In May, a team of Goddard scientists will begin measuring greenhouse gases over the Mid-Atlantic region -- an area chosen in part because it encompasses a range of vegetation, climate and soil types that would influence the exchange of carbon dioxide and methane between Earth and the atmosphere.

Fluid flow in the brain unravelled for the first time
The puzzle of how the brain regulates blood flow to prevent it from being flooded and then starved every time the heart beats has been solved with the help of engineering.

Experts call for registry of egg donors
A commentary and accompanying editorial published in the May issue of Reproductive BioMedicine Onlinecalls for a registry of egg donors to monitor long-term health after egg donation.

Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May 2017
Oak Ridge National Laboratory aids St. Jude's brain development research with software to speed processing of microscopy images; a bottleneck in the process to breakdown lignin for use in biofuels may occur at the plant cell wall's surface; predicting how ecosystems respond to environmental change could become more precise through new process sensitivity index method; through

Long lost monitor lizard 're-discovered' on Papua New Guinean island
Scientists have recently found and re-described a monitor lizard species from the island of New Ireland in northern Papua New Guinea.

Smoking decreases MAIT cells, implicated in the pathology of autoimmune diseases
New research published in the May 2017 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology provides another reason why smoking tobacco is harmful.

Brexit's Great Repeal Bill will axe the right to health, warn experts
Brexit's Great Repeal Bill will axe the right to health, warn experts in The BMJ today.

Genetic finding may allow doctors to predict newborn health during pregnancy
UCLA scientists have discovered specific genetic changes in the placentas of women who gave birth to growth-restricted infants.

Stereotactic radiation highly effective for kidney cancer
Kidney cancer patients may soon have more treatment choices that provide a higher quality of life, thanks to research completed by physician scientists at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

A trend towards a stable, warm and windless state in China
During 1961-2014, the surface temperature (wind speed) increased (decreased) over northern and northeastern China (NNEC) and the day-to-day variability (DDV) of the surface temperatures and wind speeds decreased, indicating a trend towards a stable, warm and windless state of the surface weather conditions over NNEC.

Antarctic Peninsula ice more stable than thought
Glacier flow at the southern Antarctic Peninsula has increased since the 1990s, but a new study has found the change to be only a third of what was recently reported.

The courting cephalopods of the East China Sea
The oval squid are unusual in that they actively alter their skin's patterning.

Biology's need for speed tolerates a few mistakes
In balancing speed and accuracy to duplicate DNA and produce proteins, Rice University researchers find evolution determined that speed is favored much more.

Got a sweet tooth? Blame your liver
A hormone called FGF21 that is secreted by the liver after eating sweets may determine who has a sweet tooth and who doesn't, according to a study in Cell Metabolism published May 2.

How migrations and other population dynamics could have shaped early human culture
Bursts of cultural advance are usually assumed to result from climate or biological changes.

Dietary gluten is not linked to heart risk in non-celiacs
A study revealed that while dietary gluten does not increase heart disease risk in people without celiac disease, limiting whole grains may increase their heart risk.

Some -- but not all -- corals adapting to warming climate
A new WCS study reveals evidence that some corals are adapting to warming ocean waters -- potentially good news in the face of recent reports of global coral die offs due to extreme warm temperatures in 2016.

The critical importance of pace in long-distance races
A new study by the lecturer Jordan Santos-Concejero of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical and Sports Education suggests that elite Kenyan runners cannot defend their brain oxygenation when they are obliged to run to the point of exhaustion and close to their physiological limits.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for severe depression and other mental disorders, and a new study headed by researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark documents that the risk is very small.

New coating surface for superior rust resistance with 'colorless' color
Electric fields can mobilize non-ionic particles to coat metal surfaces.

Bioinspired agent kills drug-resistant bacteria
Microbial resistance to antibiotics and biocides is increasing, and our ability to effectively treat bacterial infections and contamination is under threat.

People could be genetically predisposed to social media use
Chance York (Kent State University) used a behavior genetics framework and twin study data from the 2013 Midlife in the United States survey, York examined how both environmental and genetic factors contribute to social media use by applying an analytical model called Defries-Fulker Regression.

Research supports new criteria for evaluating urologic cancer in women
Experts in women's health are recommending physicians follow new guidelines to determine when women warrant further evaluation and testing for urologic cancers when there is microscopic blood in their urine.

Origin of Milky Way's hypothetical dark matter signal may not be so dark
A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars.

Russian scientists plot antibiotic resistance on a world map
Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem for human health. Uncontrolled antibiotic usage in agriculture and medicine makes bacteria resistant to drugs and these drugs become less effective.

The chemistry of whiskey (video)
Derby Day means it's time to recognize the chemical process of distillation, which makes bourbon possible.

Not even the Himalayas are immune to traffic smog
University of Cincinnati researchers find evidence of truck pollution in one of the most remote corners of the planet: the Himalayas.

Is the blog to blame for Vladimir Putin's 2011-12 elections defeat?
In the 2011-12 elections, Russia's government leaders underestimated the power of the internet and it impacted the outcome of the elections and spurred massive demonstrations in response to Vladimir Putin's stage-managing the presidential succession and evidence of widespread fraud.

Flexible, organic and biodegradable: Stanford researchers develop new wave of electronics
A new semiconductor developed by Stanford researchers is as flexible as skin and easily degradable.

New data shows avocado consumers have improved nutrient intakes
A new analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, compared avocado consumers to non-consumers and found that consuming avocados may be associated with an overall better diet, higher intake of essential nutrients, lower body weight, lower Body Mass Index (BMI) and smaller waist circumference.

Simple blood tests lead to improved hypertension treatment in African countries
Using two simple blood tests, Western University researchers were able to drastically improve treatment for resistant hypertension across three sites in Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa.

Revealed: The biochemical pathways of kidney disease
In a study, recently published in PLOS Genetics, Chiara Gamberi and her coauthors developed an innovative fruit fly-based model of the types of harmful cysts that can form on kidneys.

New NMR technique offers 'molecular window' into living organisms
NMR Technique developed at U of T Scarborough has potential for noninvasive disease diagnosis using current MRI technology.

PET/CT helps predict therapy effectiveness in pediatric brain tumors
In this first ever molecular drug-imaging study in children, researchers in The Netherlands used whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to determine whether bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) in children is likely to be effective.

Scientists say agriculture is good for honey bees
Scientists with the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture evaluated the impacts of row-crop agriculture, including the traditional use of pesticides, on honey bee health.

Novel compound blocks replication of Zika and other viruses
The cells of vertebrates have evolved pathways that act like an internal defense, inhibiting viral infections by preventing replication of the pathogens.

Eye dilation sex specific but not sexually explicit, study finds
People's eyes dilate when they are looking at people they find sexually appealing -- but new research from the University of Kent suggests that their response does not depend on whether the person being viewed is naked or clothed.

Restricting sales visits from pharmaceutic reps associated with changes in physician prescribing
Implementation of policies at academic medical centers that restricted pharmaceutical detailing (pharmaceutical representative sales visits to physicians) was associated with modest but significant reductions in prescribing of detailed drugs across six of eight major drug classes; however, changes were not seen in all of the academic medical centers that enacted policies, according to a study published by JAMA in a theme issue on conflict of interest.

Pinpointing where seizures are coming from, by looking between the seizures
A computational approach developed at Boston Children's Hospital, described in the journal Neurosurgery, published online May 2, 2017, could enable more patients with epilepsy to benefit from surgery when medications do not help.

Bacteria take a deadly risk to survive
Bacteria need mutations -- changes in their DNA code -- to survive under difficult circumstances.

New anti-rejection drug reduces weight gain and enhances outcomes for liver transplant recipients
Researchers have discovered that a new anti-rejection drug that is gentler on the kidneys after liver transplant also reduces weight gain, which is common after surgery and can lead to serious problems for transplant patients.

New NIST data to aid production and storage of 'fascinating' medication
Amantadine hydrochloride may be the most common medication you've never heard of.

Microphysical differences in precipitation between Tibet and southern China
Studies of raindrop size distribution (DSD) over different regions helps to advance our understanding of DSD characteristics and provide observational facts regarding the development and evaluation of microphysical parameterization schemes in numerical models over different regions in the future.

TGen and UNC Lineberger studies help shed light on aggressive brain cancer
One study showed that mutations affect how cancer starts in glial cells -- brain cells that provide support and insulation for neurons -- and how those mutations affect the way cancer evolves from low-grade gliomas to full-blown high-grade glioblastomas, the most common and deadly of primary brain cancer.

Holy chickens: Did Medieval religious rules drive domestic chicken evolution?
Chickens were domesticated from Asian jungle fowl around 6,000 years ago.

Fierce mating battle between wild cuttlefish is captured on video for first time
A male cuttlefish fights fiercely to protect his mate after a rival steals her away, using all his cunning and strength to win her back.

First extensive immune profile of sarcomas shows some likely susceptible to immunotherapy
Some types of sarcomas elicit a greater immune response than others, which sheds light on how immunotherapy could be used for this connective-tissue cancer, according to a new study in Cancer.

For a green alga, spotted salamanders are stressful hosts
New research shows how two drastically different organisms -- a green alga and the spotted salamander -- get along as cellular roommates.

Excess transcription factor Heat Shock Factor 1 can delay embryonic neural migration
Transcription factor Heat Shock Factor 1, which the developing brain releases to shield the vital organ from the ravages of environmental stress, actually can contribute to impairing the embryonic brain when too much Hsf1 is produced, research led by Children's National Health System scientists indicates.

How fluids flow through shale
Current drilling and fracturing methods can't extract oil and natural gas very well, recovering an estimated 5 percent of oil and 20 percent of gas from shale.

A fast, non-destructive test for 2-dimensional materials
Thinning a material down to a single-atom thickness can dramatically change that material's physical properties.

New survey reveals almost 6 in 10 teens take a break from social media
A new survey reveals that 58 percent of American teens report taking significant breaks from social media, and that many of these breaks are voluntary.

Stool microbes predict advanced liver disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) -- a condition that can lead to liver cirrhosis and cancer -- isn't typically detected until well advanced.

Climate instability over the past 720,000 years
A new analysis of an ice core from Dome Fuji in Antarctica, along with climate simulation results, shows a high degree of climate instability (that is, rapid climate fluctuations) within glacial periods with intermediate temperatures.

'Exercise-in-a-pill' boosts athletic endurance by 70 percent
Sedentary mice given the drug ran longer without training.

New study challenges formaldehyde cancer findings
A newly published reanalysis of raw data from a study widely used by chemical assessment agencies to set hazard assessments for formaldehyde shows no link between formaldehyde exposure and leukemia.

Study reveals first recording of cuttlefish fighting over a mate in the wild
The whole arsenal of cuttlefish coloration, postures and aggression played out during a chance observation now described in a study in the American Naturalist.

Boston University scientists turn human induced pluripotent stem cells into lung cells
Boston University scientists have announced two major findings that further our understanding of how stem cells become organs: the ability to grow and purify the earliest lung progenitors that emerge from human stem cells, and the ability to differentiate these cells into tiny 'bronchospheres' that model cystic fibrosis.

Period tracking apps failing users in basic ways, study finds
A new University of Washington study finds that smartphone apps to track menstrual cycles often disappoint users with a lack of accuracy, assumptions about sexual identity or partners, and an emphasis on pink and flowery form over function and customization.

Geologists use radioactive clock to document longest earthquake record
Using radioactive elements trapped in crystallized, cream-colored 'veins' in New Mexican rock, geologists have peered back in time more than 400,000 years to illuminate a record of earthquakes along the Loma Blanca fault in the Rio Grande rift.

Antarctic ice rift spreads
The rift in the Larsen C ice shelf in Antarctica now has a second branch, which is moving in the direction of the ice front, Swansea University researchers revealed after studying the latest satellite data.

Hawaii scientists scrutinize first aid for man o' war stings
University of Hawai'i researchers investigated which commonly recommended first aid actions are the most effective for Physalia, man 'o war jellyfish, stings.

Researchers develop recycling for carbon fiber composites
A WSU research team for the first time has developed a promising way to recycle the popular carbon fiber plastics that are used in everything from modern airplanes and sporting goods to the wind energy industry.

Stanford researchers analyze what a warming planet means for mosquito-borne diseases
A new analysis by Stanford researchers reveals that the ideal temperature for the spread of mosquito-born diseases like dengue, chikungunya and Zika is 29 degrees C.

Doctors should question the value of most heavily promoted drugs
Top promoted drugs are less likely than top selling and top prescribed drugs to be effective, safe, affordable, novel, and represent a genuine advance in treating a disease, argue US researchers in The BMJ today.

Controlling the HIV epidemic: A progress report on efforts in sub-Saharan Africa
In a Research Article published in PLOS Medicine, Richard Hayes of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK and colleagues report on a clinical trial evaluating an intervention to achieve universal HIV testing and treatment in Zambia.

NIH discovery in mice could lead to new class of medications to fight mid-life obesity
A team of scientists led by researchers from the National Institutes of Health has identified an enzyme that could help in the continuous battle against mid-life obesity and fitness loss.

Language shapes how the brain perceives time
Language has such a powerful effect, it can influence the way in which we experience time, according to a new study.

The science of 'hitting the wall'
Runners, swimmers, and cyclists are familiar with the phenomenon of 'hitting the wall' when the connection between brain and body feels like it's been lost.

Penn study finds linkage between social network structure and brain activity
New research performed at the University of Pennsylvania finds that the brain's response to social exclusion differs depending on the structure of a person's social network.

Domino effect in pharmaceutical synthesis
Chemists at Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) headed by Prof. Dr. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to