Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 04, 2017
Policies to curb short-lived climate pollutants could yield major health benefits
A commitment to reducing global emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as methane and black carbon could slow global warming while boosting public health and agricultural yields, aligning the Paris Climate Agreement with global sustainable development goals, a new analysis by an international panel of scientists shows.

Three of 48 fetuses exposed to Zika in utero had abnormal fetal MRIs
Fattened up on bites of potatoes, yucca and chicken starting at 4 months, some of the babies wearing sporty clothes and frilly dresses are rolly-polly chubby.

Comprehensive atlas of immune cells in renal cancer
Researchers from the University of Zurich have individually analyzed millions of immune cells in tumor samples from patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Scientists solve major cancer protein conundrum
Despite intense research, there's been much confusion regarding the exact role of a protein in a critical cancer-linked pathway.

Oxford student creates first synthetic retina for the visually impaired
A synthetic, soft tissue retina developed by an Oxford University student could offer fresh hope to visually impaired people.

Large data set brings precision to breast cancer diagnosis and care
Although the odds of developing breast cancer are nearly identical for black and white women, black women are 42 percent more likely to die from the disease.

Study examines 'small for gestational age' across European countries
A new study questions the use of common references for assessing 'small for gestational age' (SGA) in very preterm infants across Europe.

Mutation discovered that, linked with drug, predisposes osteoporosis patients to femur fracture
Bisphosphonates are the first line of fracture prevention treatment in osteoporosis.

Youth most at risk for violence or mental health issues have increased access to guns
New research being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting found adolescents who reported greatest access to guns -- either in their own home or a friend's - also were among those with higher risk for violent behavior.

Unique primary care residency program hangs in budget balance
The Teaching Health Centers program, which funds outpatient primary care residencies serving rural and indigent patients, awaits Congressional budget reauthorization at a time when there is a primary care shortage, Brown University medical scholars write in a new article in JAMA.

Climate change, tornadoes and mobile homes: A dangerous mix
Tornadoes and mobile homes don't mix to begin with, but throw in the volatility of climate change and the potential for massive property damage and deaths is even higher in coming decades, indicates a new study by Michigan State University researchers.

Researchers one step closer to understanding deadly facial tumor in Tasmanian devils
New findings in research funded by Morris Animal Foundation offer valuable insight on how to fight devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) that has resulted in a catastrophic decline in wild Tasmanian devils.

Bravery may cost fish their lives
Fish that show bravery often become prey themselves, whereas shyer individuals survive to a greater extent.

Humans are creating quite a racket, even in the wilderness
Human-related noise is doubling background sound levels in 63 percent of US protected areas, where manmade disturbances are supposed to be reduced, a new study reveals.

The liver increases by half during the day
In mammals, the liver reaches its maximum efficiency when they are active and feed.

Reading with children starting in infancy gives lasting literacy boost
New research at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting shows that reading books with a child beginning in early infancy can boost vocabulary and reading skills four years later, before the start of elementary school.

Can trusting your doctor help reduce pain?
Getting a shot at your doctor's office can be a stressful experience.

Scientists engineer baker's yeast to produce penicillin molecules
Scientists have inserted fungus genes into a yeast cell to make it produce penicillin molecules.

Discovery of a Zika antibody offers hope for a vaccine
Searching for a way to thwart Zika, scientists have discovered an antibody with a potent ability to neutralize the virus.

Kentucky study highlights harms from disruptions in children's Medicaid coverage
New research being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting suggest that when children lose state Medicaid coverage even for a short time, they are likely to go without needed health care, or to receive care in resource-intensive setting such as emergency departments rather than less expensive primary care offices.

Buprenorphine cuts length of stay nearly in half for infants withdrawing from opioids
A research team from Thomas Jefferson University published research finding buprenorphine cuts length of stay nearly in half for infants withdrawing from opioids.

'Chemobrain': Post-traumatic stress affects cognitive function in cancer patients
Subtle cognitive dysfunction and decline in breast cancer patients was largely independent of chemotherapy but associated with cancer-related post-traumatic stress in a German multi-site study.

Potential predictor of glaucoma damage identified
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a biomarker that appears linked to damage to cells in the retina of the eye.

Novel tool confers targeted, stable editing of epigenome in human stem cells
New Salk technology adds methyl groups at specific positions on DNA, allowing targeted gene correction of aberrant epigenetic disorders.

New survey reveals effects of incarceration for older Americans' work and retirement plans
Americans age 50 and older who report that they have been incarcerated at some point in their lives are more likely to express anxiety about several aspects of retirement, to have experienced unemployment in the recent past, and to have fewer sources of income for retirement than those who have not, according to a new national survey of Americans age 50 and older from The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.

Breast milk appears to aid white matter microstructural organization in preemies
To the growing list of reasons why mothers should consider breast-feeding infants, add another: Critical white matter structures in the brains of babies who are born so prematurely that they weigh less than 1,500 grams develop more robustly when their mothers breast-feed them, compared with preemie peers who are fed formula.

Swearing aloud can make you stronger
In the research, Dr Stephens and his team conducted two experiments.

Alternative treatment approach for neonatal abstinence syndrome may shorten hospital stay
New research suggests a revamped, 'common sense' approach to treating newborns suffering opioid withdrawal -- gauging whether the baby can eat, sleep and be consoled within 10 minutes before administering drugs to wean them off exposure -- may safely reduce the length of hospitalization they need.

Internet health information can reduce parents' trust in doctors' diagnoses
New research being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting suggests online health information can influence whether parents trust a diagnosis made by their child's doctor, potentially leading to delayed treatment.

Falkland Islands basin shows signs of being among world's largest craters
A basin in the Falkland Islands exhibits traits of a large impact crater, according to a new analysis by a team of scientists.

Water, water, nowhere
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering have found that the unusual properties of graphane -- a two-dimensional polymer of carbon and hydrogen -- could form a type of anhydrous 'bucket brigade' that transports protons without the need for water, potentially leading to the development of more efficient hydrogen fuel cells for vehicles and other energy systems.

Deep-seated tectonic genesis of large earthquakes in North China
In the 1960s-1970s, North China has undergone a series of strong earthquakes.

Holography with the Wi-fi-router
Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a holographic imaging process that depicts the radiation of a Wi-Fi transmitter to generate three-dimensional images of the surrounding environment.

NASA-funded sounding rocket will take 1,500 images of sun in 5 minutes
On May 5, 2017, scientists will launch a sounding rocket that will shoot 200 miles up into the atmosphere, and in just five minutes, take 1,500 images of the sun.

Type 2 diabetes genetic mapping identifies new 'loci'
Scientists are closer to understanding the genetic causes of type 2 diabetes by identifying 111 new chromosome locations ('loci') on the human genome that indicate susceptibility to the disease, according to a UCL-led study in collaboration with Imperial College London.

Surprise communication found between brain regions involved in infant motor control
A team of University of Iowa researches has discovered a new connection between two regions of the brain that may help explain how motor skills develop.

In Huntington's disease, traffic jams in the cell's control center kill brain cells
Working with mouse, fly and human cells and tissue, Johns Hopkins researchers report new evidence that disruptions in the movement of cellular materials in and out of a cell's control center -- the nucleus -- appear to be a direct cause of brain cell death in Huntington's disease, an inherited adult neurodegenerative disorder.

Greater efforts are needed to promote biopesticides
There are a number of environmental and economic reasons to promote the development and use of biological compounds as pesticides.

Handheld screen time linked with speech delays in young children
As the number of smart phones, tablets, electronic games and other handheld screens in US homes continues to grow, some children begin using these devices before beginning to talk.

Teens and adolescents who consume too much salt show unhealthy changes to blood vessels
Findings of a new study being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco suggest adolescents who consume too much salt have measurable changes in their blood vessels associated with early signs of cardiovascular disease in adults.

Advanced prostate cancer treatment failure due to cell reprogramming
Researchers have discovered a molecular mechanism that reprograms tumor cells in patients with advanced prostate cancer, reducing their response to anti-androgen therapy.

Pac-Man-like CRISPR enzymes have potential for disease diagnostics
UC Berkeley researchers have found 10 new variants of the Cas13a enzyme, the Pac-Man of the CRISPR world, that hold promise for disease diagnostics.

Scientists use satellites to count endangered birds from space
Albatrosses, one of the most iconic but also one of the most threatened groups of birds on the planet, are difficult to study in part because they breed on some of the world's remotest and most inaccessible islands.

Optical spectroscopy improves predictive assessment of kidney function
A new optical spectroscopy technique developed by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Lab promises to improve accuracy and lower costs of real-time assessment of kidney function, reports an article published this week in the Journal of Biomedical Optics.

Reasons for eczema susceptibility uncovered
Scientists have uncovered evidence that a deficiency in the skin's barrier is key to triggering eczema.

Teasing apart the effects of higher mutation load on fitness
As animals increasingly acquire interacting mutations that result in loss of gene function, the relative decline in their fitness may only be exacerbated, a new study in humans and fruit flies suggests.

Sandia develops math techniques to improve computational efficiency in quantum chemistry
Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level.

Lake water recharged by atmospheric precipitation in the Badain Jaran Desert
The water sources for the many of the lakes in the Badain Jaran Desert have been the focus of controversy in recent years.

High temperature step-by-step process makes graphene from ethene
An international team of scientists has developed a new way to produce single-layer graphene from a simple precursor: ethene -- also known as ethylene -- the smallest alkene molecule, which contains just two atoms of carbon.

Saliva test predicts prolonged concussion symptoms in children
Although most of the 3 million concussions diagnosed in the US each year occur in children, the bulk of clinical guidelines are based on adults.

Researchers develop new capabilities for genome-wide engineering of yeast
University of Illinois researchers describe how their successful integration of several cutting-edge technologies -- creation of standardized genetic components, implementation of customizable genome editing tools, and large-scale automation of molecular biology laboratory tasks -- will enhance our ability to work with yeast.

Study finds infants prescribed antacids have increased risk of fractures during childhood
New research being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting found infants prescribed antacids to manage acid reflux, or spitting up, under age 1 had more bone fractures later in childhood.

Scientists reveal how epigenetic changes in DNA are interpreted
A new study in Science from Karolinska Institutet maps out how different DNA-binding proteins in human cells react to certain biochemical modifications of the DNA molecule.

Direct and not indirect childhood abuse linked to non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents
Adolescents who were physically abused or sexually abused were more likely to engage in non-suicidal self-injury than their non-abused counterparts, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Toronto and Western University.

Snow in Hawai'i: What does the future hold?
Researchers, led by University of Hawai'i climate modelers, used satellite images to quantify recent snow cover distributions patterns on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, Hawai'i.

The final frontier of the Frontier Fields
The NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope has peered across six billion light years of space to resolve extremely faint features of the galaxy cluster Abell 370 that have not been seen before.

Good vibrations no longer needed for speakers as research encourages graphene to talk
A pioneering new technique that encourages the wonder material graphene to 'talk' could revolutionize the global audio and telecommunications industries.

Sperm study reveals testes cells that may offer fertility hope
Scientists have discovered a tiny group of cells that is critical to repairing damage to the testes.

Study finds exposure to racism harms children's health
New research to be presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies 2017 Meeting illustrates the unhealthy effects racism can have on children, with reported exposure to discrimination tied to higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression, as well as decreased general health.

ESTRO announces GIRO: A project to save one million lives in under 20 years
ESTRO aims to save one million lives by 2035 with the launch of a new partnership to bring radiotherapy to countries where its provision is lacking.

Zika virus could cost United States billions of dollars
As United States policymakers debate how to devote money and resources to the Zika virus outbreak, understanding the potential economic impact of the virus in the US is key.

Researchers identify potential Zika virus target
New research provides insights into why infection with Zika virus after birth generally causes only mild symptoms, whereas devastating fetal malformations can develop when infection occurs during pregnancy.

Hand osteoarthritis is a common condition
A new study estimates that the lifetime risk of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis is 40 percent, and nearly one in two women and one in four men will develop the condition, which affects hand strength and function and causes disability in activities of daily living.

The genetic history of Bantu speakers and their relationship to African-Americans
Researchers have used genetic analysis to model the much-debated migration paths, and mingling patterns, of Bantu-speaking people as they disseminated across Africa.

Current climate change measurements mask trade-offs necessary for policy debates
Scientists and policymakers use measurements like global warming potential to compare how varying greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide and methane, contribute to climate change.

Bio-inspired catalysts that work in water open door to greener chemical processes
Université Laval researchers have developed catalysts that, like enzymes present in living cells, are able to function efficiently in water.

New self-sustained multi-sensor platform for environmental monitoring
A research team, led by South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has engineered a self-sustaining sensor platform to continuously monitor the surrounding environment without having an external power source.

Lessons in inhumanity
Did Nazi-era physicians study medical ethics? Does the concept of medical ethics exist independently of political systems?

Researchers identify immunotherapy targets in early-stage lung cancer
Immunotherapy, which has achieved remarkable results in late-stage lung cancer patients, can also hold great hope for newly diagnosed patients, cutting the deadly disease off before it has the chance to take hold and offering a potential cure, according to a new Mount Sinai study published today in Cell.

A global movement championing science
Wiley, publishing partners engage to support science.

A first-ever find in Egypt: A funeral garden known of until now only through
The Djehuty Project, led by research professor, José Manuel Galán, from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), has discovered a 4,000-year-old funerary garden- the first such garden ever to be found- on the Dra Abu el-Naga hill in Luxor, Egypt.

Children who survive sepsis often experience lingering effects
Survival rates have risen dramatically in recent years among children who develop sepsis, a severe, life-threatening immune reaction to an infection somewhere in the body.

Exosomes derived from very obese patients' fat send wrong signals throughout body
Exosomes isolated from very obese patients behave very differently than those derived from lean patients and may be key players in heightening youths' likelihood of developing atherosclerosis -- which, in turn, places them at higher risk for suffering heart disease and stroke as adults.

Deadly nanoparcel for cancer cells
Most tumors contain regions of low oxygen concentration where cancer therapies based on the action of reactive oxygen species are ineffective.

Buprenorphine cuts neonatal abstinence syndrome treatment length by nearly half
Findings of a phase 3 clinical trial being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting show that buprenorphine is just as safe and more effective than morphine when used to treat newborns suffering withdrawal symptoms after prenatal drug exposure.

Tracking devices may improve quality of life for parents of children with autism
Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder face increased risk of injury when they wander away from adults who care for them.

A lot of galaxies need guarding in this NASA Hubble view
A stunning example is galaxy cluster called Abell 370 that contains an astounding assortment of several hundred galaxies tied together by the mutual pull of gravity.

New fiber-based sensor could quickly detect structural problems in bridges and dams
Today, there is great interest in using distributed sensors to continually monitor the structural health of large structures such as dams or bridges.

RTI finds TROSA, an innovative substance abuse treatment program, saves NC $7.5 million annually
TROSA, a therapeutic community providing substance abuse treatment and job training, saves North Carolina $7.5 million every year, according to an independent study conducted by RTI International.

ER visits related to marijuana use at a Colorado hospital quadruple after legalization
Visits by teens to a Colorado children's hospital emergency department and its satellite urgent care centers increased rapidly after legalization of marijuana for commercialized medical and recreational use, according to new research being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco.

New technology measures small-scale currents that transport ocean plastics, oil spills
Researchers at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science have developed a new technology to measure the currents near the ocean's surface that carry pollutants such as plastics and spilled oil.

Unveiling the bottlenecks to discovering the root causes of rare genetic diseases
A commentary paper including feedback from 40 scientists, says international cooperation is needed now more than ever; despite advances in technology and decades of research, the genetic mutations behind half of the 7,000 known rare genetic diseases in the world remain a mystery.

Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia at time of diagnosis
On diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow often show alterations in gene and protein expression, proliferation capacity, and function, but whether these are a cause or result of malignancy is not well understood.

Study suggests omega-3 in mothers' diets may lower children's risk of type 1 diabetes
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) suggests that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derived primarily from fish in maternal diet during pregnancy or lactation, may help protect infants at high risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from developing the disease.

Decades of data on world's oceans reveal a troubling oxygen decline
A new analysis of decades of data on oceans across the globe has revealed that the amount of dissolved oxygen contained in the water -- an important measure of ocean health -- has been declining for more than 20 years.

Stink bugs: Free guide for agricultural integrated pest management
Farmers in the midwestern United States have been battling increasing infestations from a variety of stink bug species in recent years, and now they have a new free resource for understanding and managing the emerging pests.

Heart failure is as 'malignant' as some common cancers
A new analysis finds that, despite advances in care, men and women with a diagnosis of heart failure continue to have worse survival rates than patients with certain common cancers.

Study: Models that forecast impact of government spending are easily manipulated
Economists have found that the most widely used model for predicting how US government spending affects gross domestic product (GDP) can be rigged using theoretical assumptions to control forecasts.

Parkinson: Weight gain after deep brain stimulation
It was already known that people affected by Parkinson's disease, when subjected to deep brain stimulation, gained weight, but it was less clear why that was so.

Osimertinib improves symptoms in advanced lung cancer patients
Osimertinib improves cancer-related symptoms in patients with advanced lung cancer, according to an analysis of patient-reported outcomes from the AURA3 phase III clinical trial presented at the European Lung Cancer Conference (ELCC).

The first one bit chemical memory unit: The 'chit'
In classical computer science information is stored in bits, in quantum computer science -- in quantum bits, i.e. qubits.

Unlocking the barrier
Already extolled for their health benefits as a food compound, omega-3 fatty acids now appear to also play a critical role in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which protects the central nervous system from blood-borne bacteria, toxins and other pathogens, according to new research from Harvard Medical School.

Study unravels the genetics of childhood 'overgrowth'
Researchers have undertaken the world's largest genetic study of childhood overgrowth syndromes -- providing new insights into their causes, and new recommendations for genetic testing.

Study finds 16 US children hospitalized for firearms injuries each day
New research being highlighted at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco reveals that firearms injuries caused more than 5,800 US youth to be hospitalized in 2012, or roughly 16 children each day.

Some lung cancer patients benefit from immunotherapy even after disease progression
Some advanced lung cancer patients benefit from immunotherapy even after the disease has progressed as evaluated by standard criteria, according to research presented at the European Lung Cancer Conference (ELCC).

Study finds social challenges amplify negative effects of childhood lead exposure
Scientists already know early lead exposure can slow a child's cognitive and language development.

KAIST team identifies the novel molecular signal for triggering septic shock
Professor Seyun Kim's team from KAIST reported the mechanism by which cellular signaling transduction network is exquisitely controlled in mediating innate immune response such as sepsis by the enzyme IPMK (Inositol polyphosphate multikinase) essential for inositol biosynthesis metabolism.

For richer or poorer, we all eat fast food
Whether rich or poor, one thing unites Americans of all economic classes: Our love for fast food.

'Health halo' foods likely to pass parents' scrutiny by not examining nutrition labels
Parents choosing foods for their children are significantly more likely to purchase 'health halo' products -- branded to cause misleading assumptions of good nutritional value.

Affluent countries contribute less to wildlife conservation than the rest of the world
Less affluent countries are more committed to conservation of their large animals than richer ones, a new Oxford University research collaboration has found.

Sugar-sweetened beverages becoming more affordable around the world
A new American Cancer Society study concludes that sugar-sweetened beverages have become more affordable around the globe, and are likely to become even more affordable and more widely consumed.

New intervention brings hope to patients with primary progressive aphasia
A Baycrest Health Sciences researcher and clinician has developed the first group language intervention that helps individuals losing the ability to speak due to a rare form of dementia, and could help patients maintain their communication abilities for longer.

First EPA-approved outdoor field trial for genetically engineered algae
Scientists have successfully completed the first outdoor field trial sanctioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency for genetically engineered algae.

Children's hospitals admissions for suicidal thoughts or actions double during past decade
The number of children and adolescents admitted to children's hospitals for thoughts of suicide or self-harm more than doubled during the last decade, according to new research being presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco.

In home healthcare, not speaking patients' native language negatively affect care outcomes
The study examined language concordance visits -- duty calls where the provider spoke the same language as the patient or an interpreter accompanied the provider -- for registered nurses (RN) and physical therapists (PT) from home health care services in the New York City area.

Genetic findings in 'type 1.5' diabetes may shed light on better diagnosis, treatment
Researchers investigating a form of adult-onset diabetes that shares features with the two better-known types of diabetes have discovered genetic influences that may offer clues to more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Why does so much of nature rely on sex for reproduction?
Why is sex so popular among plants and animals, and why isn't asexual reproduction, or cloning, a more common reproductive strategy?

Cranky crabs in broken shells often have the upper claw in fights
Sheer aggression rather than pure muscle strength often gives hermit crabs living in broken shells the edge during a fight.

New microscopic technique could help detect, diagnose metastatic melanomas
The fight against skin cancer just got a new weapon.

Circadian clock changes can alter body's response to diet
Changing the circadian clock in mouse liver can alter how the body responds to diet and also change the microbes living in the digestive track.

Researchers identify 6,500 genes that are expressed differently in men and women
Men and women differ in obvious and less obvious ways -- for example, in the prevalence of certain diseases or reactions to drugs.

Noisy knees may be an early sign of knee osteoarthritis
A new study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a multi-center observational study of nearly 3500 participants, indicates that people who hear grating, cracking, or popping sounds in or around their knee joint may be at increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis.

Living in a poor area increases the risk of anxiety in women, but not in men
Women living in the most deprived areas are over 60 percent more likely to have anxiety as women living in richer areas.

Biomarker test for ALS useful in diagnosing canine neurodegenerative disease
In 2009, Joan Coates, a veterinary neurologist, along with other researchers at the University of Missouri and the Broad Institute at MIT/Harvard, found a genetic link between degenerative myelopathy (DM) in dogs and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease.

Increased rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts among transgender adults reported
Suicidal thoughts and attempts by adult transgender individuals were 14 and 22 times higher, respectively, than rates for the general public, according to a new study.

Edible insects could play key role in cutting harmful emissions
Eating insects instead of beef could help tackle climate change by reducing harmful emissions linked to livestock production, research suggests.

Warwick Research: Believe you can stop climate change and you will
If we believe that we can personally help stop climate change with individual actions -- such as turning the thermostat down -- then we are more likely to make a difference, according to research from the University of Warwick.

Alcohol marketing in popular movies doubles in past 2 decades
Alcohol brand placements in popular movies of all ratings nearly doubled during the past two decades, new research shows, but particularly in child-rated movies.

Disappointed by House action, AGS urges Senate to reject amended American Health Care Act
The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) remains opposed to the amended American Health Care Act (AHCA) that today passed the US House of Representatives despite serious concerns from geriatrics experts and a host of other stakeholders across health care.

For people with Down syndrome, varying test results can make it harder to get the right vision prescription
Even objective, automated vision testing -- using a device called an autorefractor -- gives variable results in patients with Down syndrome, reports a study in the May issue of Optometry and Vision Science, the official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.

Atlases of immune cells surrounding tumors may guide immunotherapy
Two independent studies have begun mapping the connections between and identities of the thousands of immune cells surrounding human tumors.

Russians may be happier than they appear, but they hide it
A comparative cross-cultural study conducted by the HSE International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation has found that Russians tend to be as open with their friends as Americans, but unlike Americans, Russians prefer to hide their happiness when talking to strangers or government officials.

Grandparents who practice outdated health myths may pose safety threat on grandchildren
Many grandparents raising their grandchildren practice outdated health and parenting myths that could potentially pose serious risks to young children, according to illuminating new research by a Northwell Health pediatrician.

White blood cell count predicts response to lung cancer immunotherapy
White blood cell counts can predict whether or not lung cancer patients will benefit from immunotherapy, according to research presented at the European Lung Cancer Conference (ELCC).

Wonder what drives protein cravings? This study will satiate your curiosity
Researchers have identified the neural circuit that drives protein cravings in fruit flies.

Trash into treasure: Sandia could help biofuel pay for itself with goods made from waste
A recent discovery by Sandia National Laboratories researchers may unlock the potential of biofuel waste -- and ultimately make biofuels competitive with petroleum.

How bears bulk up ahead of the summer: A study into the Asiatic black bear's spring diet
Much like gym enthusiasts, every year Asiatic black bears seem to be on the lookout for protein-rich food ahead of the summer, so that they can bulk up on lean muscle mass in place of the fat tissue formed last year prior to hibernation.

Biggest X-ray laser in the world generates its first laser light
European XFEL, the biggest X-ray laser in the world, has generated its first X-ray laser light.

Results of prospective randomized phase III study of the EBMT (Ricmac trial) dose-reduced versus standard conditioning followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome
The EBMT announces the results from the RICMAC trial, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology on Tuesday 2 May 2017.

Ordinary sounding expressions of teen angst may signal early depression
While it's estimated at least one in 10 teens in the US suffer from depression at some point, few will use the word 'depressed' to describe negative emotions hanging over them.

Cage-constrained growth of engineered cartilage reduces swelling and improves function
Researchers have shown that a novel cage constraint can prevent engineered cartilage from swelling during growth in culture, leading to better collagen stability and enhanced functional properties of the cartilage.

With more light, chemistry speeds up
Light initiates many chemical reactions. Experiments at the Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the University of Warsaw's Faculty of Physics have for the first time demonstrated that increasing the intensity of illumination some reactions can be significantly faster.

'Smart contact lens sensor' for diabetic and glaucoma diagnosis
A research team, led by South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has proposed the possibility of in situ human health monitoring simply by wearing a contact lens with built-in wireless smart sensors.

Prevalence of visual impairment among preschool children projected to increase
The number of preschool children in the US with visual impairment is projected to increase by more than 25 percent in the coming decades, with the majority of visual impairment resulting from simple uncorrected refractive error, according to a study published by JAMA Ophthalmology.

Cervical cancer survivors suffer from fatigue, insomnia and hot flushes
Around half of women who have been treated for locally advanced cervical cancer suffer from symptoms of insomnia, fatigue or hot flushes at some point, according to new research presented at the ESTRO 36 conference.

NASA measures rainfall rates in Tropical Cyclone Donna
NASA found that Tropical Cyclone Donna is generating heavy rainfall as the storm is forecast to move over Vanuatu in the Southern Pacific Ocean.

3-D printers open new design space for wireless devices
Duke materials scientists and chemists have shown a way to bring electromagnetic metamaterials into the third dimension using commercial 3-D printers.

Transgender patients not electing as much gender-affirming surgery as many believe, study finds
Researchers from Boston Medical Center have conducted the first study in the US to determine the prevalence of gender-affirming surgeries among a defined group of transgender patients, and found that most patients did not elect to have surgery.

First underwater carpet cloak realized, with metamaterial
Researchers at the Institute of Acoustics (IOA) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have designed and fabricated an underwater acoustic carpet cloak using transformation acoustics, a scientific first.

Queen's research shows illegal levels of arsenic found in baby foods
Researchers from Queen's University Belfast have found that almost half of baby rice food products contain illegal levels of inorganic arsenic despite new regulations set by the EU.

Discovery of new pathway in brain has implications for schizophrenia treatment
Neuroscientists at Tufts have discovered a new signaling pathway that directly connects the brain's NMDA and a7nACh receptors -- both associated with learning and memory -- which has significance for development of drugs to treat schizophrenia.

The digitization of medical knowledge
Researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have challenged traditional teaching and learning concepts employed in medical training.

JNeurosci: Highlights from the May 3 issue
Check out these newsworthy studies from the May 3, 2017, issue of JNeurosci.

Improving control of age-related obesity
Research results promise new approaches for prevention and treatment of the condition.

Treatment seeks to address exacerbations of COPD
A new study finds that delivery of oxygen via high-flow nasal tubes may help patients who experience exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to