Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 31, 2017
A brave new world for coral reefs
It is not too late to save coral reefs, but we must act now.

Penn study links heart rate to gender gap in criminal offending
A new study from the University of Pennsylvania published in the journal Criminology, addresses the incomplete understanding of why males are more criminal than females by examining gender differences in biological functioning and behavior.

Findings suggest reducing target SBP to below recommended levels could significantly reduce risk
Reducing systolic blood pressure (SBP) to levels below currently recommended targets may significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause death, according to a study published by JAMA Cardiology.

CNIO presents an online tool to extract drug toxicity information from text
The Biological Text Mining Unit presents in a recent Nucleic Acids Research paper the LimTox online software tool developed at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO).

When it comes to learning and memory, the brain is a co-operative continuum
Drs. Tim Bussey and Lisa Saksida have introduced a new theory about memory.

High blood sugar following surgery common, increases risk of complications
High blood sugar, also known as hyperglycemia, occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to turn blood glucose into energy.

Queen's researchers make breakthrough discovery in fight against bowel cancer
New research led by Queen's University Belfast has discovered how a genomic approach to understanding bowel (colorectal) cancer could improve the prognosis and quality of life for patients.

Linguistic style is key to crowdfunding success
In one of the first crowdfunding studies focusing on social enterprises, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have found that how a pitch is voiced and worded is much more important for social entrepreneurs than for their commercial counterparts.

Mass. General researchers show how Shigella survives the gastrointestinal tract
Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital have discovered how the bacteria Shigella survives its journey from the mouth to the colon, taking advantage of substances that would kill many less persistent organisms.

Tea consumption leads to epigenetic changes in women
Epigenetic changes are chemical modifications that turn our genes off or on.

Obesity can lead to more severe hot flashes and other menopause symptoms
Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flashes and night sweats, cause serious discomfort in many women at menopause.

Physicists create 'molecular black hole' using ultra-intense X-ray pulses
As a powerful X-ray light hits a molecule, the heaviest atom absorbs a few hundred times more X-rays than all the other atoms and strips away most of its electrons.

Moffitt improves radiation therapy for head and neck patients
The researchers are able to use the radiosensitivity index within a mathematical framework to select the optimum radiotherapy dose for each patient based on their individual tumor biology.

Critical molecular determinants for activation of calcium flux into cells revealed
Triggered by decreases in ER Ca2+ level, conformational changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal domain in STIM1 would switch on its cytoplasmic domain (CT) to engage and gate ORAI channels on plasma membrane, resulting in Ca2+ influx.

Oxytocin reduces cravings for methamphetamine
Many people have suggested that addiction hijacks the body's natural drives in the service of compulsive drug use.

Emory researchers closer to cracking neural code of love
Neuroscientists have discovered a key connection between areas of the adult female prairie vole's brain reward system that promotes the emergence of pair bonds.

Peek into your genes: NASA 1-year mission investigators identify links to vision problems
Coinciding with May -- Healthy Vision Month, NASA's One-Year Mission investigators are peering into their new findings to help address astronaut vision issues.

Study offers hard data on food allergies
In a new study, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital combed through medical records from more than 2.7 million patients, identifying more than 97,000 with one or more documented food allergy or intolerance.

Mining for answers on abandoned mines
In the western United States 160,000 abandoned mines contaminate soils in the region.

How our brains integrate online reviews into our own product preferences
UCL researchers have identified how the human brain integrates social information when a person decides how much they like something, by studying how user reviews on Amazon influence how people rate the products.

Human activity has polluted European air for 2,000 years, study finds
A new study combining European ice core data and historical records of the infamous Black Death pandemic of 1349-1353 shows metal mining and smelting have polluted the environment for thousands of years, challenging the widespread belief that environmental pollution began with the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s and 1800s.

American Muslim women report depression linked to internalized stigma and abuse
A new study of Muslim women in the US found a significant association between heightened vigilance, as a measure of internalized stigma, and increased risk for depression.

Texas A&M research suggests strokes may cause increased preference for alcohol
Brain changes after stroke may lead to increase in alcohol-seeking behavior, at least in animal models, according to research published Wednesday in the journal Scientific Reports.

Think you know how to improve your memory? Think again
Research from Katherine Duncan at the University of Toronto suggests we may have to rethink how we improve memory.

Giant ringed planet likely cause of mysterious eclipses
A giant gas planet -- up to fifty times the mass of Jupiter, encircled by a ring of dust -- is likely hurtling around a star more than a thousand light years away from Earth, according to new research by an international team of astronomers, led by the University of Warwick.

'Harder, better, faster, stronger'-tethered soft exosuit reduces metabolic cost of running
What if running the 26.2 miles of a marathon only felt like running 24.9 miles, or if you could improve your average running pace from 9:14 minutes/mile to 8:49 minutes/mile without weeks of training?

Storytime a 'turbocharger' for a child's brain
Evidence shows benefits of shared reading may improve literacy and brain development.

Supportive housing improves health of formerly homeless people with HIV/AIDS
Ask Elizabeth Bowen about the intersection of homelessness and HIV/AIDS in the United States and she'll respond without hesitation, 'Housing equals health.'

Bed bugs: Proactive pest management critical in multi-unit housing
Amid the persistent threat of bed bug infestations in multi-unit housing, the best advice for property owners, managers, and tenants looking to avoid the pests is the same advice that applies to many other afflictions: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

Making prosthetic limbs feel more natural
A new surgical technique devised by MIT researchers could allow prosthetic limbs to feel much more like natural limbs.

Family support moderates college students' feelings of loneliness, suicide
When college students feel isolated and disconnected, support from family members can keep them from harming themselves during difficult times, according to a new University of Michigan study.

NASA sees formation of Tropical Depression Two-E in Eastern Pacific Ocean
The second tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean hurricane season formed near southwestern Mexico.

Handheld scanner reveals vascularization in psoriasis patients
A newly developed tissue scanner allows looking under the skin of psoriasis patients.

Stanford technique pinpoints the 'partners in crime' of cancer genes
Batman and Robin. Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. Fiction is full of dynamic duos that work together to accomplish amazing feats.

Take a look, and you'll see, into your imagination
Using fMRI signals and Deep Neural Network AI, researchers decode and predict what a subject is seeing or imagining.

Scientists ID 100 memory genes, open new avenues of brain study
Scientists have identified more than 100 genes linked to memory, opening new avenues of research to better understand memory processing in the human brain.

Possible correlation shown between TMI nuclear accident and thyroid cancers
Penn State College of Medicine researchers have shown, for the first time, a possible correlation between the partial meltdown of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station and thyroid cancers in the counties surrounding the plant.

Mycobacteria use protein to create diverse populations, avoid drugs
Subgroups of tuberculosis-causing bacteria can persist even when antibiotics wipe out most of the population.

From terrestrial and marine bioresources and wastes to value-added products
One of the main objectives of bio-based economy is to provide end markets with a wide selection of bio-based products.

Cane toads have a salty secret to protect themselves when shedding skin
What happens to a cane toad's internal chemistry when it has to shed its skin to replace worn out skin cells?

The role of science in combatting the opioid crisis
Opioid misuse and addiction is an ongoing and rapidly evolving public health crisis, requiring innovative scientific solutions.

Internet withdrawal increases heart rate and blood pressure
Scientists and clinicians from Swansea and Milan have found that some people who use the internet a lot experience significant physiological changes such as increased heart rate and blood pressure when they finish using the internet.

Immunotherapy with DNA vaccine shows promise for HPV-related head and neck cancer
A novel vaccine therapy can generate immune responses in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa), according to researchers at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

Pain drugs work more effectively, from the inside
Researchers have discovered new insights about pain transmission in neurons, which could aid in the development of alternatives to opioids and more effective analgesics.

Radiation therapy, macrophages improve efficacy of nanoparticle-delivered cancer therapy
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators report finding finding how appropriately timed radiation therapy can significantly improve the delivery of cancer nanomedicines by attracting macrophages to tumor blood vessels, which results in a transient 'burst' of nanoencapsulated drugs from capillaries into the tumor.

Burden of multiple chronic illness told through new chartbook
About 60 percent of American adults suffer from at least one chronic health condition and 42 percent have more than one -- a burden that is expected to grow as the nation's population grows older.

Bamboo inspires optimal design for lightness and toughness
The spatial distribution of fibers in hollow bamboo cylinders is optimized to reinforce flexural rigidity, a new finding that sheds light on biomimetic approaches in the development of materials.

Largest study to date finds autism alone does not increase risk of violent offending
A diagnosis of autism alone does not increase the risk of violent offending suggests a study published in the June 2017 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP).

Clinical trial shows experimental drug's ability to knock down pancreatic cancer's defense
By adding an experimental drug to a standard chemotherapy regimen, a subset of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer had a significantly longer period before the cancer progressed as compared with those who received the standard treatment, according to a Phase 2 clinical trial led by an investigator at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Acidified ocean water widespread along North American West Coast
A three-year survey of the California Current System along the West Coast of the United States found persistent, highly acidified water throughout this ecologically critical nearshore habitat, with 'hotspots' of pH measurements as low as any oceanic surface waters in the world.

Gaps in hepatitis testing and monitoring programmes across the EU/EEA
The survey results suggest a wide variation in existing national testing policy and practice when it comes to hepatitis B and C -- with overall limited monitoring of testing, diagnosis, and treatment across EU/EEA Member States.

Take control to become a better parent
A new study, published in Frontiers in Psychology, found that a parent's outlook on life can have a profound influence on the behavior of their child.

Scientists discover how some pigs cope in cold climates
A new paper in the Journal of Molecular Cell Biology revealed that pig breeds such as Tibetan pigs and Min pigs use a unique method to survive when exposed to cold environments.

Social and emotional learning essential for children's educational success
The Trump administration hopes to slash $10.6 billion from current education initiatives to instead promote school choice.

Detecting Alzheimer's disease before symptoms emerge
Cognitive tests can detect early Alzheimer's disease in older adults without symptoms, according to a new Keck School of Medicine of USC study.

Combined modality treatment could be first course for muscle-invasive bladder cancer
A meta-analysis of previously published cancer research showed no difference in five-year and 10-year survival rates between patients who underwent radical cystectomy, which is the surgical removal of the bladder, and a bladder-preserving combined modality treatment (CMT) plan, which combines radiation therapy, chemotherapy and the removal of the bladder tumor.

Cold conversion of food waste into renewable energy and fertilizer
Researchers from Concordia's Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering (BCEE) in collaboration with Bio-Terre Systems Inc. are taking the fight against global warming to colder climes.

The world's most powerful X-ray laser beam creates 'molecular black hole'
When scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory focused the full intensity of the world's most powerful X-ray laser on a small molecule, they got a surprise: a single laser pulse stripped all but a few electrons out of the molecule's biggest atom from the inside out, leaving a void that started pulling in electrons from the rest of the molecule, like a black hole gobbling a spiraling disk of matter.

Random numbers: Hard times ahead for hackers
Researchers from UNIGE have developed a new random numbers generator based on the principles of quantum physics.

All heart patients have some liver disease after Fontan surgery
Patients who undergo the Fontan operation as children for a complex congenital heart defect are at risk of developing progressive liver fibrosis, a buildup of fibrous deposits, as a result of the circulation created by the surgery.

Wearable system helps visually impaired users navigate
Researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) have developed a new system that uses a 3-D camera, a belt with separately controllable vibrational motors distributed around it, and an electronically reconfigurable Braille interface to give visually impaired users more information about their environments.

Paleobiologists make intriguing new discoveries about dinosaurs' ancestors
Dinosaurs' closest ancestors were at the base of the bird branch.

Progress reported in global fight against diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis
Infectious disease scientists from Novartis, the University of Georgia and Washington State University have reported the discovery and early validation of a drug candidate for treating cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease which is a major cause of child mortality in lower-income countries.

Brain's immune cells linked to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia
Salk and UC San Diego scientists conducted vast microglia survey, revealing links to neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric illnesses

Ludwig researchers present new findings at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting
Ludwig Cancer Research released today the full scope of Ludwig's participation at this year's American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting in Chicago, June 2-6.

When gold turns invisible
A gold compound shifts from a visible fluorescence to emitting infrared when ground -- a big shift with potential applications in bioimaging and security inks.

Spotted owls benefit from forest fire mosaic
Fire is a crucial part of the forest ecosystem on which threatened spotted owls rely, but climate change and decades of fire suppression are changing the dynamics of these forests.

The fairer -- The greener
Researchers establish link between unequal income distribution and the economic value of nature.

Prevention to precision, SWOG presents a raft of research at ASCO 2017
Researchers from SWOG, a cancer clinical trials group funded by the National Cancer Institute, will participate in 32 presentations to be made at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the world's largest clinical cancer research meeting, which runs June 2-6 in Chicago.

Personalized cell therapy combination achieves complete remission in CLL patients
Combining the kinase inhibitor ibrutinib with an investigational personalized cellular therapy known as CTL119 can lead to complete remission in patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Penn's Abramson Cancer Center (ACC).

Russian scientists improved an X-ray fluorescence analysis algorithm
Scientists from the Faculty of Chemistry of the Lomonosov Moscow State University have performed computations and derived new equations, allowing to conduct X-ray fluorescence analysis with higher accuracy in comparison to algorithms existing nowadays.

How does water get to homes? Hint: It isn't magic
New Indiana University research shows many Americans don't know how clean water gets to their homes and especially what happens after wastewater is flushed away, knowledge that is vital in confronting challenges including droughts and failing infrastructure that can lead to contamination.

Social emotional learning interventions show promise, warrant further study
Developing a child's social and emotional learning skills in early childhood is seen as a key to the child's success in school, but researchers are still working to understand which interventions most effectively boost those skills.

NASA sees Cyclone Mora still packing punch after landfall
Satellite data showed heavy rain and high cloud tops in Tropical Cyclone Mora after the storm came ashore in Bangladesh.

Building mental toughness off the field -- it's all about practice
By the end of each academic semester, most college students struggle with a drop in attention spans and increased stress, especially student-athletes.

Women 'damned either way' on maternity leave
Women are judged negatively if they choose to take maternity leave -- and if they don't -- new research suggests.

Clinical trial investigates Alzheimer's disease drug in people with Down syndrome
A phase 2 clinical trial in young adults with Down syndrome of a drug being investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease supports further investigation of its potential.

Outnumbered and on others' turf, misfits sometimes thrive
Evolutionary biologists have long assumed that when an individual of a species wanders into a different environment than it is adapted to, it will be at a competitive disadvantage compared to natives of the same species which are adapted to that environment.

Half of adults with anxiety or depression report chronic pain
In a survey of adults with anxiety or a mood disorder like depression or bipolar disorder, about half reported experiencing chronic pain, according to researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.

Sugar sponges sop up and release glucose as needed
Many diabetes patients must inject themselves with insulin, sometimes several times a day, while others take medications orally to control blood sugar.

Pay $8 for a Buddha-shaped pear foolish or fun? Your age may predict your answer
Square watermelons, star- and heart-shaped cucumbers, and even Buddha-shaped pears can be found in some grocery store produce bins.

New insights into mechanisms regulating gene expression in embryonic stem cells
Researchers from Turku, Finland, have discovered new information about the mechanisms which maintain gene activity in human embryonic stem cells.

Spotting the invisible
Chemists at UmeƄ University in Sweden have succeeded in mapping structures and functions of a transient enzyme state.

Study highlights formation of beachrock in resisting climate-induced sea level rises
Microorganisms play a crucial role in forming beachrock, a type of rock that forms on the beach and protects low-lying reef islands from erosion, a new study involving University of Queensland research has revealed.

Scripps Florida scientist wins $2 million grant to study childhood disorder
Assistant Professor Seth Tomchik of the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has received $2 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).

1976 drought revealed as worst on record for British butterflies and moths
Scientists at the University of York have revealed that the 1976 drought is the worst extreme event to affect butterflies and moths in the 50 years since detailed records began.

New targeted molecular therapy takes aim at incurable prostate cancer
First clinical trial of new targeted molecular therapy in US takes aim at incurable prostate cancer.

Visual recognition memory impaired after multiple exposures to anesthesia during infancy
Repeated exposure to a common anesthesia drug early in life results in visual recognition memory impairment, which emerges after the first year of life and may persist long-term, according to a study from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published online May 31 in The British Journal of Anaesthesia.

Detecting bloodstains -- with an antimalarial compound
As seen on crime shows, investigators use a combination of luminol and other substances to light up bloodstains at crime scenes.

Sharing voluntarily makes young kids happy
These findings, published in Frontiers in Psychology, provide fascinating insights into the psychology of preschool age children, and the first evidence that sharing under social norms is less emotionally rewarding than sharing voluntarily.

Chronic pain may be due to receptors that hide within nerve cells
Chronic pain occurs when receptors are drawn inside the nerve cell, out of the reach of pain medications.

Monash University researchers develop game changing strategy for pain relief
Researchers from Monash University have developed a new drug delivery strategy able to block pain within the nerve cells, in what could be a major development of an immediate and long lasting treatment for pain.

Newly identified microbial process could reduce toxic methylmercury levels
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has identified a novel microbial process that can break down toxic methylmercury in the environment, a fundamental scientific discovery that could potentially reduce mercury toxicity levels and support health and risk assessments.

We're on the brink of mass extinction -- but there's still time to pull back
Imagine being a scuba diver and leaving your oxygen tank behind you on a dive.

Health care process a roadblock for adolescents with autism and their caregivers
Nancy Cheak-Zamora, assistant professor of health sciences at MU, says that as more children with autism enter adulthood, improved communication between providers, adolescents and caregivers is needed to help those with autism make adult health care decisions.

Restored ocean will alleviate poverty, provide jobs, and improve health, finds report
With climate change and social inequity addressed, restoring the ocean will help alleviate poverty, provide livelihoods, and improve the health of millions around the world.

Web-based search data is a new key to understanding public reaction to major events
Analyzing millions of internet searches tied to major societal events offers a new way to understand public reaction to those events, according to new research from the Richard M.

New in the Hastings Center Report May-June 2017
Are opioid treatment agreements ethical? With

Bacteria may supercharge the future of wastewater treatment
Wastewater treatment plants have a PR problem: People don't like to think about what happens to the waste they flush down their toilets.

X-ray pulses create 'molecular black hole'
Scientists have used an ultra-bright pulse of X-ray light to turn an atom in a molecule briefly into a sort of electromagnetic black hole.

Support for tidal energy is high among Washington residents
A new University of Washington study found that people who believe climate change is a problem and see economic, environmental and/or social benefits to using tidal energy are more likely to support such projects.

Cancer therapy shows promise for psoriasis treatment
HDAC inhibitors, already widely used to treat cancer, may be an effective therapy for psoriasis as well, scientists report.

Reading to therapy dogs improves literacy attitudes in second-grade students
Second-grade students who read aloud to dogs in an afterschool program demonstrated improved attitudes about reading, according to researchers at Tufts Institute for Human-Animal Interaction at Tufts University.

New tech promises easier cervical cancer screening
Duke University researchers have developed a handheld device for cervical cancer screening that promises to do away with uncomfortable speculums and high-cost colposcopes.

UT study shows virus infection may be linked to Toledo water crisis
In August 2014, toxins from algal blooms in Lake Erie shut down the city of Toledo, Ohio's water supply, leaving half a million residents without potable water for more than two days.

Searching beyond graphene for new wonder materials
Graphene, the two-dimensional, ultra lightweight and super-strong carbon film, has been hailed as a wonder material since its discovery in 2004.

Like a slice of pizza, a curvature could give fish fins their strength
Brown University engineers have shown that applying curvature to the base of a fish fin can increase its stiffness, an effect that could underlie the maneuverability of fish and provide a new design concept for robotic swimmers.

Researchers listen to zebrafish to understand human hearing loss
Can a fish with a malformed jaw tell us something about hearing loss in mice and humans?

New details on nest preferences of declining sparrow
Theory says that birds should choose nest sites that minimize their risk of predation, but studies often fail to show a connection between nest site selection and nest survival.

Looking at complex light wave forms
Using a new method, researchers can see for the first time how weak electric fields evolve in time.

Nitrogen oxides emissions: Traffic dramatically underestimated as major polluter
Traffic contributes more to nitrogen oxide emissions in Europe than previously thought.

Kids in high-achieving schools: Addiction down the road?
They have what most would want -- affluent upwardly mobile parents, living in comfortable homes in the suburbs, going to an elite high school and being groomed for the nation's best colleges.

Survey finds men don't talk about their family health history risks
New survey finds 4 out of 5 men have never talked to a family member about sexual health.

Young adult substance abuse down 41 percent among PROSPER program participants
Children who participated in the PROSPER (PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience) program over seven years ago showed lower rates of substance abuse after high school graduation, according to a new study conducted by researchers from Pennsylvania State and Iowa State Universities and published in a recent issue of Psychological Medicine.

Tourists risk animal bites by misreading wild monkey facial expressions as 'kisses'
Wildlife tourists frequently mistaking animals' warnings of aggression for 'smiles' and 'kisses', leading to welfare problems for primates and risk of injury for people -- and educational tools such as 2-D images and information signs like those found in zoos or animal parks aren't effective at improving recognition, according to a new study by a team of behavioral ecologists and psychologists.

NASA orbiter finds new evidence of frost on moon's surface
Scientists using data from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, have identified bright areas in craters near the moon's south pole that are cold enough to have frost present on the surface.

High release of strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide found from northern peatlands at permafrost thaw
A recent study led by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland reveals that permafrost thaw may greatly increase emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from northern permafrost peatlands.

Lingering risk of suicide after discharge from psychiatric facilities
A study that synthesized more than 50 years of research into suicide rates for patients after discharge from psychiatric facilities suggests the immediate period after discharge was a time of marked risk and that the risk remained high years after discharge, according to a new article published by JAMA Psychiatry.

Common acne medication offers new treatment for multiple sclerosis
A research team from the Cumming School of Medicine's Hotchkiss Brain Institute have published important research which will benefit individuals who are in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Zinc may hold key to fighting liver disease
New research from Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research highlights the potential for zinc to be used as a simple and effective therapeutic against viral infections such as hepatitis C and influenza.

Advances in bayesian methods for big data
Big Data has imposed great challenges for machine learning. Bayesian methods provide a profound framework for characterizing the intrinsic uncertainty and performing probabilistic inference and decision-making.

Drug-delivery method holds promise for controlling crop parasites
Nematodes cause $157 billion in crop damage annually, largely because traditional pesticides fail to reach plant roots, where the round worms do their damage.

Study shows big smart meter investment yielded 'very small' electricity savings
Researchers at the University of Waterloo compared data for nine months before and nine months after time-of-use rates were introduced in November 2011 by an unidentified distribution company with more than 20,000 household customers in southwestern Ontario.

New connection sprouts between Alzheimer's disease and the immune system
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital have found new clues from preclinical models to indicate that this 'synaptic refinement' may play a role in neurodegenerative disease.

Horses masticate similarly to ruminants
In contrast to ruminants, horses chew their food only once -- but with the same regu-lar, rhythmic movements as cows, who ruminate their food after eating, as demon-strated by researchers at the University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich.

In a cosmic hit-and-run, icy Saturn moon may have flipped
Enceladus -- a large icy, oceanic moon of Saturn -- may have flipped, the possible victim of an out-of-this-world wallop.

Metabolic enzyme fuels molecular machinery of memory
Researchers have discovered, in the mouse brain, that a key metabolic enzyme works directly within the nucleus of neurons to turn genes on or off when new memories are being established. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to