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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 05, 2017


Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus and therapeutic approaches to prevent it
The devastating effects of Zika virus on the brain of the developing fetus during infection in pregnancy have led to intensive research to understand the routes of Zika virus transmission and how the virus travels to and infects the fetus.
Targeted therapies show initial effectiveness in subset of papillary thyroid cancer
Two immunotherapy drugs currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of melanoma also show promise for treating a rare but aggressive form of papillary thyroid cancer, according to new research led by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G.
Chronic pain linked to increased risk of dementia in study of older adults
Researchers at UC San Francisco have found that older people with persistent pain show quicker declines in memory as they age and are more likely to have dementia years later, an indication that chronic pain could somehow be related to changes in the brain that contribute to dementia.
CONNECT registry shows only 9 percent compliance with genetic testing guidelines for AML
A study presented today at the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting 2017 shows only 9 percent of 259 evaluated AML patients received all seven of the NCCN-recommended genetic tests.
Cell phone use and distracted driving begins in the mind
Even simple cell phone conversations can cause distracted driving. Researchers have found listening on the phone while driving creates a lag in the mind to extract itself from one object before fixing attention on another object.
Mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, diabetes
Preliminary data from two studies suggest that mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension and diabetes.
Is there a link between infertility and child educational outcomes?
Findings from study co-authored by a University of Illinois at Chicago sociologist suggest that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement -- both test scores and grade point average -- at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own.
First long-term study of Murray-Darling Basin wetlands reveals severe impact of dams
A landmark 30-year-long UNSW Sydney study of wetlands in eastern Australia has found that construction of dams and diversion of water from the Murray-Darling Basin have led to a more than 70 percent decline in waterbird numbers.
Savvy sports audiences care about team sponsorship deals
Companies and sports team owners should never underestimate the communication impact of the sponsorship deals they make.
New allocation system reduces racial/ethnic disparities in kidney transplant
A new kidney allocation system implemented in 2014 by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) led to a narrowing of the disparities in national kidney transplant rates among whites, blacks and Hispanics on the transplant waitlist, according to a new analysis.
A planet hotter than most stars
A newly discovered Jupiter-like world is so hot that it's stretching the definition of the word 'planet.'
Pictorial warning labels on tobacco products could help improve communication of risks to smokers
In a new study published recently in Tobacco Control, Penn researchers found that health warning labels that include images or Pictorial Warning Labels (PWLs) are more effective in gaining and holding the attention of smokers when the image and the text convey similar risks.
Social jet lag is associated with worse mood, poorer health and heart disease
Preliminary results of a new study show that social jet lag has emerged as an important circadian marker for health outcomes.
App uses smartphone compass to stop voice hacking
A University at Buffalo-led team of engineers is creating an app to stop voice hacking.
Trends in reoperation after initial lumpectomy for breast cancer
Monica Morrow, M.D., of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and coauthors investigated the impact of a 2014 consensus statement endorsing a minimal negative margin for invasive breast cancer on postlumpectomy surgery and final surgical treatment.
Domes of frozen methane may be warning signs for new blow-outs
Several methane domes, some 500m wide, have been mapped on the Arctic Ocean floor.
A stream of superfluid light
Scientists have known for centuries that light is composed of waves.
Children of separated parents not on speaking terms more likely to develop colds as adults
A team led by Carnegie Mellon University psychologists wanted to better understand if specific aspects of the family environment following a separation better predicted children's long-term health outcomes.
PET/MR shows arterial CO2 as potent vasodilator for cardiac stress testing
Using PET/MR imaging, a new international study featured in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine demonstrates that increases in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) can safely and efficiently widen blood vessels of the heart during stress tests to help determine heart function.
Adding a second HER2 blocker may lower chance of invasive breast cancer for some women
A phase III clinical trial of 4,805 women with HER2-positive breast cancer suggests adding a second HER2 targeted medicine, pertuzumab (Perjeta), to standard of care trastuzumab (Herceptin) after surgery may help, although the benefit is modest.
Staphyloccus ribosome structure researched by KFU Structural Biology Lab
The results were published in Nucleic Acids Research. This paper was announced as the best of May 2017 by FSBMB.
Sleep duration impacts treatment response for depressed patients with insomnia
Preliminary results from a new study show that depressed patients with insomnia who sleep seven or more hours per night are more likely to benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) and achieve depression remission.
Revolutionary new materials for troubled carbon times: Super filters the world can afford
Researchers develop a material that will potentially revolutionize carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology.
Time to initiating cancer therapy is increasing, associated with worsening survival
After reviewing nearly 3.7 million patient records, Cleveland Clinic researchers have shown that newly diagnosed cancer patients are having to wait longer to begin treatment, a delay that is associated with a substantially increased risk of death.
Dissolved barium as a new quantitative indicator for Kuroshio incursion into the East China Sea
The Kuroshio had great influence on ecological environment of China margin seas, particularly the East China Sea.
Embargoed analysis: SWOG clinical trials added more than 3 million years of life for cancer patients
For an investment of $125 for each year of life gained since the 1950s, the National Cancer Institute-funded SWOG clinical trials program has added 3.34 million years of life for cancer patients in the United States because of successful therapies that were proved through its trials.
Study links late-night tweeting by NBA players to worse game performance
Preliminary data from a new study suggests that NBA players had worse personal statistics in games that followed a late-night tweet between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m.
One in 5 surgical weight-loss patients take prescription opioids 7 years after surgery
While the proportion of adults with severe obesity using prescription opioids initially declines in the months after bariatric surgery, it increases within a matter of years, eventually surpassing pre-surgery rates of patients using the potentially addictive pain medications, according to new research from a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded multicenter study led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.
Publicly funded cancer trials save more than 3 million years of life
People diagnosed with cancer gained 3.34 million years of life thanks to cancer clinical trials run by SWOG and supported with public funds, according to new study results to be presented at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the world's largest clinical cancer research meeting.
What motivates parents to protect children from cell phone addiction?
A new study examined the role parental mediation can play in protecting children from the potential negative effects of smartphone use, comparing the perceived risk and different types of mediation and parenting styles.
Memory loss and other cognitive decline linked to blood vessel disease in the brain
Memory loss, language problems and other symptoms of cognitive decline are strongly associated with diseases of the small blood vessels in the brain, according to a study published in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
What caused the most toxic algal bloom ever observed in Monterey Bay?
In spring 2015, the West Coast of North America experienced one of the most toxic algal blooms on record.
RIT study suggests dying stars give newborn black holes a swift kick
Rochester Institute of Technology researcher Richard O'Shaughnessy and collaborators reanalyzed the merging black holes detected by LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) on Dec.
Aspirin does little or nothing for hard arteries, University of Florida researchers find
For decades, aspirin has been widely used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular problems.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, June 2017
ORNL developed an efficient, economical approach to locate petroleum- and natural gas-rich shale; an ORNL-led team discovered an electrochemical and ferroelectric link in ultrathin crystalline films, explaining a decade of anomalous behavior; Dallas-based Momentum Technologies non-exclusively licensed ORNL's 3-D-printed magnets made from recycled materials; ORNL's 'lucky finding' led to simple synthesis of ordered mesoporous materials from plants; team develops 3-D-printed heat exchanger for power plants that achieved 500 percent thermal conductivity increase using novel composites.
Artificial fluorescent membrane lipid shows active role in living cells
Osaka University-led international research collaboration develops synthetic fluorescent mimics of biological membrane lipid that can be monitored in living cells to reveal dynamic behavior.
Metal-ion catalysts and hydrogen peroxide could green up plastics production
Researchers at the University of Illinois are contributing to the development of more environmentally friendly catalysts for the production of plastic and resin precursors that are often derived from fossil fuels.
Scientists discover plant 'brain' controlling seed development
A new study by scientists at the University of Birmingham has revealed a group of cells that function as a 'brain' for plant embryos, capable of assessing environmental conditions and dictating when seeds will germinate.
Adding vemurafenib doubles progression-free survival in BRAF metastatic colorectal cancer
Clinical trial results presented in an oral abstract session 3:00pm Monday, June 5 at the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting 2017 shows promising results for the addition of vemurafenib (anti-BRAF) to treatment with cetuximab and irinotecan (anti-EGFR) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that have a BRAF V600E mutation.
Discovery reveals planet almost as hot as the Sun
An international team of scientists, including Justin R. Crepp, Freimann Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Notre Dame, say the planet is 2.8 times bigger than Jupiter and reaches temperatures over 7,800 degrees Fahrenheit (4,600 Kelvin) during the day.
Treating depression w/ software: Tech from Mount Sinai steps into the digital healthcare universe
A treatment for depression using Emotional Faces Memory Task (EFMT), a technology originally developed by two Mount Sinai researchers, resulted in a significantly greater reduction of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms compared to a control group, according to initial clinical results presented at the Society of Biological Psychiatry Annual Scientific Convention on May 19, 2017, in San Diego.
HUD housing assistance linked to improved health care access
A study examining the impact of access to affordable housing on health showed that people receiving housing assistance were more likely to have medical insurance and less likely to have unmet medical need than other low-income people who were on a US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) wait list.
Genetic cross-talk key to cell balance
In a study published in the June 5, 2017, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stowers scientists Bony De Kumar, Ph.D., and Robb Krumlauf, Ph.D., provide evidence of direct cross-regulatory feedback, or cross-talk, between Nanog and Hox genes.
Splitting carbon dioxide using low-cost catalyst materials
EPFL scientists have built the first Earth-abundant and low-cost catalytic system for splitting CO2 into CO and oxygen, an important step towards achieving the conversion of renewable energy into hydrocarbon fuels.
Generous health insurance plans encourage overtreatment, but may not improve health
Offering comprehensive health insurance plans with low deductibles and co-pay in exchange for higher annual premiums seems like a good value for the risk averse, and a profitable product for insurance companies.
Research reveals new insights into why the heart does not repair itself
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown connection between processes that keep the heart from repairing itself.
Simple step to protect people with type 1 diabetes against heart disease
One additional injection of insulin three hours after eating has been shown to protect people with type 1 diabetes from cardiovascular disease -- the leading cause of death among people with the condition.
Newly identified gene helps time spring flowering in vital grass crops
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have identified a gene that keeps grasses from entering their flowering cycle until the season is right, a discovery that may help plant breeders and engineers get more from food and energy crops.
Texas team debuts battery-less pacemaker
A battery-less pacemaker that can be implanted directly into a patient's heart is being introduced by Rice University and Texas Heart Institute researchers at the IEEE's International Microwave Symposium.
Fixing the role of nitrogen in coral bleaching
A unique investigation highlights how excess nitrogen can trigger coral bleaching in the absence of heat stress.
New ultrathin material for splitting water could make hydrogen production cheaper
UNSW Sydney chemists have invented a new, cheap catalyst for splitting water with an electrical current to efficiently produce clean hydrogen fuel.
Baby sleeping in same room associated with less sleep, unsafe sleep habits
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends parents keep babies in the same room with them to sleep for the first year to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Study addresses misconceptions about electroconvulsive therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has long had a stigma of being a painful and barbaric method of treatment, but a new study found that patients undergoing ECT for a variety of psychiatric disorders view the therapy in a positive light.
Sleep extension improves response time, reduces fatigue in professional baseball players
Preliminary results from a new study suggest that short-term sleep extension improves response time and daytime functioning of professional baseball players.
Researchers find micro-gene that protects the brain from developing epilepsy
Increased levels of a micro-RNA could have a protective effect that explains why identical stressors trigger seizures in some people but not in others.
Study: Collateral damage from cosmic rays increases cancer risks for Mars astronauts
The cancer risk for a human mission to Mars has effectively doubled following a UNLV study predicting a dramatic increase in the disease for astronauts traveling to the red planet or on long-term missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetic field.
How one man's shoes help NASA communicate water clarity issues
Scientists make precise measurements of water clarity from satellite data, but the calculations can be hard to explain to the public.
Decomposing leaves are a surprising source of greenhouse gases
Michigan State University scientists have pinpointed a new source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that's more potent than carbon dioxide.
Research in bloodless worms reveals how organs communicate status of life-giving heme
Scientists at the University of Maryland and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified for the first time a signaling system by which organs within an animal can communicate their need for heme, an essential iron-containing ring required for oxygen transport and many other vital biological processes.
Evidence shows increased risk of ozone loss over the United States in summer
A new study out of Harvard University reveals that the protective stratospheric ozone layer above the central United States is vulnerable to erosion during the summer months from ozone-depleting chemical reactions, exposing people, livestock and crops to the harmful effects of UV radiation.
Tactile sensor gives robots new capabilities
Eight years ago, Ted Adelson's research group at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) unveiled a new sensor technology, called GelSight, that uses physical contact with an object to provide a remarkably detailed 3-D map of its surface.
Forensic technique uses forehead X-rays to assess age of juvenile remains
Forensic anthropology researchers have developed a technique that can provide an approximate age for juveniles and young people based on an X-ray of the frontal sinus region of the skull.
'Hail Mary' mechanism can rescue cells with severely damaged chromosomes
Safeguards for maintaining the integrity of chromosomes during cell growth and division can fail, and a cell may find itself trying to divide into two daughter cells with a loose chromosomal fragment drifting away from a broken chromosome.
Effect of treatment trials on survival of patients with cancer in US population
Joseph M. Unger, Ph.D., M.S., of the SWOG Statistical Center and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash., and coauthors examined how the National Cancer Institute-sponsored network of cooperative cancer research groups has benefited patients with cancer in the general population.
Did amount of sodium households acquire in packaged food, beverages decrease?
Excessive dietary sodium is a modifiable risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and the Institute of Medicine has said it is essential to reduce sodium in packaged foods.
Extreme exoplanet: Astronomers discover alien world hotter than most stars
An international team of astronomers has discovered a planet like Jupiter zipping around its host star every day and a half, boiling at temperatures hotter than most stars and sporting a giant, glowing gas tail like a comet.
ALMA returns to Boomerang Nebula
An ancient, red giant star has produced the coldest known object in the cosmos.
ASU-led scientists discover why rocks flow slowly in Earth's middle mantle
Using an anvil made of diamond, ASU researchers discover an secret of Earth's lower mantle.
Prenatal alcohol exposure is focus of study, editorial, & patient page
JAMA Pediatrics published a series of related articles on prenatal alcohol exposure.
Marine reserves help mitigate against climate change, say scientists
Highly protected marine reserves can help mitigate against the impacts of climate change, a study by a team of international scientists has concluded.
Attacking metastatic tumors in the brain
Rakesh Jain, Ph.D., Director of the Edwin L. Steele Laboratory for Tumor Biology at the Massachusetts General Hospital and supported by the National Foundation for Cancer Research, has discovered a novel mechanism behind the resistance to HER2- or PI3K-targeted therapies, and a treatment strategy that may overcome treatment resistance.
NASA gets a last look at remnants Tropical Depression Beatriz in Gulf
The Eastern Pacific Ocean's second tropical storm weakened to a remnant low pressure area and moved into the Gulf of Mexico where it dissipated.
Hubble's tale of 2 exoplanets: Nature vs. nurture
Is it a case of nature versus nurture when it comes to two 'cousin' exoplanets?
Amenable death in Europe: Health care expenditure decreases mortality rates
The June issue of Health Affairs includes an analysis of amenable mortality rates -- rates of deaths that are potentially preventable with available health care treatment options -- in 17 European countries, which found that higher health care expenditure was associated with lower amenable mortality and with smaller absolute inequalities in amenable mortality.
Diabetes drug prevents stiffening of heart muscle in obese mouse model
Overconsumption of a Western diet high in fats and refined sugars has contributed to a global increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Study evaluates overall geriatric health during androgen deprivation therapy
'Oncologists use measures of a patient's functional status to inform fitness for treatment, but there may be nuances you're missing,' says Elizabeth Kessler, M.D., oncology fellow at the University of Colorado Cancer Center and the paper's first author.
Midpelvic forceps, vacuum deliveries: Higher rates of trauma for mothers and babies
Compared with Cesarean deliveries, midpelvic forceps and midpelvic vacuum deliveries lead to higher rates of maternal and infant trauma, according to a new study published in Canadian Medical Association Journal.
International science team: Marine reserves can help mitigate climate change
An international team of scientists has concluded that 'highly protected' marine reserves can help mitigate the effects of climate change and suggests that these areas be expanded and better managed throughout the world.
Antibiotic overuse in children could be reduced with improved communication
To help reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics for common childhood illnesses, parents would benefit from fuller communication from their health care providers, suggests new research published in the National Communication Association's Journal of Applied Communication Research.
Older adults under-referred for mental health therapies
A large research study from the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter (UK) has revealed that older people are not being referred for mental health support nearly as frequently as their younger counterparts despite achieving better outcomes when they are referred.
AACR pubs 1st set of screening recs from childhood cancer predisposition workshop
The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) has published its first set of consensus screening recommendations for children with common cancer predisposition syndromes in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the AACR.
CRISPR tech leads to new screening tool for Parkinson's disease
A team of researchers at the University of Central Florida is using breakthrough gene-editing technology to develop a new screening tool for Parkinson's disease, a debilitating degenerative disorder of the nervous system.
Dasatinib excels in worldwide phase II trial against pediatric CML
Worldwide phase II clinical trial results presented ASCO 2017 show the promise of the second-generation drug dasatinib against pediatric CML.
Brain development and aging
The brain is a complex organ -- a network of nerve cells, or neurons, producing thought, memory, action, and feeling.
NUS researchers pilot 'Home-but-not Alone' app to help new parents
A research team led by Assistant Professor Shefaly Shorey from the Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies at the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine has developed a novel mobile application to deliver postnatal educational programs and to provide the much needed postnatal supportive care on the go.
Is cirrhosis associated with increased risk of stroke?
Cirrhosis was associated with increased risk of stroke, especially hemorrhagic, in a study that included a representative sample of more than 1.6 million Medicare beneficiaries, according to an article published by JAMA Neurology.
Early research suggests first immunotherapy for mesothelioma on the horizon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma or MPM is a rare cancer, but its incidence has been rising.
Anticipation helps pathological gamblers hold out for larger-but-later rewards
Triggering pathological gamblers to envision a future personal experience reduces their preference for an immediate reward over a larger, delayed award, according to a study published in eNeuro.
Alectinib halts lung cancer growth more than a year longer than crizotinib
Findings from a phase III clinical trial point to a more effective initial treatment for patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Research suggests possible new treatment for EGFR-positive lung cancer
Findings from a phase III clinical trial point to a potential new treatment for patients newly diagnosed with advanced, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Black, white men view impacts of prostate cancer treatment differently, study finds
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers uncovered differences in the way black and white men rated prostate cancer treatment-related factors like recovery time or cost.
Electrocatalyst nanostructures key to improved fuel cells, electrolyzers
Purdue University scientists' simulations have unraveled the mystery of a new electrocatalyst that may solve a significant problem associated with fuel cells and electrolyzers.
Injectable solution may provide weeks of glucose control
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have created a biopolymer that can provide weeks of glucose control with a single injection.
Earliest human impact on geological processes took place 11,500 years ago
A new Tel Aviv University study has uncovered the earliest known geological indications of manmade climate change from 11,500 years ago.
Breeding pairs of birds cooperate to resist climate change
Most bird chicks need parental care to survive. In biparental species the chicks have greater chances of success if both parents participate in this task, especially under hostile situations.
Seeing the invisible with a graphene-CMOS integrated device
Flagship researchers integrate graphene and quantum dots with CMOS technology to create an array of photodetectors, producing a high resolution image sensor.
Two interventions help improve weight management in children with overweight or obesity
Two interventions that link clinical care with community resources -- developed by investigators at MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, a practice of Atrius Health -- helped improve key health measures in children with overweight or obesity at the outset of the study.
UCSF studies ambulance diversion by race, health care for released prisoners in journal issue
Black heart attack patients suffered higher mortality rates than white patients when ambulances are diverted because hospital emergency rooms are too busy to receive new patients, according to a new study led by UC San Francisco.
New clinical data demonstrate safety and tolerability of activated B. infantis
Evolve BioSystems, Inc., a microbiome company committed to developing novel solutions to restore and maintain a healthy newborn gut microbiome, today announced Phase I clinical trial data demonstrating the safety and tolerability of supplementation with an activated form of the beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) in breastfed infants.
UT Austin, Environmental Defense Fund, Google and Aclima unveil new hyper-local air pollution map
Engineering researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have developed the most detailed and extensive local map of air pollution ever produced for an urban area, using specially equipped Google Street View cars to measure air quality on a block-by-block basis.
Computer-aided imaging technique could reduce risk of second breast cancer surgery
Chao Zhou, assistant professor of electrical engineering at Lehigh University and his Lehigh collaborator Sharon Xiaolei Huang, associate professor of computer science and engineering, working on a computer-aided diagnostic technique that marries cutting-edge imaging technology with the latest advances in artificial intelligence that could one day detect -- accurately and in 'real-time' -- the difference between cancerous and benign cells during breast cancer surgery.
Increased number of female engineers in managerial roles brings unintended consequences
Increased female representation in the managerial ranks of engineering organizations may add another layer of sex segregation on top of the one it's intended to mitigate, says a new paper from U. of I. labor professor M.
Decomposing leaves are surprising source of greenhouse gases
Scientists have pinpointed a new source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that's more potent than carbon dioxide.
New Jupiter-like world so hot it stretches definition of 'planet'
A newly discovered Jupiter-like world is so hot it's stretching the definition of the word 'planet.' In an article in this week's issue of Nature, an international research team describes a planet with some very unusual features.
Sleep regularity is important for the happiness and well-being of college students
Preliminary results from the 'SNAPSHOT study,' an NIH-funded collaborative research project between the Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders at Brigham and Women's Hospital, and MIT Media Lab Affective Computing Group, suggest that keeping a regular sleep pattern contributes to the happiness and well-being of college students.
Cells change type to help or hinder immunity
In news that may bring hope to asthma sufferers, scientists discover a mechanism that provides a possible new target for allergy treatments.
Citizen scientists help infectious bacteria researchers
A team of UK based researchers, known as the ENIGMA Project, has developed a novel method for assessing human/virus interactions in the natural environment, using citizen scientists wearing boot socks over their shoes during walks in the countryside.
Engineer unveils new spin on future of transistors with novel design
An engineer with the Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science at The University of Texas at Dallas has designed a novel computing system made solely from carbon that might one day replace the silicon transistors that power today's electronic devices.
Study estimates amount of water needed to carve Martian valleys
A new Northern Illinois University study calculates the amount of water needed to carve the ancient network of valleys on Mars and concludes the planet's surface was once much more watery than previously thought.
Police officers speak less respectfully to black residents than to white residents
Professors Jennifer Eberhardt and Dan Jurafsky along with other Stanford researchers detected racial disparities in police officers' speech after analyzing hundreds of hours of body camera footage from Oakland Police.
First ever single guidance published for investigating and managing nut allergy
New comprehensive guidance for the diagnosis and management of peanut and tree nut allergy has been developed, which for the first time brings together the latest research and expert views into a single robustly written document.
Two-part system turns stem cells into whatever you want
Whether using embryonic or adult stem cells, coercing these master cells to convert to the desired target cell and reproduce flawlessly is difficult.
White noise after loud noise prevents hearing deficits in mice
Mild hearing loss from exposure to less than one hour of loud noise leads to a reorganization of circuits in a key midbrain structure of the auditory system in mice, finds new research published in The Journal of Neuroscience.
Newly discovered DNA sequences can protect chromosomes in rotifers
Rotifers are tough, microscopic organisms highly resistant to radiation and repeated cycles of dehydration and rehydration.
CAR T-Cell therapy sends multiple myeloma into lasting remission
In an early clinical trial, 33 out of 35 (94 percent) patients had clinical remission of multiple myeloma upon receiving a new type of immunotherapy -- chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting B-cell maturation protein or BCMA.
With specialized lips, these fish dine on razor-sharp, stinging corals
More than 6,000 fish species that live on coral reefs, but only 128 are known to feed on corals.

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