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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 20, 2017


Researchers developed nanoparticle based contrast agent for dual modal imaging of cancer
Dual modal imaging which shares the advantages of two imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging, has the ability to produce images with higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity.
Making waves with the hot electrons within Earth's radiation belts
An international team of scientists recently discovered the role that hot electrons may play in the waves and fluctuations detected by satellites.
NAMS 2017 position statement updates guidelines for hormone therapy use
A position statement on the use of hormone therapy for menopausal and postmenopausal women from The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) has been published online in Menopause.
Cow herd behavior is fodder for complex systems analysis
With closer inspection, researchers have recognized that what appears to be a randomly dispersed herd peacefully eating grass is in fact a complex system of individuals in a group facing differing tensions.
Enhanced photocatalytic activity by Cu2O nanoparticles integrated H2Ti3O7 nanotubes
Compositing Cu2O nanoparticles with H2Ti3O7 nanotubes provides an effective strategy to reduce the bandgap energy and the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes.
Computer scientists repurpose laparoscopy video for medical training
Researchers at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have developed a new system that can efficiently search through hundreds of hours of video for events and visual features that correspond to a few training examples.
The chemistry of olive oil (video)
Whether you have it with bread or use it to cook, olive oil is awesome.
People looking for prestige prefer 'big ponds' over small ones
When looking at new opportunity, do you choose an average place where you are among the top performers or do you choose a prestigious place where you might be average and not particularly remarkable?
New study advances understanding on the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders
A new study suggests the existing drug D-cycloserine may enhance recovery for children during treatment for pediatric feeding disorders, by changing their brain's reaction to food.
Simple method measures how long bacteria can wait out antibiotics
A growing number of pathogens are developing resistance to one or more antibiotics, threatening our ability to treat infectious diseases.
Is more digital support needed for young cancer patients?
There is considerable scope to develop digital resources by means of which teenagers and young adults living with cancer can receive information and connect with both professionals and fellow patients.
Lightweight steel production breakthrough: Brittle phases controlled
High-strength, lightweight steels can finally be processed on an industrial scale, thanks to a breakthrough in controlling undesired brittle stages from production, by WMG, University of Warwick.
Long-term memories made with meaningful information
When trying to memorize information, it is better to relate it to something meaningful rather than repeat it again and again to make it stick, according to a recent Baycrest study.
Finding the perfect match: A new approach to battle drug-resistant bacteria
Antibiotics were the wonder drug of the 20th century, but persistent use and over-prescription have opened the door that has allowed bacteria to evolve resistance.
Older dads have 'geekier' sons
New King's College London research suggests that sons of older fathers are more intelligent, more focused on their interests and less concerned about fitting in, all characteristics typically seen in 'geeks.'
Students of all races & ethnicities benefit from ethnically diverse middle schools
More than half of school-age youth in the United States are members of ethnic minority groups, yet the nation's public schools are becoming less ethnically diverse.
Age-specific overall risk of breast, ovarian cancer among women with BRCA1/2 genetic mutations
Researchers conducted an analysis that included nearly 10,000 women with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genetic mutations to estimate the age-specific risk of breast or ovarian cancer for women with these mutations, according to a study published by JAMA.
Increase in use of high-dose vitamin D supplements
From 1999 through 2014 the number of US adults taking daily vitamin D supplements above the recommended levels increased, and 3 percent of the population exceeded the daily upper limit considered to possibly pose a risk of adverse effects, according to a study published by JAMA.
Star's birth may have triggered another star birth, astronomers say
Radio images give new evidence that a jet of material from one young star may have triggered the gas collapse that started another young star.
Selfish gene acts as both poison and antidote to eliminate competition
Researchers from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center researchers have identified an unprecedented genetic survival strategy that would be right at home in an Agatha Christie murder mystery novel.
New disease gene for axon degeneration identified through international gene matching
Research group from the University of Helsinki, Finland, has identified a new disease gene for early-onset axonal neuropathy and mild intellectual disability through an international research network, which was brought together by 'Tinder for geneticists'.
New guideline aims to reduce infections in total hip & knee replacement patients
According to a new guideline released by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS), the risk of joint infection resulting from total hip and knee replacements can be reduced with careful management of anti-rheumatic medications during the perioperative process.
Studies link nutrient, academic achievement in pre-adolescent children
Researchers can look into your eyes to determine whether you're getting your lutein, a pigment found in green leafy vegetables that is known to accumulate in the brain.
Villous tree model with active contractions for estimating blood flow conditions
Perfusion in the human placenta is an important physiological phenomenon which shows the placental conditions.
Diagnosing obesity by mathematically estimating abdominal fat
Abdominal obesity, or fat that accumulates around one's stomach and abdomen, has long been considered to pose a high health risk in individuals.
Queen's University scientist warns of asteroid danger
A leading astrophysicist from Queen's University Belfast has warned that an asteroid strike is just a matter of time.
Gene variant protecting against Alzheimer's disease decreases plasma beta-amyloid levels
New research from the University of Eastern Finland shows that the APP gene variant protecting against Alzheimer's disease significantly decreases plasma beta-amyloid levels in a population cohort.
Predicting cognitive deficits in people with Parkinson's disease
After years of living with Parkinson's Disease approximately 25% of patients experience deficits in cognition that impair function.
City rats: Why scientists are not hot on their tails
Researchers argue they need greater access to urban properties if they are to win the war against rats.
Boyhood violence victims are more likely to commit similar acts on intimate partners
According to new research, 60 percent of college-aged men reported being both victims and perpetrators of violence with an intimate partner in the year before their participation in the study.
Students of all races feel safer in ethnically diverse middle schools, UCLA study says
Middle school students -- African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans and Caucasians -- felt safer and less bullied, reported more tolerance and less prejudice toward students of other ethnicities and believed teachers treated all students more fairly and equally in more diverse schools, UCLA researchers report today in the journal Child Development.
Numenta demonstrates machine intelligence algorithm for real-time anomaly detection
Researchers at Numenta have introduced two contributions to the field of anomaly detection for streaming applications.
Watching cities grow
Three million measurement points in one square kilometer: Prof. Xiaoxiang Zhu and her team have set a world record in information retrieval from satellite data.
Pacemakers and other cardiac devices can help solve forensic cases
Pacemakers and other cardiac devices can help solve forensic cases, according to a study presented today at EHRA EUROPACE - CARDIOSTIM 2017.
Illuminating a better way to calculate excitation energy
In a new study appearing this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics, researchers demonstrate a new method to calculate excitation energies.
Board game helps Mexican coffee farmers grasp complex ecological interactions
A chess-like board game developed by University of Michigan researchers helps small-scale Mexican coffee farmers better understand the complex interactions between the insects and fungi that live on their plants -- and how some of those creatures can help provide natural pest control.
Screening for obesity in children and adolescents recommended
The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians screen for obesity in children and adolescents 6 years and older and offer or refer them to comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions to promote improvements in weight.
Positive engagement in preschool key to developmental gains
Many interventions and programs designed to improve low-income children's lives focus on providing high-quality early-childhood education.
New findings reverse hypothesis of GABA neurodevelopment in schizophrenia
New research by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh provides an unprecedented level of resolution and insight into disturbances in cortical GABAergic microcircuits, which are thought to underlie cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.
Ancient skulls shed light on migration in the Roman empire
Skeletal evidence shows that, hundreds of years after the Roman Republic conquered most of the Mediterranean world, coastal communities in what is now south and central Italy still bore distinct physical differences to one another -- though the same could not be said of the area around Rome itself.
Family history and location of genetic fault affect risk for carriers of cancer genes
A large scale study of women carrying faults in important cancer genes should enable doctors to provide better advice and counselling for treatments and lifestyle changes aimed at reducing this risk.
How six cups of ground coffee can improve nose, throat surgery
Vanderbilt engineers have designed a 'granular jamming cap' filled with coffee grounds that can improve the accuracy of the sophisticated 'GPS' system that surgeons use for nose and throat surgery.
Wet and stormy weather lashed California coast... 8,200 years ago
An analysis of stalagmite records from White Moon Cave in the Santa Cruz Mountains shows that 8200 years ago the California coast underwent 150 years of exceptionally wet and stormy weather.
Corn better used as food than biofuel, study finds
Corn is grown not only for food, it is also an important renewable energy source.
People who go to bed late have less control over OCD symptoms
A late bedtime is associated with lower perceived control of obsessive thoughts, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
Tennis cheats may be predicted by their moral standards
A new study, published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Psychology, examines these personal characteristics and links them to direct observations of cheating during tennis matches.
UAlberta program found to lessen depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts in youth
A University of Alberta pilot program designed to promote mental health skills in youth has been found in a new study to significantly lessen cases of depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts.
Communication between nervous & immune systems detailed in New Feinstein Institute
Sangeeta S. Chavan, PhD, Valentin A. Pavlov, PhD, and Kevin J.
RAND: 'Principal pipelines' to develop leaders may be affordable way to improve schools
Improving school leadership by better selecting, training and evaluating principals can be an affordable option for school districts that aim to reduce turnover and improve schools, according to a new report by the nonprofit, nonpartisan RAND Corporation.
Fighting a destructive crop disease with mathematics
An international team of researchers has used mathematical modelling to understand new ways of combating maize lethal necrosis, an emerging disease that poses a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa.
Applying continuous airway pressure improves respiratory and survival rates in children
A new study found that applying continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a form of non-invasive ventilation, decreased mortality in children with respiratory distress.
Post-ICU glucose management may improve outcomes in critical patients
Monitoring and maintaining glucose levels of critically ill patients after admission from ICU, to general care through their discharge from the hospital may have positive impact on outcomes.
New metrology technique measures electric fields
It is crucial that mobile phones and other wireless devices -- so prevalent today -- have accurate and traceable measurements for electric fields and radiated power.
Infections in early life associated with increased risk for Celiac disease
Infections during infancy are associated with increased risk for gluten intolerance (celiac disease) later on.
Radiologists seek greater involvement in patient care
Despite constraints of time and workload, radiologists are looking for ways to become more directly involved in the care of their patients, according to the findings of a recent survey of radiologists.
A wooden toe: Swiss Egyptologists study 3000-year-old prosthesis
It is likely to be one of the oldest prosthetic devices in human history: Together with other experts, Egyptologists from the University of Basel have reexamined an artificial wooden big toe.
Researchers gain new insights into the formation of non-pathological amyloids
A team of scientists from the VIB lab of Han Remaut (VIB-VUB) and the lab of Yves Dufrêne at UCL Louvain-La-Neuve collaborated on a study of functional amyloids -protein aggregates with the typical amyloid structure that do not lead to disease but rather serve a dedicated biological function.
Solar heating could cover over 80 person of domestic heating requirements in Nordic countries
According to researchers at Aalto University, by using suitable systems, more than 80 percent of heating energy for Finnish households could be produced using solar energy with competitive prices.
Taking stock early on is crucial for working late in life
Do you want to keep working until you're 70, or even 75?
Wave beams mix and stir the ocean to create climate
Waves deep within the ocean play an important role in establishing ocean circulation, arising when tidal currents oscillate over an uneven ocean bottom.
Internet-based weight-loss program for low-income women after child birth
An internet-based weight loss program was effective in promoting significant weight loss in low-income postpartum women over 12 months, according to a study published by JAMA.
Small variations in breeding pools make for big differences in Yosemite toad use
The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus) is a rare species found exclusively in California's Sierra Nevada.
Shared decision-making is cornerstone of multiple sclerosis treatment
One of the cornerstones of multiple sclerosis treatment is shared decision-making between patients and their doctors and nurses, according to a report in the journal Practical Neurology.
Study finds most people aren't as happy as their friends on social media
A study led by computer scientists at Indiana University has found that people with the most connections on social media are also happier.
Mathematical biology tackles destructive plant virus
Plant diseases pose a serious threat to global food security, especially in developing countries, where millions of people depend on consuming what they harvest.
New report looks at integrating frailty research into care as we age
Though it is one of the most frequently used health indicators as more and more of us age, frailty -- the medical term for increased vulnerability to declines in health or a loss of independence -- remains under-studied and under-utilized, so say researchers reporting on a prestigious conference hosted by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA), with support from the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine (AAIM) and The John A.
Memory for stimulus sequences distinguishes humans from other animals
Humans possess many cognitive abilities not seen in other animals, such as a full-blown language capacity as well as reasoning and planning abilities.
Experts set out plan to tackle 'questionable integrity' of medical evidence
A plan to tackle 'serious flaws in the creation, dissemination and implementation of medical evidence' is set out by experts from The BMJ and Oxford University's Centre for Evidence Based Medicine today, ahead of Evidence Live which opens today (June 21, 2017).
To work or not to work: Moms' well being rests on what she wants
The center of a mother's life tends to be her children and her family, but if mom is unhappy about staying home with the kids or about working outside the home then she (and anyone close to her) may suffer, according to new research from Arizona State University.
Stanford scientists turbocharge high-resolution, 3-D imaging
Stanford scientists have found a relatively simple, low-cost fix that substantially improves images obtained via a widely used optical scanning technique, opening the door to 'virtual biopsies.'
Bacterial superantigens turn our immune cells to the dark side
A subpopulation of immune cells that normally fend off pathogens can turn against the host during certain infections, a new study publishing on June 20 in the open access journal PLOS Biology reveals.
First randomized controlled trial of DBS for chronic pain shows promise
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral striatum/anterior limb of the internal capsule is safe and feasible in addressing the affective component of pain in patients with post-stroke pain syndrome.
San Diego yeam yests best felivery mode for potential HIV vaccine
For decades, HIV has successfully evaded all efforts to create an effective vaccine but researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI) are steadily inching closer.
Plant reveals anti-Alzheimer's compounds
Japanese scientists have developed a method to isolate and identify active compounds in plant medicines, which accurately accounts for drug behavior in the body.
Familiar faces look happier than unfamiliar ones
People tend to perceive faces they are familiar with as looking happier than unfamiliar faces, even when the faces objectively express the same emotion to the same degree, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
A new adjustable optical microprobe for the analysis and control of deep brain regions
Researchers have developed a new optical microprobe able to control brain electrical activity by projecting light on wide volumes or selected portions of the central nervous system in an very controlled fashion.
Simple tactic results in dramatic water conservation, study shows
Rain or shine has new meaning thanks to an innovative, inexpensive and simple tactic developed by researchers at FAU that will really change how people think about watering their lawns.
Steaming fish eliminates more cyanotoxins than boiling it
Steaming freshwater fish for more than two minutes reduces the presence of cylindrospermopsin, a cyanotoxin, by up to 26 percent.
Modeling Gulf War illness: Knowing the cause of brain dysfunction is key to finding a cure
When hundreds of thousands of American troops deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1990 and 1991 in the First Gulf War, they were exposed to a variety of chemicals.
Tiny bubbles provide tremendous propulsion in new microparticles research-Ben-Gurion U.
The new technique could have significant implications in the development of micromotors and optical devices for use in solar cell optics.
Losing train of thought or it's hard to multi-task? You may be having one drink too many
Impairments using information that help with decision-making and planning simple tasks are linked with one's frequency of alcohol or drug use.
Minimally invasive autopsy can identify causes of Mozambique newborn and childhood deaths
Minimally invasive autopsy can identify cause of death in pediatric, perinatal and neonatal deaths in Mozambique with significant precision and accuracy compared with complete diagnostic autopsy, according to two studies published by Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat and colleagues from ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain, in PLOS Medicine.
Older people who feel close to God have well-being that grows with frequent prayer
As people grow older, those who are securely attached to God are more likely to have a sense of well-being -- and the more frequently they pray, the greater that feeling, according to a Baylor University study.
Penn study: Blocking yeast-bacteria interaction may prevent severe biofilms that cause childhood tooth decay
In early childhood caries, a severe form of tooth decay that affects more than a third of toddlers in the US, yeast often partners with bacteria to form an intractable biofilm.
Task Force presents new ranking of colorectal cancer screening tests
In its latest recommendations, the US Multi-Society Task Force (MSTF) on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening confirms that people at average risk should be screened beginning at age 50, and recommends colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) as the
Mountain lions fear humans, fleeing when they hear our voices, new study reveals
New research into the behavior of mountain lions indicates they don't like encountering humans any more than we like bumping into them on hiking trails.
New perspective: Vegetation phenology variability based on tibetan plateau tree-ring data
Recently, a research group headed by Prof. YANG Bao from the Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with coauthors from Russia, Germany, Canada and Sweden, has reconciled these conflicting results based on a 55-year series of vegetation phenology for the TP derived from well-validated process-based Vaganov-Shashkin model (V-S) simulations of tree-ring growth data.
Buyer beware: Antimicrobial products can do more harm than good
Are you buying antimicrobial or antibacterial soaps? According to over 200 scientists and medical professionals, you may want to save your money.
Penn study details impact of antibiotics, antiseptics on skin microbiomes
The use of topical antibiotics can dramatically alter communities of bacteria that live on the skin, while the use of antiseptics has a much smaller, less durable impact.
Depressed patients more likely to be prescribed opioids
A new study shows that patients with low back pain who were depressed were more likely to be prescribed opioids and receive higher doses.
Hiding true self harms career and sense of belonging
Hiding your true self at work can damage your career and reduce your sense of belonging in the workplace, a new study suggests.
No evidence of gender bias in philosophy
Despite being a male-dominated field, a recent study found no evidence for gender bias against women in philosophy, in terms of securing tenure-track positions as college professors.
How a girl is raised can influence her adult sporting success
A new study, published in the open-access journal, Frontiers in Psychology, instead looks at the motivation level of successful female footballers and whether their upbringing influences this desire to succeed.
African plant extract offers new hope for Alzheimer's
A plant extract used for centuries in traditional medicine in Nigeria could form the basis of a new drug to treat Alzheimer's disease, researchers at The University of Nottingham have found.
Study: While trust is inherited, distrust is not
Research has shown that how trusting a person is may depend, at least in part, on his or her genes.
Are current efforts to combat terrorism actually increasing the risk of future attacks?
A public health perspective of the rise in terrorism and violent radicalization points to social determinants of health including discrimination, social isolation, and stigmatization of groups such as Muslims or Arab American as factors that can make people more vulnerable to extremist influences.
Genetic modifier for Huntington's disease progression identified
A team led by UCL and Cardiff University researchers has developed a novel measure of disease progression for Huntington's disease, which enabled them to identify a genetic modifier associated with how rapidly the disease progresses.
Exhausted immune cells linked to irritable bowel syndrome
Researchers have for the first time discovered that a specific type of irritable bowel syndrome is associated with exhaustion of the immune system in patients.
NASA examines potential tropical or sub-tropical storm affecting Gulf states
NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed over a developing low pressure area in the Gulf of Mexico and gathered two days of rainfall and storm height information.
Thousands of genes influence most diseases, Stanford researchers report
In a provocative new perspective piece, Stanford researchers say that disease genes are spread uniformly across the genome, not clustered in specific molecular pathways, as has been thought.
Researchers unravel mechanism behind bowel paralysis after surgery
In the days following abdominal surgery, patients' intestinal contents pass more slowly or not at all.
The story of music is the story of humans
How did music begin? Did our early ancestors first start by beating things together to create rhythm, or use their voices to sing?
A unique data center for cosmological simulations
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have established 'Cosmowebportal', a unique data center for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.
Researchers call for paradigm shift in type 2 diabetes treatment
Results from four recent randomized clinical trials suggest that using medications that offer glucose control while reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease could improve patient outcomes.
Getting the biggest bang out of plasma jets
Capillary discharge plasma jets are created by a large current that passes through a low-density gas in what is called a capillary chamber.

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