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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 07, 2017


Brain lays foundation for reason in childhood
Structural connections between frontal and parietal areas in children's brains can predict their ability to reason later in life, reports new research published in The Journal of Neuroscience.
Researchers find pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease in aged chimpanzee brains
The brains of aged chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, show pathology similar to the human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, according to a new, multi-institution research study.
Researchers set record for fastest light pulse
A research team from the University of Central Florida led by Professor Zenghu Chang demonstrated a 53-attosecond X-ray flash, opening the door to shoot slow-motion video of electrons and atoms in living cells.
Hospital admissions for older adults increased for weeks after natural disaster
Older adults may still be checking into hospitals for weeks after a natural disaster, past the the expected three days of anticipated injuries and health issues, a new University of Michigan study shows.
Individuals with bipolar disorder need workplace support
People with bipolar disorder often find themselves unemployed due to exclusion, stigma and stereotypes directed at them at work, a new study found.
New paper lays out framework for understanding 'institutional corruption'
A new research paper shows how legal, systemic corruption takes many forms and raises many pertinent questions, not the least of which is what can be done about it.
Physician implicit racial bias does not impact their clinical decision making
A doctor's racial preference does not necessarily mean he or she will order more or fewer diagnostic tests or treatments based on race.
Manipulating brain network to change cognitive functions: New breakthrough in neuroscience
When an electric circuit breaks down, we can repair it by restoring connections in the circuit.
New look at archaic DNA rewrites human evolution story
A U-led team developed a method for analyzing DNA sequence data to reconstruct early history of archaic human populations, revealing an evolutionary story that contradicts conventional wisdom about modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans.
Primary prevention could reduce heart disease among type 2 diabetes patients
In a Journal of the American College of Cardiology state of the art review published today, researchers from the division of cardiology and the Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease at the New York University Medical Center in New York City, examine evidence and guidelines for the prevention of heart disease in Type 2 Diabetes patients.
NASA Spots extra-Tropical Depression Nalgae near Kuril Islands
On August 7, NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured an image of extra-tropical storm Nalgae near the Kuril Islands north of Japan.
First human application of novel PET tracer for prostate cancer
In the featured translational article in the August issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, researchers at the University of Michigan demonstrate the potential of a new PET tracer, Carbon-11 labeled sarcosine (11C-sarcosine), for imaging prostate cancer, and set the stage for its possible use in monitoring other cancers.
Like a game of 'spot the difference' for disease-prone versus healthy people
A specific kind of natural nanoparticles, called low-density lipoproteins (LDL), are fascinating scientists because their modification plays a key role in people affected by high cholesterol and atherosclerosis.
Breakthrough device heals organs with a single touch
Researchers have developed a device that can switch cell function to rescue failing body functions with a single touch.
Teen brains may not be as hard-wired for crime as previously thought
Spikes in crime rates for teens and young adults suggest that biology may primarily drive risk-taking and law breaking, but Penn State criminologists studying crime statistics in other countries indicate that culture may also play a role in shaping teen criminal behavior.
You are what your grandmother ate: Intergenerational impacts of prenatal nourishment
A study published online in The FASEB Journal shows that parents' own prenatal environment has a detectable impact on their children's weight.
New biomarker found for group of rare metabolic diseases
A newly discovered biomarker associated with a rare metabolic disorder may facilitate better diagnosis and identification of new drugs for clinical trials for the disease.
Stress heightens fear of threats from the past
Recognizing threats is an essential function of the human mind -- think 'fight or flight' -- one that is aided by past negative experiences.
New antibiotic class found effective against gonorrhea in the laboratory
Closthioamide, discovered in 2010, might eventually offer an alternative for current drugs that are becoming less effective against gonorrhoea.
'Alarming growth' in North-South divide early deaths among young in England
There's been an 'alarming growth' in the number of early deaths among 25- to 44-year-olds in the North of England since the mid-1990s--long before the recession of 2008-09 -- compounding the country's long established 'North-South' divide, reveals research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
Largest-ever study of pets and kids' health finds no link
A large body of research has reported an association between the pet ownership and better health among children.
Big data yields surprising connections between diseases
Using health insurance claims data from more than 480,000 people in nearly 130,000 families, researchers at the University of Chicago have created a new classification of common diseases based on how often they occur among genetically-related individuals.
Big data yields surprising connections between diseases
Using health insurance claims data from more than 480,000 people in nearly 130,000 families, researchers at the University of Chicago have created a new classification of common diseases based on how often they occur among genetically-related individuals.
Midlife cardiovascular risk factors may increase chances of dementia
A large, long-term study suggests that middle aged Americans who have vascular health risk factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure and smoking, have a greater chance of suffering from dementia later in life.
Small streams have a big influence on our lives
Small streams make up 70-80 percent of the total channel length of river networks, and they strongly influence downstream portions these networks.
'Origami organs' can potentially regenerate tissues
Northwestern Medicine scientists and engineers have invented a range of bioactive 'tissue papers' made of materials derived from organs that are thin and flexible enough to even fold into an origami bird.
Early term babies are at greater risk for diabetes and obesity-related diseases
'We found that hospitalizations up to the age of 18 involving endocrine and metabolic morbidity were found to be more common in the early-term group as compared with the full-term group, especially at ages five and older,' says Prof.
Benefits of advanced wood-burning stoves greater than thought
Advanced wood-burning stoves designed for use in the developing world can reduce air pollution more than anticipated, because gaseous emissions from traditional wood stoves form more particulate matter in the atmosphere than researchers previously thought.
What's killing trees during droughts? Scientists have new answers
As the number of droughts increases globally, scientists are working to develop predictions of how future parched conditions will affect plants, especially trees.
Study examines social connections and impacts of financial fraud
A new study from UT Dallas shows the ripple effects of the loss of trust in the investment advisory industry induced by the Bernie Madoff fraud.
97 percent of insurance denials in pediatric proton patients overturned on appeal
Insurance companies end up covering proton therapy treatment for pediatric cancer patients in 97 percent of the cases they originally deny once those decisions are appealed.
New approach makes it easier to find novel drugs
Scientists have created a new way of screening compounds that is more sensitive than existing methods, opening up the possibility of finding new drugs for many diseases.
Staff at Safety-Net Medical Clinics report increasing dissatisfaction with workplace
Some studies have raised concern about burnout among health care workers as they grapple with changes such electronic medical records and medical homes.
Automated measure of nighttime oxygen levels could speed diagnosis of sleep apnea
Computer analysis of oxygen levels in the blood during sleep could -- by itself -- provide an easy, relatively inexpensive and sufficiently reliable way to determine which children who snore habitually could benefit from a diagnosis and treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.
A hard bargain
Americans extol price shopping for health care as a prudent idea, yet few actually do it even when given the means to, according to the findings of two separate studies led by investigators at Harvard Medical School.
MRI contrast agents accumulate in the brain
The International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) has provided new guidance in the use of contrast agents during MRI scans.
Machines just revealed the evolution of language
Machine learning scientists at Disney Research have developed a new innovative model that uncovers how the meanings of words change over time.
Midlife cardiovascular risk factors may increase chances of dementia
A large, long-term study suggests that middle aged Americans who have vascular health risk factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure and smoking, have a greater chance of suffering from dementia later in life.
Printable tool enables sensitive diagnostic testing
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have created a portable diagnostic tool that can detect telltale markers of disease as accurately as the most sensitive tests on the market, while cutting the wait time for results from hours or even days to 15 minutes.
Drought-affected trees die from hydraulic failure and carbon starvation
Drought-caused tree deaths are produced by a combination of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation says new research published today in Nature Ecology and Evolution.
Lifestyle-modification programs for weight management in Arab states lack in effectiveness
The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of the lifestyle-modification programs for weight management delivered in Arabic-speaking countries.
NCI study identifies essential genes for cancer immunotherapy
A new study identifies genes that are necessary in cancer cells for immunotherapy to work, addressing the problem of why some tumors don't respond to immunotherapy or respond initially but then stop as tumor cells develop resistance to immunotherapy.
MRSA survival chances predicted by DNA sequencing the superbug
Sequencing the DNA of the MRSA superbug can accurately identify patients most at risk of death and could help medics develop new treatments as we move towards personalised medicine, say scientists publishing in the journal Nature Microbiology.
Researchers crack the 'Karakoram anomaly'
Researchers identify 'Karakoram vortex' and explain why glaciers near K2 are growing in size.
Media portrayals of pregnant women, new moms unrealistic, study says
Media portrayals of pregnant, postpartum women unrealistic, women said in a new study by University of Illinois researcher Toni Liechty.
Mutation in prostate tumors shown to change epigenetic identity, the make-up of DNA
Prostate cancer researchers have mapped the impact of an acquired mutation that alters epigenetic identity, the make-up of DNA, in about 50 percent of patient tumor samples.
Scientists reveal role for lysosome transport in Alzheimer's disease progression
Researchers from Yale University School of Medicine have discovered that defects in the transport of lysosomes within neurons promote the buildup of protein aggregates in the brains of mice with Alzheimer's disease.
Some land conservation measures unpopular among property owners
While popular with conservation groups, coastal easements that prevent development in order to protect marshland from changes brought about by climate change and rising sea levels are not favored by property owners.
Astronauts to bring asteroid back into lunar orbit
In a paper published in EPJ Plus, Marco Tantardini and Enrico Flamini from the Italian Space Agency (ASI) make the case for taking part in the robotic phase of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM).
North-South health divide bigger than ever
Dying early (under age 75) is 20% more likely in northern compared with southern England according to research led by The University of Manchester.
Texting while parenting: Mobile program improves safety of sleeping infants
Mother's latest little helper is already in her pocket: A new educational intervention delivered in the form of texts and emails has been found to increase adherence to safe sleep practices for infants, concluded researchers at the Yale, University of Virginia, and Boston University schools of medicine in a joint study published July 25 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Compound derived from marijuana interacts with antiepileptic drugs
New research published in Epilepsia, a journal of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), suggests that an investigational neurological treatment derived from cannabis may alter the blood levels of commonly used antiepileptic drugs.
Modern domestic dog has a single geographic origin
By analyzing the DNA of two prehistoric dogs from Germany, an international research team has determined that their genomes were the probable ancestors of modern European dogs.
Extreme melt season leads to decade-long ecosystem changes in Antarctic polar desert
An abnormal season of intense glacial melt in 2002 triggered multiple distinct changes in the physical and biological characteristics of Antarctica's McMurdo Dry Valleys over the ensuing decade.
Molecule in human saliva has potential for wound healing
A study published online in The FASEB Journal delves into the mystifying fact that wounds in your mouth heal faster and more efficiently than wounds elsewhere.
Gold specks raise hopes for better cancer treatments
A tiny medical device containing gold specks could boost the effects of cancer medication and reduce its harm, research suggests.
New study generates more accurate estimates of state opioid and heroin fatalities
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine presents a correction procedure to refine data reporting opioid and heroin deaths per US state, which results in significant shifts in state-by-state mortality rates.
Study finds that choice of cool roofing materials can potentially impact region's air pollution
In a groundbreaking study released today, scientists at the South Coast Air Quality Management District and the University of Southern California have found that widespread installation of certain 'cool roof' materials in the region could slightly increase ozone and fine particulate pollution levels.
Bilingual babies listen to language
In a new study, an international team of researchers, including those from Princeton University, report that bilingual infants as young as 20 months of age efficiently and accurately process two languages.
New AI algorithm monitors sleep with radio waves
Researchers at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have devised a new way to monitor sleep without any kind of sensors attached to the body.
Study links unhealthy segregated neighborhoods to childhood asthma
Researchers have had trouble explaining why black children are much more likely than other children to suffer from asthma.
NASA tracking Tropical Storm Franklin
Tropical Storm Franklin formed in the Caribbean Sea late on August 6.
Overweight children and adults get significantly healthier and quickly with less sugar
Reducing fructose, particularly high-fructose corn syrup, in our diet for just nine days can show significantly improved measures of health.
Antiulcer drugs do not increase risk of Alzheimer's disease
The use of proton pump inhibitors does not increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, shows a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland.
High resolution without particle accelerator
For the first time, Jena University physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale.
New CubeSat propulsion system uses water as propellant
A new type of micropropulsion system for miniature satellites called CubeSats uses an innovative design of tiny nozzles that release precise bursts of water vapor to maneuver the spacecraft.
Fat rats show why breast cancer may be more aggressive in patients with obesity
In an animal model of obesity and breast cancer, tumor cells in obese animals but not lean animals had especially sensitive androgen receptors, allowing these cells to magnify growth signals from the hormone testosterone.
Pharmacy service could save NHS £517.6m, finds study
A scheme launched by the Department of Health in 2011 to help patients stick to their drug regimens has been so successful, that in its first five years, it will save NHS England £517.6m in the long-term, a team of health economists has found.
Medicaid coverage brings more silence to the hearing impaired
Medicaid does not cover hearing aids in nearly half the country.
Pro-vaccine messages can boost belief in MMR myths, study shows
Current strategies for correcting misinformation about the dangers of vaccinations have the opposite effect and reinforce ill-founded beliefs, a study suggests.
Can a Zika outbreak be sustained sexually?
Unlike other mosquito-borne outbreaks, Zika doubles as a sexually transmitted infection, with men retaining the virus 10 times longer in their semen than women do in their vaginal fluids.
Dental brace wire found in woman's bowel after 10 years
A dental brace wire was found in a woman's bowel after 10 years.
Limiting access to fast-food restaurants unlikely to reduce obesity
Living near fast-food restaurants and supermarkets has little impact on an individual's body mass index, according to new Indiana University research.
How an unlikely cellular 'antenna' can impair brain development
An antenna-like structure on cells, once considered a useless vestige, can cause defects in the brain's wiring similar to what's seen in autism, schizophrenia, and other disorders.
NCI study identifies essential genes for cancer immunotherapy
A new study identifies genes that are necessary in cancer cells for immunotherapy to work, addressing the problem of why some tumors don't respond to immunotherapy or respond initially but then stop as tumor cells develop resistance to immunotherapy.
Man loses feeling in legs after long-term denture fixative use
A 62-year-old man lost the feeling in both his legs after the regular long term use of a denture fixative containing zinc, reveal doctors writing in the online journal BMJ Case Reports.
The ocean's fastest shark is being threatened by overfishing
A study using satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks shows mortality rates have been dramatically underestimated.
Scientists improve forecast of increasing hazard on Ecuadorian volcano
Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Instituto Geofisico--Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN) of Ecuador, showed an increasing volcanic danger on Cotopaxi in Ecuador using a powerful technique known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).
The sun's core makes a complete rotation in one week
Researchers have determined that the sun's core makes a complete rotation once per week.
How a chemo drug can help cancer spread from the breast to the lungs
The very same treatment that thwarts breast cancer has a dark side -- it can fuel the spread of the disease to the lungs.
Mental illness, suicide and violence creating lost generation in the Middle East
There has been a sharp increase in non-communicable diseases and mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Nanocrystalline LEDs: Red, green, yellow, blue ...
The color of the light emitted by an LED can be tuned by altering the size of their semiconductor crystals.
Independent pharmacies and online coupons help patients save money on drugs
After finding that prices for some common antibiotics can vary by up to $100 in one metropolitan area, University of Southern California experts suggest that patients could save money by shopping for their drugs online or at independent pharmacies.
IBM's Watson can improve cancer treatment through better gene targeting
IBM's Watson beat real-life contestants on Jeopardy. Now researchers are hoping this icon of artificial intelligence will help people with cancer win as well by providing a rapid, comprehensive report of the genetic mutations at the root of their specific disease and the therapies that target them.
Scientists probe the conditions of stellar interiors to measure nuclear reactions
Most of the nuclear reactions that drive the nucleosynthesis of the elements in our universe occur in very extreme stellar plasma conditions.
Mutation in prostate tumors shown to change epigenetic identity, the make-up of DNA
Prostate cancer researchers have mapped the impact of an acquired mutation that alters epigenetic identity, the make-up of DNA, in about 50 percent of patient tumor samples.
Drought-affected trees die from hydraulic failure and carbon starvation
Drought-caused tree deaths are produced by a combination of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation says new research published today in Nature Ecology and Evolution.
Study reveals higher opioid use among cancer survivors
A new study found that opioid prescription use is more common in cancer survivors than in individuals without a history of cancer.
From greenhouse gas to 3-D surface-microporous graphene
Tiny dents in the surface of graphene greatly enhances its potential as a supercapacitor.
In utero exposure to diesel exhaust could be linked to adult heart failure
According to a study published online in The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org), involving mice, gestational exposure to airborne particles derived from diesel exhaust can modify DNA in utero and alter the expression of genes that potentially increase susceptibility to adult heart failure.
Greater access to higher education could have reversed EU referendum result
University of Leicester research suggests that greater access to higher education can influence political outcomes.
Tiny molecule has big effect on brain's ability to learn
Prenatal brain development is a crucial period, and as new research has found, even small alterations to the way brain cells develop can have significant effects later in life.
Dozens of new genes that create T cell-resistant cancer discovered with 2CT CRISPR screen
Innovative large-scale gene editing study provides new insights into why immunotherapy fails in majority of cancer patients.
MRI contrast agents accumulate in the brain
The International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) has provided new guidance in the use of contrast agents during MRI scans.
Low Medicaid rates limit beneficiaries' access to assisted living facilities
A new study by RTI International found that low Medicaid payment rates for services in assisted living and similar settings discourage residential care providers from serving Medicaid beneficiaries, which limits their access to community-based residential care.
Success in enhancing performance of the cryogenic adsorption pump used in the divertor
At the National Institutes of Natural Sciences National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), we have succeeded in enhancing the high-performance of the cryogenic adsorption pump used for the evacuation of the Large Helical Device's (LHD) divertor1).
Single strep bacteria protein sets off white blood cell's early warning system
Group A Streptococcusbacteria -- the cause of strep throat and flesh-eating infections -- have been well studied for nearly a century.
Single strep bacteria protein sets off white blood cell's early warning system
Group A Streptococcusbacteria -- the cause of strep throat and flesh-eating infections -- have been well studied for nearly a century.
Marine reserves a solution to bycatch problem in oceans
Commercial fishermen may be able to catch more of the profitable fish they want with marine reserves than without them, according to a study led by the University of California, Davis.
USC Stem Cell discovery refreshes the heart
Some people are better than others at recovering from a wounded heart, according to a new USC Stem Cell study published in Nature Genetics.
Breakthrough device heals organs with a single touch
Researchers have developed a device that can switch cell function to rescue failing body functions with a single touch.
UB research shows how pronouns can be used to build confidence in stressful situations
Before any potentially stressful event, people often engage in self-talk, an internal dialogue meant to moderate anxiety.
New study shows supplementation of capsicum extract helps increase metabolic rate
Newly published study shows supplementation of capsicum extract helps increase metabolic rate.
A new view for protein turnover in the brain
Scientists at UC San Diego have provided the first evidence that lysosomes, specialized structures found in nearly every cell in your body, can travel to distant parts of neurons to branch-like areas known as dendrites.
Extreme melt season leads to decade-long ecosystem changes in Antarctic polar desert
An abnormal season of intense glacial melt in 2002 triggered multiple distinct changes in the physical and biological characteristics of Antarctica's McMurdo Dry Valleys over the ensuing decade.
New paper lays out framework for understanding 'institutional corruption'
A new research paper shows how legal, systemic corruption takes many forms and raises many pertinent questions, not the least of which is what can be done about it.
DNA from Viking cod bones suggests 1,000-year history of European fish trade
New research using DNA from the fish bone remains of Viking-era meals reveals that north Norwegians have been transporting -- and possibly trading -- Arctic cod into mainland Europe for a millennium.
Lizard venom may contain clues to treating blood clots
Various types of lizard venom are being studied as possible treatments for blood clotting diseases that lead to millions of cases of stroke, heart attack, and deep-vein thrombosis annually.
Cash incentives, talk can encourage primary care visits by people with new health coverage
In a randomized controlled trial, researchers studied low-income adults newly covered by a primary care program to determine if a cash incentive could encourage them to make an initial visit to a primary care provider.
Women have more active brains than men
In the largest functional brain imaging study to date, the Amen Clinics (Newport Beach, CA) compared 46,034 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging studies provided by nine clinics, quantifying differences between the brains of men and women.
Maize from El Gigante Rock Shelter shows early transition to staple crop
Mid-summer corn on the cob is everywhere, but where did it all come from and how did it get to be the big, sweet, yellow ears we eat today?
A surprising new role for baker's yeast
Baker's yeast is best known for its role in baking and brewing beer.
Successful guide dogs have 'tough love' moms, Penn study finds
A new study from the University of Pennsylvania shows the pitfalls of helicopter parenting -- in dogs.
Successful guide dogs have 'tough love' moms, study finds
Much has been written on the pitfalls of being a helicopter parent, one who insulates children from adversity rather than encouraging their independence.
Study of protein cages strengthens Bristol's position at forefront of synthetic biology
A multidisciplinary team of mathematicians, theoretical physicists, chemists and biochemists from the University of Bristol came together to study the self-assembly of protein building into protein cages with possible applications in nanotechnology and synthetic biology.
New UMMS study shows how to account for social disparities in health care costs
In a new study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, Arlene Ash, PhD, recommends allocating some health insurance dollars for patients in vulnerable communities and for those subject to social risks, in addition to their medical issues.
Cybercrime: Latest research suggests cybercriminals are not as anonymous as we think
Understanding a cybercriminal's backstory - where they live, what they do and who they know, is key to cracking cybercrime, new research suggests.
Mental illness, suicide, and 'intractable violence' creating 'lost generation' in Middle East
Suicide, homicide, and sexual assault are increasing much faster in the Eastern Mediterranean Region than any other region in the world, according to a new scientific study.
NASA sees Typhoon Noru over southern Japan
Typhoon Noru was moving over Honshu, Japan when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead on August 7.
Neurobiology: Lessons by post
Learning involves constant restructuring of nerve-cell connections. This requires specialized transport systems to ensure that these specific synapses can structurally and functionally be modified.
Safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals deliver similar PCI outcomes
Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at safety-net hospitals experienced similar outcomes as patients treated at non-safety-net hospitals, according to research published today in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.
Anti-inflammatory, anti-stress drugs taken before surgery may reduce metastatic recurrence
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that a specific drug regimen administered prior to and after surgery significantly reduces the risk of post-surgical cancer recurrence.
Medicaid expansion under ACA can reduce government costs for Supplemental Security Income
Expanded Medicaid eligibility under one part of the Affordable Care Act results in a cost savings for the federal government, according to new Indiana University research.
Increased brain acidity in psychiatric disorders
Decreased brain pH in the patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder has been considered to be the result of secondary factors associated with the diseases, such as medication and agonal state.

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