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Science News and Current Events for August 18, 2017


Climate change and habitat conversion combine to homogenize nature
Climate change and habitat conversion to agriculture are working together to homogenize nature, indicates a study in the journal Global Change Biology led by the University of California, Davis.
Mount Sinai identifies mechanism for resilience in people with high risk of bipolar disorder
Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified a brain mechanism in siblings of bipolar patients that makes them resilient to bipolar disorder.
Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start times
Leading pediatrics and sleep associations agree: Teens shouldn't start school so early.
Special issue of Future Medicinal Chemistry explores immunotherapy edit article
The field of immunotherapy is moving forward at an unprecedented rate and cancer immunotherapy, in particular, has recently come of age!
CAS scientists make autism advance using monkey model
Recently, researchers from Dr. Zhang Yongqing's group at the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) found neurodevelopmental abnormality in a SHANK3-deficient non-human primate for the first time.
Yemen's Saudi-led coalition is responsible for the 'worst cholera outbreak in the world'
The cholera outbreak in Yemen is overwhelmingly affecting rebel-controlled areas due to Saudi-led airstrikes and blockades, according to a letter by researchers from Queen Mary University of London, published in The Lancet Global Health.
Novel approach to track HIV infection
Scientists used a novel live-cell fluorescent imaging system that allowed them for the first time to identify individual viral particles associated with HIV infection.
A map of the cell's power station
Researchers from the University of Freiburg are mapping the distribution of all proteins in mitochondria for the first time.
Research reveals how physical exercise protects the heart
A study by the University of São Paulo (USP) in Brazil, published recently in the journal Autophagy, helps to elucidate part of the mechanism whereby aerobic exercise protects the sick heart.
Discovered: A quick and easy way to shut down instabilities in fusion devices
This article describes suppression of instabilities with new neutral beam injector.
New Bioimaging technique is fast and economical
A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue -- such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing.
Population health impact of infants born small for gestational age in low- and middle-income countries
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and CHERG used the first international, multi-ethnic birth weight standard, known as the INTERGROWTH-21st, to describe the global burden of suboptimal fetal growth.
Smokers 20 percent more likely to quit when cigarettes cost $1 more
Smokers were found to be 20 percent more likely to quit smoking when packs of cigarettes cost just one dollar more, according to a new public health study out of Drexel University.
Study of California kidney cancer shows declining incidence, end of a trend
Study of kidney cancer incidence in California over 25 years is the first report to demonstrate that the rising rate of kidney cancer seen in the US over the past two decades may have ended.
NJIT researchers will follow in the moon's slipstream to capture high-res sunspot images
While much of the research around the eclipse on Monday will focus on the effects of the Sun's brief, daytime disappearance on Earth and its atmosphere, a group of solar physicists will be leveraging the rare event to capture a better glimpse of the star itself.
Hypertension during pregnancy may affect women's long-term cardiovascular health
Women who experience hypertension during pregnancy face an increased risk of heart disease and hypertension later in life, according to a new study.
How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow
Researchers at Nagoya University revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain.
Mechanisms explaining positional diversity of the hindlimb in tetrapod evolution
Elucidating how body parts in their earliest recognizable form are assembled in tetrapods during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution.
Gene variant activity is surprisingly variable between tissues
Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study led by an international team of scientists at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has found.
Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom
Members of the Faculties of Chemistry and Fundamental Physical and Chemical Engineering at the Lomonosov Moscow State University in collaboration with foreign partners have synthesized and studied new liquid-crystal photochromic polymers.
Make way for hemoglobin
Harvard Medical School researchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O.
Vitamin D deficiency linked to increased heart failure risk in older adults
A recent study found an elevated risk of heart failure in more than half of older individuals, and this risk was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency.
Histone 1, the guardian of genome stability
Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans.
Identifying individual atmospheric equatorial waves from a total flow field
A new study presents a method for identifying individual equatorial waves in wind and geopotential height fields using horizontal wave structures derived from classical equatorial wave theory.
Allergies: Cross-reactivity between cypress pollen and peaches/citrus fruits explained
In collaboration with teams from the Czech Republic and Japan, researchers from the Institut Pasteur, (AP-HP), and (AP-HM) have identified the likely origin of the cross-reactivity between cypress pollen, peaches and citrus fruits.
Virus with an eggshell
Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited.
A heart made of spider silk
Ever more people are suffering from cardiac insufficiency. The main cause of reduced cardiac functionality lies in the irreversible loss of cardiac muscle cells due to disease, especially ischemic diseases such as cardiac infarction.
Researchers discover new chemical process that could reduce nitrogen oxides from diesel exhaust
Chemical engineers at the University of Notre Dame have discovered a catalytic process that could help curb emissions of nitrogen oxides from diesel-powered vehicles, a priority air pollutant that is a key ingredient in smog.
New study rebuts the claim that antidepressants do not work
A theory that has gained considerable attention in international media, including Newsweek and the CBS broadcast 60 minutes, suggest that antidepressant drugs, such as the SSRIs, do not exert any actual antidepressant effect.
Citrus: From luxury item to cash crop
New research from Tel Aviv University reveals that citrons and lemons were status symbols for the ancient Roman ruling elite.
To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep -- and caffeine
A new preclinical study found that a brief period of extended wakefulness before surgery enhances pain and prolongs recovery time after surgery.
Flexibility at work key to helping women maintain careers after childbirth
Flexibility in the workplace is the key to helping women maintain their career trajectory after childbirth, new research by the University of Kent has shown.
Ocean channel in Bahamas marks genetic divide in Brazilian free-tailed bats
Brazilian free-tailed bats are expert flyers, capable of migrating hundreds of miles and regularly traveling more than 30 miles a night.
Hot spot at Hawaii? Not so fast
Rice University geophysicists use a new model to conclude that volcanic hot spots around the globe aren't moving as fast as recently thought.
Seeking the secret ingredient in the original smallpox vaccine
Thanks to a secret vaccine ingredient as well as a net of worldwide researchers and successful vaccination campaigns, smallpox was finally eradicated in 1977.
Lasers used to detect risk of heart attack and stroke
Patients at risk of heart attacks and strokes may be spotted earlier thanks to a diagnosis tool that uses near-infrared light to identify high-risk arterial plaques, according to research carried out at WMG, University of Warwick, the Baker Institute and Monash University.
GIST tumors linked to NF1 mutations, genetic testing needed
Researchers at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, with colleagues from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Fox Chase Cancer Center, have determined that a specific region of the small bowel, called the duodenal-jejunal flexure or DJF, shows a high frequency of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with mutations of the NF1 gene.
NASA looks at rainfall in Tropical Storm Harvey
Tropical Storm Harvey is now moving into the eastern Caribbean Sea.
Can Twitter aid disaster response? New IST research examines how
With over 500 million tweets sent every single day, new research from the Penn State College of Information Sciences and Technology (IST) is investigating innovative ways to use that data to help communities respond during unexpected catastrophes.
NASA gets a final look at Hurricane Gert's rainfall
Before Hurricane Gert became a post-tropical cyclone, NASA got a look at the rainfall occurring within the storm.
Paper: Clinical signs best predictors of mortality in critically ill calves
Clinical signs such as gastrointestinal problems may be better predictors of mortality in neonatal calves with diarrhea than blood pH levels and other laboratory findings, suggests a new study co-written by University of Illinois veterinary medicine dean Peter Constable; Florian M.
Initial preliminary assessment of the health risks posed by longer-term consumption of foods contaminated with fipronil
Based on currently available knowledge, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) assumes that illegal applications of products containing fipronil have apparently been carried out over an extended period of time.
The Western Ghats of India revealed two new primitive species of earthworm
Having conducted a survey of the earthworms in the Western Ghats mountains, India, a team of four scientists discovered two species new to science.
Right kind of collaboration is key to solving environmental problems
Society's ability to solve environmental problems is tied to how different actors collaborate and the shape and form of the networks they create, says a new study from researchers at Stockholm Resilience Centre which is published in the journal Science.
Drug resistance in an intestinal parasite of piglets confirmed for the first time
Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea especially in newborn piglets and spreads quickly across farms.
Spoiler alert: Computer simulations provide preview of next week's eclipse
Researchers from Predictive Science Inc. used NASA and National Science Foundation-supported supercomputers to run highly-detailed forecasts of the Sun's corona -- the aura of plasma that surrounds the sun -- at the moment of the eclipse.
ASTRO supports US Nuclear Regulatory Commission final rule
The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) applauds the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for yesterday's announcement of a final rule that updates the definition of medical events for permanent implant brachytherapy and protects patients' access to this treatment.
Doctors exploring how to prescribe income security
Physicians at St. Michael's Hospital are studying how full-time income support workers hired by health-care clinics can help vulnerable patients or those living in poverty improve their finances and their health.
The power of perovskite
OIST researchers improve perovskite-based technology in the entire energy cycle, from solar cells harnessing power to LED diodes to light the screens of future electronic devices and other lighting applications.
OU astrophysicist predicts detached, eclipsing white dwarfs to merge into exotic star
A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist, Mukremin Kilic, and his team have discovered two detached, eclipsing double white dwarf binaries with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively.
Few women with history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer take a recommended genetic test
More than 80 percent of women living with a history of breast or ovarian cancer at high-risk of having a gene mutation have never taken the test that can detect it.
Satellite sees the formation of eastern Pacific's Tropical Depression 13E
The thirteenth tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean season formed on Aug.
Fipronil in foods containing eggs: Estimations of maximum tolerable daily consumption
The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment has prepared a health risk assessment based on limited available data on fipronil levels in foods (containing eggs) in Germany.
Smart computers
Artificial neural networks decode brain activity during performed and imagined movements.
Organ crosstalk: Fatty liver can cause damage to other organs
Scientists of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) in Tübingen discovered that a fatty liver can cause damage to other organs.

Best Science Podcasts 2017

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2017. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Simple Solutions
Sometimes, the best solutions to complex problems are simple. But simple doesn't always mean easy. This hour, TED speakers describe the innovation and hard work that goes into achieving simplicity. Guests include designer Mileha Soneji, chef Sam Kass, sleep researcher Wendy Troxel, public health advocate Myriam Sidibe, and engineer Amos Winter.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#448 Pavlov (Rebroadcast)
This week, we're learning about the life and work of a groundbreaking physiologist whose work on learning and instinct is familiar worldwide, and almost universally misunderstood. We'll spend the hour with Daniel Todes, Ph.D, Professor of History of Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University, discussing his book "Ivan Pavlov: A Russian Life in Science."