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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 25, 2017


Next-generation drug testing on chips
Researchers at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) in Japan have designed a small 'body-on-a-chip' device that can test the side effects of drugs s on human cells.
Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain
Physical exercise has an anti-aging effect on the hippocampus region of the brain -- an area that controls memory, learning and balance.
For pregnancy or profit: Motive for undergoing IVF may alter the experience
A new study published in the journal Social Science and Medicine compares the physical, emotional, and cognitive experiences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) either to become pregnant or to donate their eggs for money.
Mothers with pre-eclampsia may encounter challenges later in life
A new study has found that a condition that threatens the lives of some pregnant women and the fetus may continue to put the mother at risk later in life.
Microbes compete for nutrients, affect metabolism, development in mice
If our microbiome overindulges, we might not have access to the nutrients we need.
NASA look at Tropical Storm Pakhar in infrared light
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Pakhar and gathered temperature data to determine the location of the most powerful storms within.
Paleontologists discover new species of sauropod dinosaur in Tanzania
Paleontologists have identified a new species of titanosaurian dinosaur. The research is reported in a paper published this week in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology and is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Researchers identify cheaper, greener biofuels processing catalyst
Fuels that are produced from nonpetroleum-based biological sources may become greener and more affordable, thanks to research performed at the University of Illinois' Prairie Research Institute that examines the use of a processing catalyst made from palladium metal and bacteria.
The losses that come after the earthquake: Devastating and costly
The study, titled, 'Losses Associated with Secondary Effects in Earthquakes,' published by Frontiers in Built Environmen, looks at the devastation resulting from secondary disasters, such as tsunamis, liquefaction of sediments, fires, landslides, and flooding that occurred during 100 key earthquakes that occurred from 1900 to the present.
Given the choice, zebrafish willingly dose themselves with opioids
Researchers at University of Utah Health devised a system that allowed zebrafish to self-administer doses of hydrocodone, an opioid commonly prescribed to people for pain, to study drug dependency behavior.
Study paves the way for cancer treatments that might prevent relapses after radiotherapy
Brazilian researchers suggest that the combination of drugs that block a protein called PAF-R may increase radiotherapy's killing of tumor cells by one third.
Researchers predicted when cholera epidemic in Yemen would peak
Hokkaido University scientists has developed a new mathematical model which accurately forecast that a devastating cholera epidemic in Yemen would peak by early July, the 26th week of 2017 and the cumulative incidence would be the order of 700-800 thousand cases.
NASA gets an in-depth look at intensifying Hurricane Harvey
As Hurricane Harvey continued to strengthen, NASA analyzed the storm's rainfall, cloud heights and cloud top temperatures.
Drones relay RFID signals for inventory control
MIT researchers have developed a system that enables small, safe, aerial drones to read RFID tags from tens of meters away while identifying the tags' locations.
New therapeutic targets for osteoarthritis pain
An exploration of the latest understanding of the complex mechanisms behind OA pain offers new possibilities and potential treatment targets for osteoarthritis (OA) pain.
Flame retardants and likelihood of pregnancy in women undergoing fertility treatments
Women with higher urinary concentrations of a common type of flame retardant had reduced likelihood of clinical pregnancy and live birth than those with lower concentrations, according to researchers at Harvard T.H.
Science publishes Super Steel breakthrough developed by HKU-led Beijing-HK-Taiwan team at low cost
A Hong Kong-Beijing-Taiwan mechanical engineering team led by Dr. Huang Mingxin from the University of Hong Kong has recently developed a Super Steel (also called D&P Steel as it adopted a new deformed and partitioned (D&P) strategy) which addressed the strength-ductility trade-off.
Faster, more precise, more stable: Study optimizes graphene growth
Each atomic layer thin, tear-resistant, and stable. Graphene is seen as the material of the future.
Heart hormones protect against obesity and insulin resistance
By fleshing out how one signaling receptor contributes to causing obesity through its activity in fatty tissue but not in muscle cells, SBP scientists have zeroed in on an important new avenue of exploration for combating metabolic disease.
Augmented reality technology may help guide plastic and reconstructive surgery
A plastic surgery research group has developed an augmented reality system that enables them to create 3D simulations of the desired results of facial reconstructive procedures and project them over the patient's face during surgery, reports a study in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery--Global Open®, the official open-access medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Delivers medicine to cancer cells while protecting healthy cells
A new treatment method for cancer combines ultrasound, bubbles and nanoparticles with chemotherapy.
From plant odorant detection to sex pheromone communication
Biologists at Lund University in Sweden are now able to show that the receptors enabling the primitive moth species, Eriocrania semipurpurella, find an individual of the opposite sex, probably evolved from receptors which help the moth perceive the fragrances of plants.
Conformal metasurface coating eliminates crosstalk and shrinks waveguides
The properties of materials can behave in funny ways. Tweak one aspect to make a device smaller or less leaky, for example, and something else might change in an undesirable way, so that engineers play a game of balancing one characteristic against another.
Hormonal IUDs have no effect on lactation or breastfeeding
Early placement of a hormonal IUD is a safe, long-term birth control method that does not negatively affect women who want to breastfeed their baby.
Millions of novel genetic variants found in 1000 Swedish individuals
An extensive exercise to map genetic variation in Sweden has found 33 million genetic variants, 10 million of which are novel.
Tweaking thermoelectric voltage across atomic-scale gold junction by mechanical force
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology achieved precise and fully reversible switching of the polarity of voltage produced by the thermoelectric effect across a gold junction with an atomic-scale contact.
UNC-Chapel Hill reaches milestone in development of Kinase Chemogenomic Set
The Structural Genomics Consortium at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (SGC-UNC), in partnership with the DiscoverX Corporation, has reached the milestone halfway point in its development of the Kinase Chemogenomic Set, a potent group of inhibitors which allow deeper exploration of the human kinome, a family of enzymes critical to understanding human disease and developing new therapies.
Study identifies genes linked to better immune response to flu vaccine
Yale experts and their partners in a national research consortium have identified several genes and gene clusters associated with the immune response to flu vaccination.
Which TAVR patients are at risk for hospital readmission?
As more elderly patients undergo the minimally invasive heart valve procedure called Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVR), concerns have been raised as to what causes some to be readmitted for heart failure after the procedure.
Guelph study shows endangered sharks, rays further threatened by global food markets
A majority of shark fins and manta ray gills sold around the globe for traditional medicines come from endangered species, a University of Guelph study has revealed.
New research on Fragile X syndrome reinforces importance of early detection
New insights into the long-lasting effects of Fragile X syndrome on connections in the brain during early development highlight the importance of early detection and treatment.
A Galápagos seabird's population expected to shrink with ocean warming
Within the next century, rising ocean temperatures around the Galápagos Islands are expected to make the water too warm for a key prey species, sardines, to tolerate.
Kepler satellite discovers variability in the Seven Sisters
Dr. Tim White of the Stellar Astrophysics Centre at Aarhus University and his team of Danish and international astronomers have demonstrated a powerful new technique for observing stars such as the Pleiades star cluster, which are ordinarily far too bright to look at with high performance telescopes.
Recipe for safer batteries -- Just add diamonds
While lithium-ion batteries, widely used in mobile devices from cell phones to laptops, have one of the longest lifespans of commercial batteries today, they also have been behind a number of recent meltdowns and fires due to short-circuiting in mobile devices.
Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases
This review focuses on four modifiable risk factors including physical inactivity, vascular disease-related conditions, obesity and type two diabetes mellitus, all of which have been identified as risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD).
New wrapping material enables high quality bioimaging
A nanosheet made of organic polymers has been developed to prevent the drying and deforming of biological samples, thus enabling high-quality imaging under microscopes.
New results reveal high tunability of 2-D material
A science team at Berkeley Lab has precisely measured some previously obscured properties of a 2-D semiconducting material known as moly sulfide, which opens up a new avenue to applications.
Magic enzymes
Little fungi pack a punch: 'Magic mushrooms' of the Psilocybe species produce psychoactive compounds that alter perception when ingested.
Trash to treasure: The benefits of waste-to-energy technologies
Using landfill waste to produce energy generates less greenhouse gases than simply letting the waste decompose.

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