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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 29, 2017


New treatment options for type 2 diabetes
Researchers believe they now have a considerable amount of evidence, much of it new, that in contrast to the current strategies for attacking type 2 diabetes, the recognition that it involves dormant microbes, chronic inflammatory processes and coagulopathies, offer new opportunities for treatment.
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma treatment
India is a second largest producer of leather, and being so, leather production and dyeing significantly contribute to pollution of water resources in India.
Cell culture system could offer cancer breakthrough
A new cell culture system that provides a tool for preclinical cancer drug development and screening has been developed by researchers in the USA.
NASA's Lunar mission captures solar eclipse as seen from the moon
LRO captured an image of the Moon's shadow over a large region of the United States, centered just north of Nashville, Tennessee.
Anacetrapib reduces risk of serious cardiovascular events in high risk patients (REVEAL)
Anacetrapib, an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, lowers the risk of heart attack and related cardiovascular complications in patients receiving intensive statin treatment, according to late-breaking results from the REVEAL trial presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress and published in the NEJM.
Evolutionary ecology could benefit beekeepers battling diseases
A review paper draws on scientific studies to recommend ways to reduce honeybee disease impacts, such as limiting the mixing of bees between colonies and supporting natural bee behaviors that provide disease resistance.
Researchers identify a common genetic variant linked to muscle pains in statin users
Researchers have found that people who have two identical copies of a common form of the LILRB5 gene have an increased risk of muscle aches and pains, which could be confused with statin intolerance.
UConn chemist synthesizes pure graphene
UConn chemist Doug Adamson has patented a one-of-a-kind process for exfoliating graphenel in its pure (unoxidized) form, as well as manufacturing innovative graphene nanocomposites that have potential uses in a variety of applications, including desalination of brackish water.
Bowel cancer study reveals impact of mutations on protein networks
For the first time, scientists have completed a detailed study of many of the proteins in bowel cancer cells.
Cartilage degeneration algorithm predicts progression of osteoarthritis
A novel cartilage degeneration algorithm can predict the progression of osteoarthritis in individual patients, according to new research from the University of Eastern Finland.
Study shows nurses' scrubs become contaminated with bacteria in hospitals
Clothing worn by healthcare providers can become contaminated with bacteria, however having nurses wear scrubs with antimicrobial properties did not prevent this bacterial contamination from occurring, according to a study published online today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
Dark chocolate with olive oil associated with improved cardiovascular risk profile
Dark chocolate enriched with extra virgin olive oil is associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile, according to research presented today at ESC Congress.
New osteoporosis treatment uses traditional Chinese herb to prevent bone loss
An herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine might hold the key to a new osteoporosis therapy that could prevent bone loss without causing side effects.
NASA sees Sanvu strengthen to a tropical storm
Tropical Depression Sanvu has strengthened into a tropical storm in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and NASA's Aqua satellite gathered temperature data on the storm's cloud tops using infrared light.
Landmark findings to be presented by Brigham and Women's experts at ESC Congress 2017
Beginning Saturday, Aug. 26, Brigham and Women's Hospital cardiologists and researchers will be presenting at the ESC Congress 2017, organized by the European Society of Cardiology.
Autoimmune diseases increase cardiovascular and mortality risk
Researchers from the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) and IDIAP Jordi Gol have just published an article showing that autoimmune diseases significantly increase cardiovascular risk as well as overall mortality.
Otters learn by copying each other
Otters can learn how to solve puzzles by watching and copying each other, new research shows.
A milestone in aquatic toxicology
The public release of first generation annotations for the fathead minnow genome was published today in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
NASA watching Harvey from satellites and the International Space Station
NASA has a lot of resources providing information on Tropical Storm Harvey as it continues to drop tremendous, flooding rainfall on Texas and Louisiana.
New research strengthens link between mental health and retirement savings
The question of how mental health status affects decisions regarding retirement savings is becoming a pressing issue in the United States.
Clamping down on causality by probing laser cavities
By monitoring the optical response of an externally probed laser cavity before and after gain clamping, a University of Central Florida and Yale collaboration reveals the underlying mechanisms driving the cavity's responses.
Designing novel biologic agents to target colorectal cancer
New biologic drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies and immunotherapies in clinical development, designed to target metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and stimulate the immune system to destroy tumor cells are a significant advance in treatment over conventional chemotherapy.
Children of unintended pregnancies may experience depressive symptoms in early adulthood
Children from unintended pregnancies tend to experience more depressive symptoms in early adulthood than children from intended pregnancies, however there's little evidence of a causal relationship.
Woolly rhino neck ribs provide clues about their decline and eventual extinction
A study, published in the open access journal PeerJ, reports on the incidence of abnormal cervical (neck) vertebrae in woolly rhinos, which strongly suggests a vulnerable condition in the species.
Obese people lack cells with satiety hormones
Individuals with severe overweight have an inhibited sense of satiation -- they release fewer satiety hormones than people of normal weight.
Sense of smell is key factor in bird navigation, new study shows
How do birds navigate over long distances? This complex question has been the subject of debate and controversy among scientists for decades, with Earth's magnetic field and the bird's own sense of smell among the factors said to play a part.
When it comes to antennas, size matters
In a paper published online in Nature Communications, Nian Sun, professor of electrical and computer engineering at Northeastern, and his colleagues describe a new approach to designing antennas.
An alternative to wolf control to save endangered caribou
The iconic woodland caribou across North America face increasing predation pressures from wolves.
Bahamian songbirds disappeared during last glacial-interglacial transition
Two species of songbirds that once made a home in the Bahamas likely became extinct on the islands because of rising sea levels and a warmer, wetter climate, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Riverside and the University of Florida, Gainesville.
Study finds hormone therapy improves sleep quality for recently menopausal women
A new study published in Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society has found that low-dose hormone therapy may be effective in easing sleep issues in this population.
Unraveling Alzheimer's: New study documents how brain cells go bad
Scientists have known that abnormal protein deposits and swarms of activated immune cells accumulate in brains of people with Alzheimer's.
Ablation of atrial fibrillation improves quality of life more than drugs (CAPTAF)
Ablation of atrial fibrillation improves quality of life more than drugs, even though the reduction in atrial fibrillation burden did not differ significantly between treatments, according to late-breaking results from the CAPTAF trial presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress.
Researchers reveal link between PCOS, type 2 diabetes
Women who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and are diagnosed at an earlier age with the condition, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
HPV vaccination rates especially low among childhood cancer survivors
The rate of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination in the United States is increasing, but remains lower than ideal.
NREL analysis identifies where commercial customers might benefit from energy storage
Commercial electricity customers who are subject to high demand charges may be able to reduce overall costs by using battery energy storage to manage demand, according to research by the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Two-stage approach to risk-reducing mastectomy improves results for women with large breasts
For women undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy to prevent breast cancer, reconstruction can be challenging in those with larger breasts.
In the face of climate change can our engineers keep the trains running on time?
An unprecedented study titled, 'Lifecycle Assessments of Railway Bridge Transitions Exposed to Extreme Events,' published in Frontiers in Built Environment, benchmarks the costs and carbon emissions for the life cycle of eight mitigation measures for maintaining the railroad bridges in the face of climate change and reviews these methods for their effectiveness in three types of extreme environmental conditions.
Rethinking dual antiplatelet guidelines in acute coronary syndrome? (CHANGE-DAPT)
New research presented at ESC Congress today1 suggests that for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), treatment according to contemporary guidelines for dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) could be less preferable than sticking to older guidelines.
Reassessing the benefits of plant-based eating (PURE)
A large dietary study from 18 countries, across seven geographic regions has found that even relatively moderate intake of fruit, vegetables and legumes such as beans and lentils may lower a person's risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death.
How new blood vessels sprout
IBS biologists discovered a key regulator of normal as well as pathological formation of new blood vessels.
Numeric modelling of nonpoint pollutions in the Chinese Bohai Sea
Numerical modelling combined with the adjoint method is implemented to simulate the dynamic process of total nitrogen (TN).
NREL, Swiss scientists power past solar efficiency records
Collaboration between researchers at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology, and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne shows the high potential of silicon-based multijunction solar cells.
Caspian Sea evaporating as temperatures rise, study finds
Earth's largest inland body of water has been slowly evaporating for the past two decades due to rising temperatures associated with climate change, a new study finds.
Some women with history of pre-eclampsia have significantly lower risk for breast cancer
Utilizing samples from the California Teachers Study, Buck Institute researchers have demonstrated that women with a history of pre-eclampsia, a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure, have as much as a 90 percent decrease in breast cancer risk if they carry a specific common gene variant.
Study highlights new link between gene fusion and bladder and brain cancer
A study by the University of Warwick sheds new light on gene fusion in bladder and brain cancer.
Exclusion from school can trigger long-term psychiatric illness
Excluding children from school may lead to long-term psychiatric problems and psychological distress, a study of thousands of children has shown.
Regular, early lifestyle changes key to reducing type 2 diabetes & cardiovascular disease
Regular and early one-to-one educational sessions on healthy diet and lifestyle could reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young South Asians, a new research published today in BMC Medicine suggests.
Expanding the reach of therapeutic antibodies
A group of researchers has developed an approach to efficiently produce antibodies that can bind to two different target molecules simultaneously, a long-desired innovation in the field of cancer immunotherapy.
Using DNA to predict schizophrenia and autism
Osaka University researchers show in a multi-institute collaboration that a single amino acid substitution in the protein CX3CR1 may act as predictor for schizophrenia and autism.
NASA's IMERG shows rainfall accumulation along Harvey's track
As Harvey continues to dump catastrophic rains over southeastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana, NASA has been tallying rainfall accumulations in the storm's wake.
A new method to estimate total organic carbon content
One key property to evaluate the prospects of any shale oil or gas is its total organic carbon (TOC) richness.
Faulty DNA repair depresses neural development
Osaka University researchers discover DNA polymerase β (Polβ) deficiency in neural stem cells affects neuronal survival and neural network in the developing brain.
Bone-derived hormone reverses age-related memory loss in mice
Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center reversed age-related memory loss in mice by boosting blood levels of osteocalcin, a hormone produced by bone cells.
NTU scientists use brewery waste to grow yeast needed for beer making
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have invented a new process to turn spent brewery grains into a valuable product that can grow beer yeast.
Pathway's power to boost, halt tumors may be promising cancer therapy target
A protein, called inositol-requiring enzyme 1 -- IRE1 -- may serve as a key driver in a series of molecular interactions that can both promote and, paradoxically, inhibit tumors in certain types of cancers, such as non-melanoma skin cancers, according to a team of molecular biologists.
Study shows slow walking pace is good predictor of heart-related deaths
Study suggests that middle-aged people who report that they are slow walkers could be at higher risk of heart disease compared to the general population.
A new estimate of biodiversity on Earth
A new research article estimates there are about a thousand times more species than people thought existed, most of them bacteria.
Poor sleep is associated with ischemic heart disease and stroke
Poor sleep is associated with ischemic heart disease and stroke, according to research presented today at ESC Congress.
Altered bacterial communities in the gut could be an indicator for Parkinson's disease
By the time Parkinson's disease manifests as the typical motor dysfunctions, portions of the brain have already been irreversibly destroyed.
Asian dust and acute myocardial infarction: Prediction and prevention
When Asian dust clouds blow in to Japan's Kumamoto Prefecture, hospitals in the region handle a surge of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the following 24 hours, and now a new prediction tool could help pinpoint which patients are at greatest risk.
Photosynthesis discovery could help design more efficient artificial solar cells
A natural process that occurs during photosynthesis could lead to the design of more efficient artificial solar cells, according to researchers at Georgia State University.
Potential Tropical Cyclone 10 soaks Mid-Atlantic
NOAA's GOES East satellite provided an image of Potential Tropical Cyclone 10 as it continued moving north along the US East Coast.
Say hello to the 3-D Obama ant
Three new ant species named in honor of key figures in conservation -- Barack Obama, Ken Saro-Wiwa, and E.O.
No advantage of ambulance over hospital anti-clot therapy (SCAAR)
In contrast to European and American guidelines that recommend pre-hospital antiplatelet therapy for heart attack patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a new study presented at ESC Congress suggests this practice has no advantage over waiting for in-hospital treatment.
New diagnostics tool, the Xpert Ultra assay, improves detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis
Researchers have demonstrated a new, improved version of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a test for Rifampicin-resistance (RIF-R).
First atlas of B-cell clones in body forms new foundation for infectious disease research
A new 'anatomic atlas' of how B cells -- the immune system's producer of antibodies -- link up to form networks has been charted by researchers.
UMass Amherst biochemists simulate a protein-folding chaperone's functional dance
Using a combination of computational and experimental techniques, a research team at the University of Massachusetts Amherst led by molecular biologist Lila Gierasch has demystified the pathway of interdomain communication in a family of proteins known as Hsp70s -- a top target of dozens of research laboratories trying to develop new anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics and treatments for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Rise of male individuals in stingless bees colonies leads to queen's death
Stingless bees belong to Hymenoptera order, composed of social insect whose queens are capable of choosing the sex of their offspring.
Severity of psoriasis linked to increased risk of death
The more the surface area of the body is covered by psoriasis, the greater the risk of death for the patient suffering from the condition, according to a new analysis by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Revisiting dietary fat guidelines? (PURE)
Researchers here at ESC Congress are calling for a reconsideration of global dietary guidelines in light of new data presented today on fat intake and cardiovascular risk and mortality.
Preventing sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ESC guidelines (HCM-EVIDENCE)
A large study conducted across North America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia has validated the ESC recommendations for predicting and preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Japanese study questions benefit of treat-to-target statin therapy (EMPATHY)
A study in Japanese patients with diabetic retinopathy has questioned the benefit of treat-to-target intensive versus standard statin therapy.
Why does rubbing a balloon on your hair make it stick?
New research led by Case Western Reserve University indicates that tiny holes and cracks in a material -- changes in the microstructure -- can control how the material becomes electrically charged through friction.
Rare-metals in the Himalayas: The potential world-class treasure
The Himalayan granitic belts extend more than 1000 km and they are unique components of the Tibetan plateau.
Pinpointing the origins of autism
The origins of autism remain mysterious. What areas of the brain are involved, and when do the first signs appear?
A bed & breakfast in L.A. reveals the lifestyle of a secretive fly species
For nearly 30 years, Dr. Brian Brown knew about a mysterious unidentified phorid fly species, whose females were often spotted around mushrooms, while the males were nowhere to be found.
Scientists map genomic atlas of your inner fish gut
Duke scientists have discovered a network of genes and genetic regulatory elements in the lining of the gut that has been conserved from fishes to humans.
How parents, siblings can become teachers for special needs children
Parents and siblings of children with limited speech who took an innovative training program created by a Michigan State University scholar significantly improved their ability to communicate with the special needs youth.
Tears in tiny bone cells called osteocytes appear an important step to better bones
The force gravity and physical activity put on our bones causes tiny tears in the membranes of the tiny cells that enable us to make or break down bone, scientists say.
Extreme exposure
Researchers unravel the negative effects of pesticide exposure on birth outcomes, such as weight, gestation and abnormalities.
New findings on the past and future of sea ice cover in the Arctic
Temperatures in the Arctic are currently climbing two to three times faster than the global average.
International study shows moderate consumption of fats and carbohydrates best for health
Research with more than 135,000 people across five continents has shown that a diet which includes a moderate intake of fat and fruits and vegetables, and avoidance of high carbohydrates, is associated with lower risk of death.
Obesity prevention guidelines are not followed for preschool children
In a study of nearly 400 preschool children, only one child adhered to obesity prevention guidelines over the course of a single day at child care and at home.
Researchers discover new immunotherapy combination effective at killing cancer cells
Researchers at the University of Calgary recently discovered an immunotherapy that uses existing cancer drugs in a whole new way.
Ames Laboratory scientists move graphene closer to transistor applications
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory were able to successfully manipulate the electronic structure of graphene, which may enable the fabrication of graphene transistors -- faster and more reliable than existing silicon-based transistors.
Meta-analysis suggests PCSK9 inhibitors do not increase short-term risk of type 2 diabetes
PCSK9 inhibitors do not increase short-term risk of type 2 diabetes, suggests a meta-analysis in more than 68,000 patients presented at ESC Congress today.
Century-old seal pelts reveal changes in Ross Sea ecosystem
Scientists sampled a pile of frozen pelts left in a hut by Antarctic explorers for Weddell seal tissue from a century ago, at the very start of human activities in Antarctica.
Women largely unaware of minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids
US women are largely unaware of uterine fibroid embolization, a minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids that is less painful, preserves the uterus and allows women to get back to their lives sooner than surgical options, according to results from a new nationwide poll released today by the Society of Interventional Radiology.
Inattentive kids show worse grades in later life
Researchers found that inattentiveness in childhood was linked to worse academic performance up to 10 years later in children with and without ADHD, even when they accounted for the children's intellectual ability.
Weightlessness affects health of cosmonauts at molecular level
It is widely known that space conditions influence metabolism, thermoregulation, heart biorhythms, muscle tone and other physiological aspects.
New antibodies target protein structures common to several neurological diseases
A new kind of antibody targets a feature shared by proteins thought to cause the most damage in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and related conditions, creating potential for a unified treatment approach.
High-tech electronics made from autumn leaves
Northern China's roadsides are peppered with deciduous phoenix trees, producing an abundance of fallen leaves in autumn.
Thorough analysis reveals immune system dynamics after immunotherapy
By combining new system-biological analyses and advanced data analysis, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have been able to monitor the maturation process of the immune system of leukemia patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation.
Cosmetic surgery may help patients quit smoking
If you're a smoker considering cosmetic surgery, your plastic surgeon will likely require you to stop smoking for at least two weeks before your procedure.
Sampling of the active alpine fault in New Zealand reveals extreme hydrothermal conditions
An international research team, including Naoki Kato of Osaka University, identified significant pore fluid pressures and temperatures at relatively shallow depths in the active alpine fault of New Zealand, which play an important role in seismic stability.
Lasers zap decontaminates from soil
There might be a new and improved way to rid contaminated soil of toxins and pollutants: zap it with lasers.
Federal preemption of taxes on state and local sugar-sweetened beverages is not warranted
Federal and state government can alter or hinder state and local activity through a legal mechanism called preemption -- when a higher level of government blocks the action of a lower level of government.
Lively tunes boost sales in crowded stores
If a store is crowded, people tend to buy more if the sound system is playing a fast-paced song rather than a ballad.
Don't be salty -- tiny tubes desalinate water one molecule at a time
Northeastern University researchers have discovered that carbon nanotubes are nearly perfect for salt filtration, which could help make widespread desalinization a reality.
Where's the line? Managing extreme speech on social media
A new study from the University of Missouri School of Journalism shows that while people tend to dislike extreme speech on social media, there is less support for outright censorship.
Drought response in global crops may be as complex as day and night
Researchers identify a set of genes that help control early drought response in a popular global crop by focusing on the entire day-night cycle and by analyzing genetic and physiological changes.
Doping in sports: Official tests fail to pick up majority of cases
A new scientific study has found that doping is far more common in professional sport than the rates suggested by blood and urine tests of the athletes.
Electrocardiogram recording by patients boosts atrial fibrillation diagnosis (REHEARSE-AF)
Electrocardiogram (ECG) recording by patients with remote analysis by professionals identifies more atrial fibrillation (AF) than routine care, according to late-breaking results from a randomised trial presented today in a Hot Line -- LBCT Session at ESC Congress1 and published in Circulation.
Magnetic stimulation of the brain improved awareness of subject's own cognitive abilities
Researchers at Aalto University and the University of Helsinki have succeeded for the first time ever in affecting metacognition of a tactile working memory task by combining neural pathway imaging and magnetic stimulation of the brain.
New species of crab with unusual outgrowths has its name written in the stars
A new 'star crab' has been collected from red coral beds in Taiwan and reefs in the Philippines.
Researchers validate UV light's use in improving semiconductors
A discovery by two scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory could aid the development of next-generation semiconductor devices.
High-speed switching for ultrafast electromechanical switches and sensors
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagoya University, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and University of New South Wales have observed high-speed switching in Pb(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3 thin films under applied rectangular electric field pulses.
Experts release US policy roadmap to reduce antibiotics used in food animals
Leading physicians, veterinarians and other experts outline key steps for policymakers, food companies and food purchasers, and medical groups to help tackle the antibiotic resistance crisis.
New mini tool has massive implications
Researchers have created a miniaturized, portable version of a tool now capable of analyzing Mars' atmosphere -- and that's just one of its myriad possible uses.
Discovery suggests new significance of unheralded chemical reactions
Argonne and Columbia researchers reveal new significance to a decades-old chemical reaction theory, increasing our understanding of the interaction of gases, relevant to combustion and planetary atmospheres.

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