Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 08, 2017
Study on climate change shows how cities can prioritize public health
Involving health experts in planning can have profound consequences.

A sweeter way to make green products
University of Delaware researchers have invented a more efficient process for extracting the sugars from wood chips, corn cobs and other organic waste from forests and farms.

Study identifies factors that limit work ability of young adult cancer survivors
Factors that limit the work ability of young adult cancer survivors are reported today at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

What mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on breast cancer outcomes?
The ability of serum obtained from women with breast cancer immediately after finishing two hours of moderate to intense exercise to prevent the growth and survival of breast cancer cells lines in vitro and in mice was attributable, at least in part, to epinephrine activation of the Hippo signaling pathway.

When electrons ride a wave
Conventional electron accelerators are an indispensable tool in modern research.

South Asians with family history of heart disease at greater risk
New research by UT Southwestern cardiologists shows that people of South Asian descent with a family history of coronary heart disease are significantly more likely to have high levels of calcium buildup in their arteries - an indicator of higher risk for heart attacks.

Endobronchial valve treatment appears to improve lung function in patients with severe emphysema
People with severe emphysema may breathe better after a minimally invasive procedure that places valves in the airways leading to diseased portions of their lungs, according to a randomized, controlled trial published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Machine learning enabled mobile microscope for monitoring air quality
Accurate on-site air-quality monitoring can be performed using lens-free microscopy on a chip coupled with machine learning.

Satellites show Hurricane Katia crawling to the Mexico coast
Two days of satellite imagery from NASA's Terra and NOAA's GOES East satellites showed that Hurricane Katia was starting to crawl to the coast of southeastern Mexico.

New software can detect when people text and drive
Computer algorithms developed by engineering researchers at the University of Waterloo can accurately determine when drivers are texting or engaged in other distracting activities.

Improving cervical cancer screening rates for transgender men
A new study indicates that alternative options for cervical cancer screening, including self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, could improve the screening rate among transgender men.

Pembrolizumab: promising response rate in pretreated metastatic gastric cancer
Pembrolizumab has shown a promising response rate in patients with pretreated metastatic gastric cancer, according to late-breaking results from the KEYNOTE-059 trial presented today at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

NASA flights map summer melt of Greenland Ice Sheet
Operation IceBridge is flying in Greenland to measure how much ice has melted over the course of the summer from the ice sheet.

NASA's fleet of satellites covering powerful Hurricane Irma
NASA's fleet of satellites have been continually providing forecasters with data on Hurricane Irma.

Hepatocellular carcinoma: Resection vs. transplantation
Liver transplantation is the gold standard for treating early hepatocellular cancers.

Lazy ants make themselves useful in unexpected ways
Sizable populations of inactive workers in ant colonies have puzzled scientists for a long time.

Number of Europeans exposed to secondhand smoke at work rising to more than 1 in 4
More than one in four of people who work indoors are being exposed to secondhand smoke at work, according to new research to be presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress 2017 on Sunday.

An officer and a gentlewoman from the Viking army in Birka
War was not an activity exclusive to males in the Viking world.

Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body mass index
BWH investigators examine the relationships between body fat and body mass index, and the timing of food consumption, to time of day and to the body's circadian or body clock.

Eye changes may signal frontotemporal lobe degeneration
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that is present in tens of thousands of Americans, but is often difficult to diagnose accurately.

New data confirms superiority of docetaxel based triplet therapy in gastric cancer
The superiority of docetaxel based triplet therapy over standard care in patients with resectable esophago-gastric cancer has been confirmed in late-breaking results from the FLOT4 trial presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

An emergency method for measuring strontium levels in milk can be used in routine studies
The UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country's Nuclear and Radiological Safety research group is participating in validations of methods proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Do we need to reform international drug treaties as more countries legalize cannabis?
The future of international drug control treaties is in doubt because of recent treaty-violating decisions to legalize cannabis use in Canada, the United States and Uruguay.

A-MUD: A method for automatically detecting mouse song
Mice produce a remarkable repertoire of vocalizations across five octaves, which they emit during mating and other contexts.

Nursing home workers often fail to change gloves, risking spread of infection: New study
The failure to change gloves is common among certified nursing assistants, and may be a significant cause of the spread of dangerous pathogens in nursing homes and long-term healthcare settings, according to a new study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.

Patients feel psycho-social impact of chemo more acutely than physical side effects
The preliminary results of a study to be presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid show that socio-psychological factors have become more significant for patients today than physical side effects such as nausea and vomiting, which were among the top concerns in similar studies carried out previously.

Blocking sweet taste receptors can help body fight off sinus infections
Sweet taste receptor, known as T1R, can be activated by certain amino acids secreted by bacteria.

Why it's difficult to predict evolutionary fate of a new trait
In a new review paper, scientists explain the vexing complexities that make it hard to predict whether a new genetic trait will take over a population or die out, a key challenge for many fields including infectious disease.

How to draw electricity from the bloodstream
Men build dams and huge turbines to turn the energy of waterfalls and tides into electricity.

Are we being watched? Tens of other worlds could spot the Earth
A group of scientists from Queen's University Belfast and the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Germany have turned exoplanet-hunting on its head, in a study that instead looks at how an alien observer might be able to detect Earth using our own methods.

High-speed quantum memory for photons
Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons.

Medicaid expansion linked to lower uninsured rates
After full implementation of the Affordable Care Act, the percent of uninsured decreased substantially in Medicaid expansion states among low-income nonelderly adults with newly diagnosed cancer.

Patients with high risk prostate cancer may benefit 'equally' from two new treatments
Patients with high risk prostate cancer starting long-term hormone therapy may benefit from two new treatments, according to late-breaking results from the STAMPEDE trial presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

Immune cells help fat deal with environmental challenges
Immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells play an important role in the functioning of adipose tissue.

NUS scientists unravel new insights into promising semiconductor material
Researchers from the National University of Singapore have established new findings on the properties of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide, a widely studied semiconductor of the future.

Under-reporting of vertebral fractures by radiologists: A missed opportunity
A new retrospective study by researchers at the University of Oxford has found that within a cohort of hip fracture patients many had previous imaging studies showing incidental vertebral fractures -- but 54 percent of the vertebral fractures were not reported by radiologists.

Internal mechanism found to be responsible for the limitless growth potential of epithelial tumors
Featured on the cover of the journal Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences, the study identifies the cell types and molecular mechanism involved in tumor initiation and growth.

NASA gets 'eyed' by major Hurricane Jose
NASA's Aqua satellite captured clear view of the eye of Hurricane Jose at it moved toward the Leeward Islands and strengthened into a Category 4 Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

Who is the chief culprit of dust concentrations over East Asia?
Compared with the Taklimakan Desert, the Gobi Desert located between China and Mongolia is the dominant contributor to the East Asian dust concentrations.

Meeting a microbe in the morning or in the evening: Is it all the same?
Does the time of day matter when our body is infected by a parasite?

Young birds suffer in the city
City life is tough for young birds. But if they survive their first year, they are less susceptible to the effects of stress, according to research from Lund University in Sweden.

Scientist finds secret to thriving
What it takes to thrive, rather than merely survive, could be as simple as feeling good about life and yourself and being good at something, according to new research.

'Triggers': A new tool to assess cancer patients' palliative needs
A new tool to identify patients who would benefit from early palliative care will be presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

Folic acid may mitigate autism risk from pesticides
Researchers at UC Davis and other institutions have shown that mothers who take recommended amounts of folic acid around conception might reduce their children's pesticide-related autism risk.

Polio-like disease in children
In Germany in the summer and autumn of 2016, several cases of illness in children were observed that were accompanied by acute flaccid paralysis.

Lung cancer: Scientists find answer to resistance
Scientists at the University of Southern Denmark have found a new strategy for overcoming the resistance, which many lung cancer patients develop towards a recent drug, which can arrest the growth of tumors.

Animal welfare: Potential new indicator of chronic stress in horses
Cortisol is generally considered to be a stress hormone because its levels rise during episodes of acute stress.

Separating septic and aseptic operating areas is unnecessary
In Germany, the rule still applies that aseptic and septic and procedure rooms need to be separate; Julian Camill Harnoss and coauthors show that this separation is unnecessary, in the current issue of Deutsches Ă„rzteblatt International (Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 465-72).

Team led by graduate student at PPPL produces unique simulation of magnetic reconnection
There is a new application of the fluid model to reconnection in space plasmas.

Juvenile stroke: Causes often not known
Strokes without a definitive identifiable cause account for up to 50 percent of juvenile strokes.

New guidelines discourage use of brain imaging as a 'lie detector' for chronic pain
A task force consisting of researchers from around the world and led by a scientist at the Krembil Research Institute in Toronto has released a set of recommendations that advise against the use of brain imaging as a test for chronic pain.

LORELEI: Taselisib boosts breast tumor shrinkage
Adding taselisib to letrozole before surgery significantly improved outcomes for patients with early breast cancer that was both estrogen receptor positive and HER2-negative (ER+/HER2-) according to results of the LORELEI trial, presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

Rucaparib boosts progression-free survival in BRCA mutant recurrent ovarian cancer
Rucaparib maintenance therapy increases progression-free survival in BRCA mutant recurrent ovarian cancer by 77%, according to late-breaking results from the ARIEL3 trial reported today at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

Bariatric surgery associated with semen abnormalities and reduced fertility in men
A meta-analysis of studies in which men underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures found frequent sperm aberrations and lower fertility rates despite improvements in weight, androgen levels, and sexual quality of life following the procedure.

Who is eating who? How climate change is modifying fish predator prey interactions
Climate change is expected to have many impacts on the oceans; one of them is where fish are located in the ocean.

Study challenges perception that empathy erodes during medical school
A new study by social neuroscientists at the University of Chicago, published Sept. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to