Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 11, 2017
Half-a-billion-year-old fossils shed light animal evolution on earth
Scientists have discovered traces of life more than half-a-billion years old that could change the way we think about how all animals evolved on Earth.

Novel intensive care improves treatment for heart patients -- and cuts costs
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine find that a new, collaborative treatment model for seriously ill heart patients with breathing difficulties results in better care and lower costs.

Beverage industry capitalizing on countries with fewer health regulations
Considerable exposure to sugary drinks combined with a lack of water fountains in high schools are likely important contributors to increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, a new study from the University of Waterloo has found.

Air pollution cuts 3 years off lifespans in Northern China
A study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that a Chinese policy is unintentionally causing people in northern China to live 3.1 years less than people in the south due to air pollution concentrations that are 46 percent higher.

Rising CO2 leading to changes in land plant photosynthesis
Researchers led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego have determined that major changes in plant behavior have occurred over the past 40 years, using measurements of subtle changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) currently found in the atmosphere.

Massachusetts off-road-vehicle law significantly reduces injuries, hospitalizations in children
The 2010 Massachusetts law restricting the use of off-road vehicles to those age 14 and older led to significant reductions in both emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions resulting from ORV injuries in the following three years.

Biodiversity just as powerful as climate change for healthy ecosystems
Biodiversity is proving to be one of humanity's best defenses against extreme weather.

Correlation between height and risk of thrombosis
In a new study from Lund University in Sweden, researchers investigated the risk factors for blood clots, i.e. venous thromboembolism (VTE).

New guideline for screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms
A new screening guideline from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which cause approximately 1244 deaths every year in Canada, recommends one-time ultrasonography screening for men aged 65 to 80 years.

The turbulent healing powers of plasma
Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma can help heal wounds, destroy cancer cells and kill harmful bacteria.

Study: Individuals with developmental disabilities experience health care disparities
A study from the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center highlights the importance of disability education for health care clinicians.

New study reveals hidden burden of Lupus among Hispanic and Asian women in Manhattan
Within Manhattan's diverse population, the autoimmune disease lupus affects Hispanic and Asian women more frequently than white women, according to a new study led by investigators at NYU School of Medicine.

Ethnic diversity in schools may be good for students' grades, a UC Davis study suggests
The findings suggest that schools might look for ways to provide cross-ethnic interaction among students to take advantage of ethnic diversity.

A new genetic marker for schizophrenia
Japanese scientists find a rare genetic variant that shows strong association with schizophrenia.

How liver cancer develops
Researchers at the University of Zurich and the University Hospital Zurich have discovered a major mechanism in the development of liver cancer.

Core solutions reach optimally extreme light pulses
A European-based research collaboration between ICFO and MPL reports the development of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber system suitable for hard X-ray production and real-time investigations of atomic dynamics

The evolutionary origin of the gut
How did the gut, the skin and musculature evolve? This question concerns scientists for more than a century.

MSU biologist learned what Przewalski's horse ate more than a century ago
A scientist from the Lomonosov Moscow State University's Faculty of Biology together with her colleagues has explained the changes in modern Przewalski's horses' food reserve (diet) that have occurred since the end of the 19th century.

Science spin prevalent, researchers warn
More than a quarter of biomedical scientific papers may utilize practices that distort the interpretation of results or mislead readers so that results are viewed more favorably, a new University of Sydney study suggests.

First on-chip nanoscale optical quantum memory developed
Engineers at Caltech have built a chip capable of storing and retrieving individual photons of light, with all of their quantum properties left intact.

Study clarifies how neural nets 'think' when processing language
At the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods on Natural Language Processing starting this week, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory are presenting a new general-purpose technique for making sense of neural networks that are trained to perform natural-language-processing tasks, in which computers attempt to interpret freeform texts written in ordinary, or 'natural,' language (as opposed to a structured language, such as a database-query language).

Does health insurance status affect childhood cancer survival?
A new study examines whether insurance status may affect survival in children diagnosed with cancer.

Fire ant venom compounds may lead to skin treatments
Solenopsins, the main toxic components of fire ant venom, chemically resemble ceramides, which are lipid-like molecules essential for maintaining for the barrier function of the skin.

Looking stressed can help keep the peace
This is the first research to suggest scratching may have evolved as a communication tool to help social cohesion.

Smoking slowly changes lung cells to increase the odds for cancer
Cigarette smoke causes epigenetic changes in lung cells that prime them to develop cancer, and researchers can now observe how these changes unfold over time.

Cold region 'tipping point' now inevitable
The decline of cold regions called periglacial zones is now inevitable due to climate change, researchers say.

Why your ancestors would have aced the long jump
A 52-million-year-old ankle fossil suggests our prehuman ancestors were high-flying acrobats.

Patients to benefit from new 3-D visualizations of the heart
In the future heart surgeons will have access to a new type of 3-D visualization of the cardiac conduction system.

Scientists construct first predictive model of inflammatory bowel disease
Scientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Sema4, and collaborating institutions today published results of an in-depth, multi-omics approach to characterizing the immune component of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

ERC frontier research leaves its mark: 73 percent breakthroughs or major advances
The European Research Council's blue sky research continues to make an impact, as demonstrated in a new independent study, published today, which looked at the outputs of ERC projects.

Livestock production, a much smaller challenge to global food security than often reported
A new study in Global Food Security found that livestock place less burden on the human food supply than previously reported.

To improve health monitoring, simply trip the 'nanoswitch'
A team of researchers from Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Harvard's Wyss Institute have adapted their DNA nanoswitch technology -- previously demonstrated to aid drug discovery and the measure of biochemical interactions -- into a new platform that they call the nanoswitch-linked immunosorbent assay (NLISA) for fast, sensitive and specific protein detection.

Clinical trials often unregistered, unpublished
An analysis of more than 100 clinical trials found that they were often unregistered, unpublished and had discrepancies in the reporting of primary outcomes, according to a study published by JAMA.

Mitochondrial metastasis suppressor pathway controls tumor cell metabolic reprogramming
A novel mitochondrial variant of the protein Syntaphilin, or SNPH, which orchestrates the choice between cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in response to oxygen and nutrient shortage in the tumor microenvironment, has been identified by researchers at The Wistar Institute.

HRT can slow decline in lung function for middle-aged women
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can slow the decline in lung function in middle-aged women, according to new research to be presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress.

Scientists discover genetic timetable of brain's aging process
Brain scientists have identified a genetic programme that controls the way our brain changes throughout life.

Researchers find 'internal clock' within live human cells
A team of scientists has revealed an internal clock within live human cells, a finding that creates new opportunities for understanding the building blocks of life and the onset of disease.

Coral loss on Palm Islands long precedes 2016 mass bleaching on Great Barrier Reef
Extensive loss of branching corals and changes in coral community structure in Australia's Palm Islands region over the past century has been revealed in a new study.

Connecting up the quantum internet
Major leap for practical building blocks of a quantum internet: Published in Nature Physics, new research from an Australian team demonstrates how to dramatically improve the storage time of a telecom-compatible quantum memory, a vital component of a global quantum network.

Long sitting periods may be just as harmful as daily total
A new study founds that sitting around for 12 or more hours per day, particularly if accumulated during 60- to 90-minute periods, increased the risk of death -- even in those who exercised.

NASA tracking Tropical Storm Talim in Philippine Sea
NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Talim early on Sept.

Fathers can influence the sex of their offspring, scientists show
It has traditionally been thought that in mammals only mothers are able to influence the sex of their offspring.

The USA threatened by more frequent flooding
The East Coast of the United States is threatened by more frequent flooding in the future.

DNA looping architecture may lead to opportunities to treat brain tumors
The discovery of a mechanism by which normal brain cells regulate the expression of the NFIA gene, which is important for both normal brain development and brain tumor growth, might one day help improve therapies to treat brain tumors.

NASA gets nighttime and daytime look at a weaker wide Irma
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite captured night-time look at Hurricane Irma as it weakened to a large tropical storm and the GOES East satellite provided a daytime view as the large storm continued moving north over Florida.

Coffee and bees: New model of climate change effects
Areas in Latin America suitable for growing coffee face predicted declines of 73-88 percent by 2050.

Relationship science: How can couples keep moving forward
Family studies researchers at the University of Illinois who study the science behind maintaining romantic relationships focus their work on the central organizing unit -- the relationship -- rather than on the individual.

AI uses less than two minutes of videogame footage to recreate game engine
Game studios and enthusiasts may soon have a new tool at their disposal to speed up game development and experiment with different styles of play.

Self-assembling nanoparticle arrays can switch between a mirror and a window
By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window.

New research may improve communications during natural disasters
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are proposing a new way of gathering and sharing information during natural disasters that does not rely on the Internet.

Method controls whether freezing droplets bounce off or stick
MIT researchers have discovered self-peeling droplets and new way to control adhesion of freezing droplets by adjusting the thermal properties of substrates.

Asthma linked to increase in fertility treatment
Women with asthma are more likely to have fertility treatment before giving birth than non-asthmatic women, according to new research to be presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress.

Brain Composer: 'Thinking' melodies onto a musical score
TU Graz researchers develop new brain-computer interface application which allows music to be composed by the power of thought.

Dangerous drug use trend among high school seniors, NYU study reveals
This is the first nationally representative study in which current use of synthetic cannabinoids is examined.

Modulating T-cell metabolism uncovers new technology for enhancing immunotherapy
T lymphocytes found in tumors and implicated in killing tumor cells cope with the shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tumor microenvironment by using fat as the main source of energy.

Want to improve your business's online ratings? Make sure to respond to reviews
Can responding to online reviews improve a business' online reputation?

Gut microbes may influence multiple sclerosis progression
Researchers at UC San Francisco have identified specific gut microbes associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in human patients, showing that these microbes take part in regulating immune responses in mouse models of the disease.

Childhood maltreatment may change brain's response to threat
Neural activity associated with defensive responses in humans shifts between two brain regions depending on the proximity of a threat, suggests neuroimaging data from two independent samples of adults in the Netherlands published in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Urban climate change
Southern cities such as Houston and Tampa -- which faced the wrath of hurricanes Harvey and Irma, respectively -- may not be the only urban environments vulnerable to extreme weather.

Successful transcatheter treatment of severe cardiac failure, a world first
The Cardiovascular Surgery Group at Osaka University performed a transcatheter mitral valve implantation in dysfunctional artificial valves in severe cardiac failure patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction.

A biosensor detects adulteration of horse in beef meat within 1 hour
Fraud in meat products has become, in recent years, a battle of the food industry and public health.

NYU researchers examine disaster preparedness and recovery in a hurricane-induced hospital evacuation
Two reports published in the Journal of Nursing Scholarship reveal important insights on emergency preparedness, recovery, and resilience from nurses working at NYU Langone Health's main hospital during Superstorm Sandy in 2012.

Hollow atoms: The consequences of an underestimated effect
In a 'hollow atom', electrons occupy high-energy states far away from the nucleus, It can get rid of their excess energy on a remarkably short timescale.

New treatment approaches to emotional problems after TBI
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly have emotional difficulties -- a persistent problem with limited treatment options.

Revolutionary process could signal new era for gene synthesis
A team of scientists led by the University of Southampton has demonstrated a groundbreaking new method of gene synthesis -- a vital research tool with real-world applications in everything from growing transplantable organs to developing treatments for cancer.

Sun erupts with significant flare
The sun emitted a significant, X8.2-class solar flare, peaking at 12:06 p.m.

Study of circular DNA comes full circle with use of old technique
A 50-year-old lab technique is helping researchers better understand circular DNA, a lesser-known and poorly understood cousin of the linear version commonly associated with life's genetic blueprint.

Ancient wetlands offer window into climate change
Environmental researchers have uncovered a wealth of information about a unique part of Australia that offers never-before-seen insights into climate change since the last ice age.

Research identifies causes and possible treatments for deadly diseases affecting children
Research conducted at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM), has identified four pathogens are responsible for the vast majority of diarrheal illnesses - leading the way for potential new treatments.

Employee outsourcing hides slaves in the workforce, shows research
Failure to monitor outsourced recruitment is resulting in companies inadvertently employing victims of modern slavery, according to new research led by the University of Bath's School of Management.

Protein research could help in hunt for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's cures
Research carried out at the University of Kent has the potential to influence the future search for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are linked to a family of protein molecules known as 'amyloid'.

Body's own defense against ALS actually drives disease progression at later stages
Columbia scientists have discovered that one of the body's natural defenses against amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) -- a cellular 'clean-up process' called autophagy -- suppresses disease progression early on, but in later stages advances the disease's deadly spread through the spinal cord.

Chronic cell death promotes liver cancer
Liver cancer occurs predominantly in patients whose liver has been damaged as a result of chronic disease.

Researchers find that body clock, gut microbiota work together to pack on the pounds
UT Southwestern researchers have uncovered new clues about how gut bacteria and the body's circadian clock work together to promote body fat accumulation.

Savings less than expected for generic oral chemotherapy
The cost savings for the generic versions of an orally administered cancer treatment were less than expected in an analysis led by researchers from the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Biding time could improve conservation outcomes
Strategic delays in conservation efforts could be the key to protecting more species according to researchers at the University of Queensland.

Combination targeted adjuvant therapy doubles relapse-free survival in stage III melanoma
Combination targeted adjuvant therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib doubles relapse-free survival in patients with stage III BRAF-mutant melanoma, according to late-breaking results from the COMBI-AD trial presented today at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Study shows so-called 'healthy obesity' is harmful to cardiovascular health
Clinicians are being warned not to ignore the increased cardiovascular health risks of those who are classed as either 'healthy obese' or deemed to be 'normal weight' but have metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes.

Expensive drug driving up Medicare expenditures without evidence of greater efficacy
Medicare spent more than $1 billion over a five-year period on a high-priced drug that has not been proven more effective for a collection of inflammatory conditions than much less expensive corticosteroids.

Astronomers spun up by galaxy-shape finding
For the first time astronomers have measured how a galaxy's spin affects its shape -- something scientists have tried to do for 90 years -- using a sample of 845 galaxies.

Report identifies key policies to address health inequities
Researchers from the University of Liverpool working with the World Health Organisation Health Evidence Network and the European Office for Investment for Health and Development have published a report that highlights the key policies required for addressing the social determinants of health and health inequities.

Using mirrors to improve the quality of light particles
Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system.

Explosion in number of known life forms
A remarkable effort from University of Queensland researchers has helped increase the number of known genomes by almost 10 percent.

Scientists track the brain-skull transition from dinosaurs to birds
The dramatic, dinosaur-to-bird transition that occurred in reptiles millions of years ago was accompanied by profound changes in the skull roof of those animals -- and holds important clues about the way the skull forms in response to changes in the brain -- according to a new study.

Earthquake triggers 'slow motion' quakes in New Zealand
Slow slip events, a type of slow motion earthquake that occurs over days to weeks, are thought to be capable of triggering larger, potentially damaging earthquakes.

Small increases in physical activity reduce immobility, disability risks in older adults
Adding 48 minutes of exercise per week is associated with improvements in overall mobility and decreases in risks of disability in older adults who are sedentary, finds a new study led by researchers at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts.

Study estimates R&D spending on bringing new cancer drug to market
Research and development costs are a common justification for high cancer drug prices and a new study published by JAMA Internal Medicine offers an updated estimate of the spending needed to bring a drug to the US market.

Mixing and matching yeast DNA
Osaka University scientists show molecular factors that determine why some regions in yeast chromosomes are apt for remodeling, while other regions stay faithful during cell replication.

Hints from hemoglobin lead to better carbon monoxide storage
Highly porous metal-organic frameworks have proved ideal for storing many chemicals, from carbon dioxide and hydrogen to water.

Cocaine users' brains unable to extinguish drug associations
Mount Sinai researchers study if longtime cocaine users could benefit from a psychological technique that might help them quit.

CoreTrustSeal Certification launched
The ICSU World Data System (ICSU-WDS) and the Data Seal of Approval (DSA) are pleased to announce the launch of a new certification organization: CoreTrustSeal.

'Epigenetic' changes from cigarette smoke may be first step in lung cancer development
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have preliminary evidence in laboratory-grown, human airway cells that a condensed form of cigarette smoke triggers so-called 'epigenetic' changes in the cells consistent with the earliest steps toward lung cancer development.

Watch out for hype -- science 'spin' prevalent, researchers warn
More than a quarter of biomedical scientific papers may utilize practices that distort the interpretation of results or mislead readers so that results are viewed more favorably, a new study, publishing on Sept.

Cell surface protein may offer big target in treating high-risk childhood cancers
Oncology researchers studying high-risk children's cancers have identified a protein that offers a likely target for immunotherapy -- harnessing the immune system in medical treatments.

Researchers identify treatment option for brain injury patients suffering from aggression
A drug originally developed in the 1960s as an antiviral medication is showing promise as a treatment option for people who suffer from increased feelings of aggression following traumatic brain injury, Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have reported.

Northeastern biophysics study makes exciting advancements for the future of DNA sequencing
A Northeastern research team has developed new technology that optimizes DNA sequencing using nanophysics and electric currents.

Airline industry could fly thousands of miles on biofuel from a new promising feedstock
A Boeing 747 burns one gallon of jet fuel each second.

Reports reveal racial and ethnic disparities in lupus rates
Two new papers reveal striking racial and ethnic disparities in the incidence and prevalence of lupus, a systemic autoimmune disease that can affect virtually any organ system.

New evidence suggests octupuses aren't loners
Octopuses are usually solitary creatures, but a new site in the waters off the east coast of Australia is the home of up to 15 gloomy octopuses (Octopus tetricus) that have been been observed communicating -- either directly as in den evictions or indirectly through posturing, chasing or color changes, according to findings reported in the journal Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology.

Desert locusts: New risks in the light of climate change
The desert locust is an invasive species that is both well known and feared because of the large-scale agricultural damage it can cause.

KEYNOTE-040 evaluates pembrolizumab in head and neck cancer
Immunotherapy with the checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab may be a better option than standard treatments for patients whose head and neck cancer has spread, or recurred after an initial round of chemotherapy, according to results of the Keynote-040 trial presented at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid.

Proteins keep a grip on cells
Japanese scientists at Osaka University have revealed new structural information on the integrin-laminin interaction.

New tool helps physicians assess usefulness of clinical guidelines for patient outcomes
A new tool -- and eight-item checklist -- has been developed to help clinicians identify trustworthy, relevant, and useful practice guidelines.

Scientists list 50 terms you may be confusing
A list of commonly used psychological terms that are often assumed to be similar, if not identical, but which refer to very different concepts.

Muscle nuclei: May the force be with you
A group of researchers at Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) Lisboa has revealed the mechanism by which cellular nuclei reach their position within muscle cells.

A novel and practical fab-route for superomniphobic liquid-free surfaces
A joint research team led by Professor Hee Tak Kim and Shin-Hyun Kim in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at KAIST developed a fabrication technology that can inexpensively produce surfaces capable of repelling liquids, including water and oil.

These mutations could be key to understanding how some harmful conditions develop
A team of researchers led by a bioinformatician at the University of California San Diego has developed a method to help determine whether certain hard-to-study mutations in the human genome, called short tandem repeats or microsatellites, are likely to be involved in harmful conditions.

Campaigns to reduce elective early-term births effective, study finds
A new study from researchers at the University of Notre Dame and the University of Central Florida shows that programs aimed at reducing early-term elective births have been successful, reducing the number of health complications in mothers and babies.

NASA analyzes Hurricane Jose's hidden cloud-filled eye
NASA satellite imagery provided a couple of views of Hurricane Jose's cloud-filled eye allowing forecasters to see that it still existed.

Decade of data shows FEMA flood maps missed 3 in 4 claims
An analysis of flood claims in three Houston suburbs from 1999-2009 found that the Federal Emergency Management Agency's 100-year flood plain maps failed to capture 75 percent of flood damages from five serious floods, none of which reached the threshold rainfall of a 100-year event.

Study examines use of systolic blood pressure at time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention
Researchers have led a retrospective single-center study examining simple hemodynamic parameters obtained at the time of cardiac catheterization to predict in-hospital mortality following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Offspring of female mice exposed to e-cigarettes have increased risk of allergic asthma
Researchers have found that maternal e-cigarette vaping is linked to an increased risk of allergic asthma in offspring.

Segregation's unexpected link with black health in history
Racial housing segregation had some unexpected relationships with how long both blacks and whites lived historically in the United States, a new study suggests.

Birds' unique skulls linked to young dinosaur brains
Bird skulls and brains look like those of young dinosaurs, providing clues to their unique evolution and modern success.

Penn: How openings in Antarctic sea ice affect worldwide climate
In a new analysis of climate models, researchers from the University of Pennslyvania, Spain's Institute of Marine Sciences and Johns Hopkins University reveal the significant global effects that seemingly anomalous polynyas, or openings in sea ice, can have.

Outside-in reprogramming: Antibody study suggests a better way to make stem cells
Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute have found a new approach to the 'reprogramming' of ordinary adult cells into stem cells.

New method for monitoring fetal heartbeat
A new technique that accurately isolates fetal heart sounds from background noise in acoustic recordings could potentially lead to noninvasive and inexpensive fetal monitoring.

Cooperation driven by reciprocity, not conformity
From an evolutionary perspective, cooperating with others can yield benefits that increase chances of survival.

Congressional redistricting less contentious when resolved using computer algorithm
Concerns that the process of US congressional redistricting may be politically biased have fueled many debates, but a team of University of Illinois computer scientists and engineers has developed a new computer algorithm that may make the task easier for state legislatures and fairer for their constituents.

Metabolically healthy obese, underweight individuals still susceptible to heart disease
Individuals who are metabolically healthy obese and underweight are at a higher risk of heart disease compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, according to the largest study to date comparing weight and metabolic status to cardiovascular risk, published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Adjuvant nivolumab superior to ipilimumab in surgically resected stage III/IV melanoma
Adjuvant nivolumab is superior to standard of care ipilimumab in patients with surgically resected stage III/IV melanoma who are at high risk of relapse, according to late-breaking results from the CheckMate 238 trial presented today at the ESMO 2017 Congress in Madrid and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Autism on screen may reinforce stereotypes, study finds
Fictional portrayals of autistic people -- such as The Big Bang Theory's Sheldon Cooper -- are not fully representative of those with the condition, research from the Universities of Edinburgh and Oslo suggests.

Toxicologists recommend human cell-based methods to identify asthma-causing chemicals
Chemicals that could potentially cause asthma through an immune reaction could be better identified with human cell- and computer-based test methods, according to a new research paper co-authored by the Physicians Committee's Kristie Sullivan, M.P.H., in Applied In Vitro Toxicology. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to