Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 13, 2017
Better, cheaper bio-ink may be used to create artificial organs
A new bio-ink that may support a more efficient and inexpensive fabrication of human tissues and organs has been created by researchers at UBC's Okanagan campus.

Study advances efforts to screen all children for Type 1 diabetes
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Stanford University and the University of Florida report the development of a novel antibody detection technology that holds promise for improving the accuracy of diagnostic tests for type 1 diabetes in young children and making populationwide screening practical.

New research suggests bird songs isolate species
Two birds that look the same, but have songs so different they can't recognize each other, should be considered distinct species, suggests new research.

Lion conservation requires effective international cooperation
In response to the alarming population declines of one of the most charismatic representatives of the megafauna, the lion, a team of international wildlife lawyers and lion experts joined efforts to assess the current and potential future role of international treaties regarding the carnivore's conservation.

Surgeons have major influence on breast cancer treatment
A woman's choice of surgeon plays a significant role in whether she's likely to receive contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, an increasingly popular aggressive breast cancer surgery.

New research on probiotics in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer
In an innovative approach to colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and treatment, scientists are studying ways to replace missing metabolites in patients prone to gut inflammation and CRC.

Paper-based tuberculosis test could boost diagnoses in developing countries
Diagnosing tuberculosis early can allow patients to receive the medicine they need and also help prevent the disease from spreading.

UW shatters long-range communication barrier for near-zero-power devices
University of Washington researchers have demonstrated for the first time that devices that run on almost zero power can transmit data across distances of up to 2.8 kilometers -- breaking a long-held barrier and potentially enabling a vast array of interconnected devices.

Offhand comments can expose underlying racism, UW study finds
A study of microaggressions -- everyday exchanges that can offend racial and ethnic minorities -- draw upon stereotypes and are linked with racism and prejudice.

Satellite imagery analysis reveals economic decay within Islamic State
A new RAND Corporation report paints a bleak picture of economic life under the Islamic State.

How well electron transport works in furfural biogas
Furfural is a promising candidate in the quest for alternative biofuels.

Study shows influence of surgeons on likelihood of removal of healthy breast after breast cancer dia
Attending surgeons can have a strong influence on whether a patient undergoes contralateral prophylactic mastectomy after a diagnosis of breast cancer, according to a study published by JAMA Surgery.

Tough stuff: Spider silk enhanced with graphene-based materials
Natural spider silk has excellent mechanical properties. Researchers from the Graphene Flagship have found a way to boost the strength of spider's silk using graphene-based materials, paving the way for a novel class of high-performance bionic composites.

Researchers create first global map of water in Moon's soil
A new study maps the trace concentrations of water implanted in the lunar soil by the solar wind, a water source that could be used as resource in future lunar exploration.

The beam of invisibility
Researchers from TU Wien, together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology.

Scientists reveal distinct substrate-binding mode in o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase
Using a catalytically competent Bacillus subtilis mutant protein complexed with an OSB-CoA analogue, researchers from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology revealed a thioesterification active site conserved among MenE orthologues and a substrate-binding mode distinct from those of many other acyl/aryl-CoA synthetases.

Artificial 'skin' gives robotic hand a sense of touch
A team of researchers from the University of Houston has reported a breakthrough in stretchable electronics that can serve as an artificial skin, allowing a robotic hand to sense the difference between hot and cold, while also offering advantages for a wide range of biomedical devices.

'The dark side' of quantum computers
The era of fully fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it.

A hair-trigger for cells fighting infection
In response to infection the immune system produces unique antibodies to target each illness.

An important process fueling harmful algal blooms investigated in Canadian water bodies
Critical review examines the recycling of phosphorus from sediment to water and finds that internal phosphorus loading is common in Canadian fresh waters, but its importance is variable across the country.

Localized orbital scaling correction functional ushering DFT to a new level of accuracy
Delocalization error is one of the dominant errors that impair density functional approximations, and responsible for the errors in energy level alignment, charge transfer and band gap predictions.

Scientists reveal new insights and possible solutions for opioid epidemics using machine
Mount Sinai researchers have identified unique structural, biological and chemical insights in the way different opioid drugs activate the receptors and specific signaling pathways responsible for the drug's beneficial and adverse effects, according to a study to be published in Nature's Scientific Reports.

Systems analysis points to links between Toxoplasma infection and common brain diseases
Nearly one out of every three humans on earth has a lifelong infection with the brain-dwelling parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

Immunotherapy treatment option for selected breast cancer patients, genetic study suggests
Immunotherapy drugs could help some breast cancer patients based on the genetic changes in their tumors, researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators find.

Older drivers who experience falls may be at a higher risk for car crashes
A team of researchers recently created a study to see whether falls were related to driving risks and behaviors among older adults.

Studies help explain link between autism, severe infection during pregnancy
Two new studies from MIT and the University of Massachusetts Medical School shed light on why mothers who experience an infection severe enough to require hospitalization during pregnancy are at higher risk of having a child with autism.

Inferno world with titanium skies
Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have detected titanium oxide in an exoplanet atmosphere for the first time.

Imaging how magnetism goes surfing
Using advanced dynamic imaging, researchers have been able to visualise deformation (sound) waves in crystals and measured the effect on nanomagnetic elements.

Should Google offer an online screening test for depression?
With one in five Americans experiencing clinical depression in their lifetime, should Google offer an online screening test for depression?

50 years ago, Clomid gave birth to the era of assisted reproduction
In the journal Fertility and Sterility, Dr. Eli Adashi writes a history and appreciation of the wonder drug Clomid, which radically changed what doctors could do for couples struggling to have children.

Marijuana may produce psychotic-like effects in high-risk individuals
Marijuana may bring on temporary paranoia and other psychosis-related effects in individuals at high risk of developing a psychotic disorder, finds a preliminary study from researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC).

When music makes male faces more attractive
Women rate photographs of male faces more attractive and are more likely to date the men pictured when they have previously heard music.

Research finds roots use chemical 'photos' to coordinate growth
Roots compete for and share resources with neighboring roots, as well as with billions of microbes.

Teens' ability to consider the intentions of others linked to structural changes in the brain
When it comes to the concept of fairness, teenagers' ability to consider the intentions of others appears to be linked to structural changes underway in the brain, according to a Dartmouth-led study published by Scientific Reports.

Are we missing the warning signs to prevent lone terrorist attacks?
The terrorist who killed 12 people and injured dozens more in the 2016 Berlin Christmas Market attack was removed from the country's surveillance list a month earlier, but he presented five specific warning behaviors prior to the attack according to later analysis.

Improved model of energy highway along protein strands
In a new study published in EPJ B, Jingxi Luo and Bernard Piette from Durham University, UK, present a new mathematical model that explains the energy transport mechanism permitting energy generated inside a biological cell to move along transmembrane proteins towards the cell's exterior.

Researchers show that speech information is more distracting for elderly drivers
The navigation system announces a detour, radio programs are selected by voice command: for many, in-car voice control is an everyday occurrence.

Journalists can prevent biased views by 'adjudicating' facts, experiment shows
Journalists can help their readers form accurate views by

Differences in aggression among people with dementia
Physical aggression among people with dementia is not unusual. A study from Lund University in Sweden showed that one-third of patients with the diagnosis Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal dementia were physically aggressive towards healthcare staff, other patients, relatives, animals and complete strangers.

Is the Earth warming? The ocean gives you the answer
Previously, the global mean surface temperature has been widely used as a key metric of global warming.

The benefits and pitfalls of urban green spaces
With the rapid expansion of the urban landscape, successfully managing ecosystems in built areas has never been more important.

The evolution of 'true frogs' defies long-held expectations of science
New research from the University of Kansas appearing in Royal Society Biology Letters shows, in contrast to expectations, 'the rapid global range expansion of true frogs was not associated with increased net-diversification.'

Russia's use and stockpiles of highly enriched uranium pose significant nuclear risks
Russia currently holds the world's largest stockpile of highly enriched uranium, a nuclear weapon-usable material, posing significant nuclear security risks, according to a new Princeton University report.

Study shows modified blood thinner reduces the impact of traumatic brain injury in mice
A chemically modified version of the common blood thinner heparin may be the first promising method of preventing the harmful cascade of destruction to brain tissue that commonly follows traumatic brain injury (TBI), according to new research findings.

Does brain tissue regeneration depend on maturity of stem cells used for transplantation?
New research has shown that the success of transplanting stem cells into the brain to regenerate tissue damaged by stroke may depend on the maturity of the neuronal precursor cells used for transplantation.

New method for identifying carbon compounds derived from fossil fuels
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a laboratory instrument that will greatly reduce the cost of analyzing carbon isotopes.

A new alternative to 'practice makes perfect'
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that brief memory reactivations can replace the repeated extensive practice and training known as 'practice makes perfect' as a learning technique.

Don't blame your genes for your toothache, twin study shows
For the first time, investigators have looked at the role that genes and the oral microbiome play in the formation of cavities and have found that your mother was right: The condition of your teeth depends on your dietary and oral hygiene habits.

Asthma drug from the garden center
The coralberry could offer new hope for asthmatics: researchers at the University of Bonn have extracted a new kind of active pharmaceutical ingredient from its leaves to combat this widespread respiratory disease.

UChicago scientists create alternate evolutionary histories in a test tube
Scientists at the University of Chicago studied a massive set of genetic variants of an ancient protein, discovering a myriad of other ways that evolution could have turned out and revealing a central role for chance in evolutionary history.

Wondering if that mole is cancerous? Look at illustrations, not photos
Melanoma kills more than 50,000 people worldwide annually. But because early detection dramatically improves prognoses, a BYU professor is working to help people better identify problematic moles.

NASA sees Hurricane Jose in between Bahamas and Bermuda
NASA's Terra satellite is one of many satellites keeping a close eye on Hurricane Jose and saw the storm between the Bahamas and Bermuda.

Helping Chinese farmers tackle erosion, increase profits
On the steep farming slopes of China, Bozhi Wu and his research associates are finding ways to improve economic and environmental stability.

LED lights safer, more effective in producing Vitamin D3 than sunlight
Research published today shows that light from RayVio's 293nm ultraviolet (UV) LED is more efficient than sunlight at producing vitamin D3 in skin samples.

Trial compares laparoscopic and open surgeries for pancreatic cancer
A randomized clinical trial has compared keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery and open surgery in pancreatic cancer patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, or the Whipple procedure.

Unintentional drug use continues among molly users in EDM party scene
Use of MDMA or 'Molly' is common in the electronic dance music scene, but research is showing that many Molly users are using other drugs unknowingly.

Study clears important hurdle towards developing an HIV vaccine
An international team of researchers has demonstrated a way of overcoming one of the major stumbling blocks that has prevented the development of a vaccine against HIV: the ability to generate immune cells that stay in circulation long enough to respond to and stop virus infection.

Regular exercise, stress can both make a big difference in lupus, study finds
Waking up in the morning with the joint pain, swelling and stiffness that accompanies lupus doesn't exactly inspire a workout.

Reducing leather pollution with molten salts
From handbags and jackets to car interiors, leather products are almost everywhere.

Double agents: Vessels that help cancers spread can also boost immune therapies
Lymphatic vessels, often blamed for enabling cancer cells to spread from a primary location to many other sites, have a flip side.

Climate change challenges the survival of fish across the world
University of Washington researchers have published the first analysis looking at how vulnerable the world's freshwater and marine fishes are to climate change.

Earth's oldest trees in climate-induced race up the tree line
Bristlecone pine and limber pine trees in the Great Basin region of the western United States are like two very gnarled, old men in a slow-motion race up the mountaintop, and climate change is the starting gun, according to a study from the University of California, Davis.

Tectonic plates 'weaker than previously thought,' say scientists
Experiments carried out at Oxford University have revealed that tectonic plates are weaker than previously thought.

'Peel-and-go' printable structures fold themselves
In a paper appearing in the American Chemical Society's journal Applied Materials and Interfaces, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and colleagues report something new: a printable structure that begins to fold itself up as soon as it's peeled off the printing platform.

Losing weight can reverse type 2 diabetes, but is rarely achieved or recorded
Type 2 diabetes is generally perceived as progressive and incurable, but for many patients it can be reversed with sustained weight loss of around 15 kg, say experts in The BMJ today.

Privacy streams helps developers create privacy friendly apps
A smartphone app that accesses sensitive information about the user might raise red flags regarding privacy.

Wax on, melt off
Drexel University researchers have made a discovery that could create roads that melt off ice and snow during winter storms.

Type 2 diabetes is a reversible condition
People with type 2 diabetes can reverse the condition through a low calorie diet, world-renowned expert Professor Roy Taylor will confirm at an international meeting.

Treatment nonexistent for some glioblastoma patients
Patients diagnosed at high-volume centers are up to 40 percent more likely to receive treatment for glioblastoma.

Biomarkers in the blood prove strong role of food for type 2 diabetes
A pioneering method, developed at Chalmers University of Technology, has demonstrated its potential in a large study, showing that metabolic fingerprints from blood samples could render important new knowledge on the connection between food and health.

Tropical Depression 15E appears almost shapeless on NASA satellite imagery
Tropical Depression 15E is being affected by vertical wind shear on NASA satellite imagery and appears almost shapeless.

Delayed weaning reduces behavioral problems in cats
Early weaning increases aggression and stereotypic behaviour in cats, shows a new study from Professor Hannes Lohi's research group.

Suicide attempts on the rise in US, finds study
New data confirm that suicide attempts among US adults are on the rise, with a disproportional effect on younger, socioeconomically disadvantaged adults with a history of mental disorders.

A popular bottle-breaking trick is giving insight to brain injuries
As many YouTube videos show, striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom.

Measuring a crucial mineral in the mantle
New research led by the University of Delaware's Jessica Warren resolves 40 years of debate about the strength of olivine, the most abundant mineral in the Earth's mantle.

Double agents: Vessels that help cancers spread can also boost immunotherapy
Scientists from Switzerland and the US have shown that lymphatic vessels can enable both metastasis and T-cell invasion, opening new paths for cancer immunotherapy.

Magnetic fields to alleviate anxiety
It is possible to unlearn fears. And this works even better when a specific region of the brain has previously been stimulated magnetically.

Study shows electronic health information exchanges could cut billions in Medicare spending
Research by Idris Adjerid and Corey Angst, IT professors in Notre Dame's Mendoza College of Business, and Julia Adler-Milstein of the University of California San Francisco shows that when Health Information Exchanges appear in regional markets, there are massive cost savings.

South Africa's long-legged bees adapted to pollinate snapdragon flowers
New research shows that, in an extraordinary case of adaptation, the disproportionately long front legs of South Africa's oil-collecting Rediviva bee species have evolved in response to the equally long oil-producing spurs of snapdragons.

Treating acute pain in opioid-dependent patients -- Review and recommendations
As healthcare providers see more patients with opioid abuse and dependence, they face a difficult challenge: What's the best way to manage acute pain without contributing to the patient's opioid use disorder (OUD)?

New oral diabetes drug shows promise in phase 3 trial for patients with type 1 diabetes
A University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus study finds sotagliflozin helps control glucose and reduces the need for insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Squirrels use 'chunking' to organize their favorite nuts
Like trick-or-treaters sorting their Halloween candy haul, fox squirrels apparently organize their stashes of nuts by variety, quality and possibly even preference, according to new UC Berkeley research.

Red fluorescence in two steps
Scientists have identified the mechanism that allows fluorescent proteins to switch colour in two phases.

Pilot model forecasts complex earthquake sequences with increased accuracy
Scientists have validated a recently developed earthquake forecasting model based on observations of a complex earthquake sequence in Italy, which they say may lead to better global risk mitigation planning.

Supported liquid metal catalysts -- a new generation of reaction accelerators
Catalysts are agents that initiate chemical reactions, speed them up or increase the yield of the desired product.

How do sports news shows disguise sexism against women's sports?
Sports news shows cover women's sports in a dull, lackluster manner, making women's sports seem less exciting and entertaining than men's, according to the latest research in a study spanning 25 years.

New hope for 'bubble baby disease'
If untreated, severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) syndrome -- or 'bubble baby disease' -- is often fatal within the first year of a infant's life.

3-D protein structure offers insight into rapid communication by brain cells
New HHMI research reveals how three proteins help brain cells synchronize the release of chemical signals.

Study examines suicide attempts among adults in the United States
An overall increase in suicide attempts among adults in the United States appears to have disproportionately affected younger adults with less formal education and those with common personality, mood and anxiety disorders, according to an article published by JAMA Psychiatry.

Getting to the point (mutations) in re-engineering biofuel-producing bacterial enzymes
Helping bacteria become more efficient when breaking down fibrous plant waste into biofuel could result in more affordable biofuels for our gas tanks and sustainable products such as bioplastics.

'Vague' anti-terror laws might lead to charities withdrawing from activities
Charities may withdraw from worthwhile activities because laws designed to stop terrorism are often too vague, experts have warned.

New software turns mobile-phone accessory into breathing monitor
Researchers have developed new software that makes it possible to use low-cost, thermal cameras attached to mobile phones to track how fast a person is breathing.

Infants with congenital Zika virus syndrome suffer serious visual impairment
There is a broad collection of anomalies now known as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS).

NASA's GPM sees Typhoon Talim threatening islands of Japan
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite provided a look at the heavy rainfall occurring in Typhoon Talim in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Locally administered compound offers prolonged relief from airway constriction
Scientists have identified a compound that triggered long-lasting airway relaxation and prevented hyperreactivity in mouse models of asthma, potentially paving the way to a new therapeutic target for multiple breathing disorders.

Quantum sensors decipher magnetic ordering in a new semiconducting material
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material.

New supernova analysis reframes dark energy debate
The accelerating expansion of the Universe may not be real, but could just be an apparent effect, according to new research published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Folding biomolecule model shows how form dictates function
Proteins are fundamental macromolecules for life, with a diversity of functions.

Experts issue recommendations for gender-affirmation treatment for transgender individuals
The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline on the treatment for gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent people, commonly referred to as transgender, to develop the physical characteristics of the affirmed gender.

NASA sees spiraling bands of storms wrap into Tropical Cyclone Doksuri
NASA's Aqua satellite observed fragmented feeder bands of strong thunderstorms spiraling into the low-level center of Tropical Cyclone Doksuri.

Best tactical approach to handling patients with simultaneous parasitic and HIV infection
Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease affecting the small intestine and possibly our airways, is a common cause of diarrhea in HIV-positive patients.

Song experiments reveal 21 possible new tropical bird species
Birds often choose their mates based on song, making it a key factor in separating species.

Researchers develop spectroscopic 'science camera' system for smartphones
The latest versions of most smartphones contain at least two and sometimes three built-in cameras.

Measuring sepsis incidence and trends in US hospitals using clinical data
The findings challenge the use of claims data for sepsis surveillance.

Researcher sheds new light on how brain operates like GPS
Neuroscientist Aaron Wilber discovers new insights about how the brain creates a map-like representation of locations that helps a person navigate the world.

Novel genetic mutation discovered in Parkinson's disease patient
Mutations in the human genome may be responsible for many diseases.

Innovation could mean flexible rechargeable batteries for pacemakers
Experts at Queen's University Belfast have designed a flexible and organic alternative to the rigid batteries that power up medical implants.

Penn researchers lay groundwork to better understanding optical properties of glass
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrated a new packing of glass with unique optical properties.

Researchers develop new strategy to target KRAS mutant cancer
In a new study, published this month in Cancer Discovery, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report that approximately half of lung and pancreatic cancers that originate with a KRAS mutation become addicted to the gene as they progress.

Gonorrhoea strains across Europe becoming more susceptible to main treatment options
According to test results from the annual European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP), resistance levels to the main antimicrobials used for treatment of gonorrhoea infection have seen an encouraging decrease since 2010.

As 'flesh-eating' Leishmania come closer, a vaccine against them does, too
Boils the size of sand dollars, facial damage reminiscent of acid wounds, death by maiming of the liver and spleen.

UBC research discovers a chemical-free way to keep apples fresher longer
An apple a day may keep the doctor away, but the mold on it could make you sick.

FDA-approved drug may block resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapy
A Massachusetts General Hospital research team has identified a potential strategy for improving the efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors, drugs that help fight cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.

NASA-NOAA satellite shows extent of Irma's remnants
Satellite imagery showed the large extent of the remnant clouds and rains from what was Hurricane Irma.

Theranostics: Paintball targeting of cancer cells combined with precision therapy
The Journal of Nuclear Medicine's September supplement shines a spotlight on theranostics and its increasingly important role in delivering precision medicine.

Internists oppose Graham-Cassidy proposal
ACP sent a letter today to Senators Lindsey Graham and Bill Cassidy, sharing ACP's opposition to their bill to

A new method provides better insights into real-world network evolution
Nature is full of so-called real-world complex systems, such as protein interactions.

Brain rewiring in Parkinson's disease may contribute to abnormal movement
A new study published in Neuron by Northwestern Medicine Scientists suggests that the brain's own compensatory mechanisms contribute to the debilitating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

New manufacturing process for SiC power devices opens market to more competition
Researchers are rolling out a new manufacturing process and chip design for silicon carbide (SiC) power devices, which can be used to more efficiently regulate power in technologies that use electronics.

Test strips for cancer detection get upgraded with nanoparticle bling
Detecting cancer could be as easy as a home pregnancy test.

New gravity map suggests Mars has a porous crust
NASA scientists have found evidence that Mars' crust is not as dense as previously thought, a clue that could help researchers better understand the Red Planet's interior structure and evolution.

RESPECT trial shows closing a small hole in heart may protect against recurrent stroke
Extended follow-up demonstrates that a device used to close a small hole in the heart may benefit certain stroke patients by providing an extra layer of protection for those facing years of ongoing stroke risk.

In-utero treatment reverses cleft palate in mice
Researchers at University of Utah Health clarified a molecular pathway responsible for the formation of cleft palate and identified a new treatment to reverse this defect in mouse pups in utero.

Berkeley Lab scientists map key DNA protein complex at near-atomic resolution
Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), Berkeley Lab researchers have obtained 3-D models of a human transcription factor at near-atomic resolutions.

Innate immunity
The presence of DNA in mammalian cell cytoplasm triggers an immune response by binding to a dimeric enzyme, which inserts between DNA double helices to form the 'rungs' of a ladder-like structure, as an LMU team has now shown.

Endometriosis increases risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery
A new meta-analysis shows that pregnant women with endometriosis are at greater risk for a host of complications during pregnancy and at delivery, including preterm birth and cesarean section.

Self-folding electronics could enable advanced robotics (video)
As demand grows for more versatile, advanced robotics and other technologies, the need for components that can enable these applications also increases.

Multifunctional nano-sized drug carriers based on reactive polypept(o)ides
In cooperation with researchers from the University of Tokyo and Gutenberg Research Awardee Prof.

Low-level radiation exposure less harmful to health than other modern lifestyle risks
Low-level radiation exposure poses less of a health risk than other lifestyle threats, such as smoking, obesity and air pollution, according to Oxford University research.

Secrets of Bonsai: Uncovering the mechanism of root regeneration
The molecular mechanism behind root regeneration after root cutting in plants has been discovered.

Water conservation can have unintended consequences
Conventional wisdom dictates water conservation can only benefit communities affected by drought.

In step toward controlling chemistry, physicists create a new molecule, atom by atom
UCLA physicists report in the journal Science the discovery of a unique new molecule that could lead to many useful applications, and show how chemical reactions can be studied on a microscopic scale using tools of physics. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to