Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 28, 2017
To avoid a post-antibiotic world, researchers target animal farming and meat intake
A new study in Science by researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) and partners analyzes and describes a comprehensive strategy for preserving antibiotic effectiveness by reducing antibiotic use in farm animals up to 80 percent globally by the year 2030.

DOE should take steps toward facilitating energy development on its public lands
The US Department of Energy should place a higher priority on developing an accurate and actionable inventory of agency-owned or managed properties that can be leased or sold for energy development, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Researchers identify intriguing link between sleep, cognition and schizophrenia
Many people with schizophrenia have trouble with learning and memory.

Women with disabilities may be missing out on cancer screening
Women with disabilities are a third less likely to participate in breast cancer screening and a quarter less likely to take part in bowel cancer screening compared to women reporting no disabilities, according to a new paper published in the British Journal of Cancer by researchers from the University of Oxford.

Conservationists should harness 'Hollywood effect' to help wildlife
Researchers from the University of Exeter say conservation scientists could work with filmmakers to harness the 'Hollywood effect' to boost conservation.

Database of earthquakes triggered by human activity is growing -- with some surprises
The Human-Induced Earthquake Database (HiQuake), the world's most complete database of earthquake sequences proposed to have been triggered by human activity, now includes approximately 730 entries, according to a report published Oct.

Smart molecules trigger white blood cells to become better cancer-eating machines
A team of researchers has engineered smart protein molecules that can reprogram white blood cells to ignore a self-defense signaling mechanism that cancer cells use to survive and spread in the body.

Biodegradable microsensors for food monitoring
A new generation of microsensors could provide the vital link between food products and the Internet of Things.

Meditation might be useful addition to heart-healthy lifestyle and medical treatment
Traditional medical therapy for high cholesterol, blood pressure and other risk factors remains the mainstay of preventing heart disease, but meditation may be helpful to some people who want to reduce the risk of heart disease as long as they understand its benefits have not been clearly established.

Successful correction of genetic mutation in stem cells offers promise for lung diseases
For the first time, researchers have developed a way to coax pluripotent stem cells into a specific type of mature lung cell called 'alveolar epithelial type II cells' (AEC2s) and to correct a mutant gene whose dysfunction in these cells is known to cause respiratory distress in infants.

NASA finds Hurricane Lee's strength shift
Hurricane Lee began weakening as NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and collected temperature information.

Molecular fingerprint of breast tumors linked to immune response in bloodstream
Using newly developed software, researchers have shown that genes and molecular processes in breast cancer tumor cells are tightly linked to genes and processes in blood cells, including immune system cells.

Stanford study shows how 'love hormone' spurs sociability
Oxytocin, a substance involved in nurturing, sexual and pair-bonding behaviors, has also been implicated in overall sociability.

Global methane emissions from agriculture larger than reported, according to new estimates
Global methane emissions from agriculture are larger than estimated due to the previous use of out-of-date data on carbon emissions generated by livestock, according to a study published in the open-access journal Carbon Balance and Management.

Breakdown of brain cells' metabolic collaboration linked to Alzheimer's disease
Researchers have discovered that impairing a critical partnership between brain cells can lead to neurodegeneration.

Bursting with starbirth
This oddly shaped galactic spectacle is bursting with brand new stars.

Medication that treats parasite infection also has anti-cancer effect
Researchers in Japan and the United States find ivermectin, a drug used to kill parasites, suppresses tumor development in epithelial ovarian cancer

How tuberculosis hides in the body
The tuberculosis vaccine only works for children. BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) doesn't protect you as an adult.

Women with suspected HPV adverse effects more often suffered from psychiatric disorders
New research from Aarhus University shows that women who are referred to an HPV center more often have had psychiatric medicine prescribed or been hospitalized for psychiatric conditions up to five years before they received the vaccine.

Over a quarter of workers 'too busy' to drink coffee at work, European survey reveals
A new survey covering six European countries has revealed that over a quarter of workers are too busy for a coffee break in the office.

How do we sense moonlight? Daylight? There's a cell for that
Reporting in today's Cell, neuroscientists at Boston Children's Hospital describe an unexpected way that we sense the overall degree of illumination in our environment.

Perovskite solar cells reach record long-term stability, efficiency over 20 percent
EPFL scientists have greatly improved the operational stability of perovskite solar cells by introducing cuprous thiocyanate protected by a thin layer of reduced graphene oxide.

Chimpanzees can learn how to use tools without observing others
New observations have lead researchers to believe that chimpanzees can use tools spontaneously to solve a task, without needing to watch others first.

Parkinson's disease drug shows anticancer effects
Research shows the Parkinson's disease drug carbidopa displays significant anticancer effects in both human cell lines and mice when given at normal patient dosage levels.

Study unlocks why public appeals may fall flat with some would-be donors
To give or not to give: sometimes the answer is in the question, researchers into human behaviour and charitable giving have found.

Supersonic gas streams left over from the Big Bang drive massive black hole formation
A super-computer simulation by an international team of researchers has shown the formation of a rapidly growing star from supersonic gas streams in the early universe left over from the Big Bang.

Non-native species from Japanese tsunami aided by unlikely partner: Plastics
A new study appearing this week in Science reports the discovery of a startling new role of plastic marine debris -- the transport of non-native species in the world's oceans.

For boys at risk of psychopathy, laughter isn't so contagious
For most people, laughter is highly contagious. It's nearly impossible to hear or see someone laughing and not feel the urge to join in.

Tracking the body's mini-shuttles
The development of a new technique for labelling the body's own transporters -- exosomes -- could have long term benefits in the treatment of life-threatening medical conditions, including cancer.

A flexible new platform for high-performance electronics
A team of University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers has created the most functional flexible transistor in the world -- and with it, a fast, simple and inexpensive fabrication process that's easily scalable to the commercial level.

The 1-good-neighbor diagnosability of alternating group graph networks
Many multiprocessor systems have interconnection networks as underlying topologies and an interconnection network is usually represented by a graph where nodes represent processors and links represent communication links between processors.

New measurements show widespread forest loss has reversed the role of tropics as a carbon sink
Peer reviewed report provides the most comprehensive picture of deforestation's toll on critical climate change safeguard; reveals hard-to-measure forest degradation is responsible for nearly 70 percent of emissions from tropical forests.

Modern humans emerged more than 300,000 years ago new study suggests
A genomic analysis of ancient human remains from KwaZulu-Natal revealed that southern Africa has an important role to play in writing the history of humankind.

Study explores the biology of mending a broken heart
Early research results suggest scientists might be on to a way to preserve heart function after heart attacks or for people with inherited heart defects called congenital cardiomyopathies.

Scientists create endocytosis on demand by 'hotwiring' cells
A solution to the problem of creating endocytosis on demand is being compared to 'hotwiring' a car.

How brain develops before birth is tightly controlled by RNA modification
A chemical tag added to RNA during embryonic development regulates how the early brain grows.

Achieving National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets would save lives, be cost effective
An analysis led by a team of Massachusetts General Hospital investigators shows that achieving the treatment targets of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy by 2020 not only would prevent hundreds of thousands of new infections and deaths but also would demonstrate excellent value.

New mechanism points the way to breaking ribosome antibiotic resistance
Research groups from the University of Groningen reveal a novel mechanism of ribosome dimerization in the bacterium Lactococcus lactis using cryo-electron microscopy.

Acculturation may be a predictor of psychological birth trauma adolescent Latina moms
Acculturation may play a key role in psychological birth trauma among young Latina mothers, according to a study by a researcher at the University of Texas at Arlington's College of Nursing and Health Innovation.

Abusive bosses experience short-lived benefits
Being a jerk to your employees may actually improve your well-being, but only for a short while, suggests new research on abusive bosses co-authored by a Michigan State University business scholar.

Catch a wave
UCSB geologists use ground-penetrating radar to determine the breadth and depth of erosion from an ancient tsunami in Northern California.

RUDN mathematicians have simulated the motion of incompressible liquid
A group of researchers from Russia and Italy have conducted a study that produced a more precise scheme of numerical solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for plane motion than that existed before.

How one tsunami and lots of manmade debris are triggering a mass marine migration
Following the 2011 East Japan tsunami, more than 280 coastal marine species have been recorded crossing the Pacific by hitching a ride on debris, a new study reveals.

Stone Age child reveals that modern humans emerged more than 300,000 years ago
How old is our species? The complete genomes of three Stone Age individuals from the KwaZulu-Natal coast, helped to shed light on the age of our species.

Massive projected increase in use of antimicrobials in animals by 2030
The amount of antimicrobials given to animals destined for human consumption is expected to rise by a staggering 52 percent and reach 200,000 tonnes by 2030 unless policies are implemented to limit their use, according to new research.

Computer model showed an optimal anti-amyloid treatment
One must activate amyloid degradation as soon as possible to prevent the appearance of the protein plaques in brain under Alzheimer's conditions.

Highly virulent bacterium causes rampant caries in some children
Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden have made a novel discovery connecting highly variant types of the caries bacterium Streptococcus mutans and their adhesive function to children with rampant caries and increased risk of dental caries.

A single mutation in Zika virus results in microcephaly
One single genetic change, likely acquired in 2013, gave the Zika virus the ability to cause severe fetal microcephaly, researchers report.

New role for fragile X protein could offer clues for treatment
The protein behind fragile X syndrome, a leading cause of autism and intellectual disability, controls a suite of genetic regulators.

Researchers look to protect 'self-reactive' immune cells so they can fight melanoma
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers and colleagues report on a potential new way to fight melanoma by blocking one of the immune system's checks and balances.

Male hormones may promote infection by virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma
Male hormones may facilitate infection with a virus that can cause a type of cancer known as Kaposi's sarcoma.

New approaches to difficult drug targets: The phosphatase story
Discovering new drugs has never been easy and some potential drug targets have historically been viewed as too challenging and thus off limits for prosecution.

Hunt is over for one of the 'top 50 most-wanted fungi'
Scientists from several institutions including Los Alamos National Laboratory have characterized a sample of 'mystery' fungus collected in North Carolina and found its home in the fungal tree of life.

How to enhance refugee advocacy in 4 hours
Education researcher Nadia Naffi, made a promising discovery when she adapted cutting-edge interview techniques traditionally used in constructivist psychology as part of her ongoing study of how social media shapes young people's attitudes toward refugees.

Medical device recall rates linked to frequency of FDA inspector rotations says new study
Medical device manufacturing plants in the US can experience 100 fewer product recalls per year, or a decrease of 20 percent, if the FDA investigators who inspect these plants are placed on a rotating schedule, according to a new study in the INFORMS journal Manufacturing & Service Operations Management.

Ancient genomes shed light on divergence in human populations
Sequencing and analysis of ancient African genomes suggests that humans first began to diverge as a population between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago.

How molecular scissors cut in the right place
A research group at Uppsala University has found out how CRISPR-Cas9 -- also known as 'molecular scissors' -- can search the genome for a specific DNA sequence.

Uncovering why psoriasis recurs
New research by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Rockefeller University helps address a longstanding question about the inflammatory skin condition psoriasis: Why do skin lesions that have resolved with therapy recur in the same locations after a patient stops using topical steroids?

Can a pumpkin-shaped molecule bring a different ending to 'Breaking Bad'?
A cheap, sensitive, real-time meth and amphetamine drug detector wristband connected to a smartphone app could become the new alcohol breathalyzer.

New clues from brain structures of mantis shrimp
New research led by neuroscientists from the University of Arizona sheds new light on the evolution of some of the earliest brain structures, and stirs up new, intriguing questions about the origins of centers that support learning and memory.

New triage tool helps doctors save lives when resources are most limited
An international team of researchers has developed a simple way for healthcare providers to quickly identify and prioritize patients at the greatest risk of death.

Electrically-heated textiles now possible via UMass Amherst research
Skiers, crossing guards and others who endure frozen fingers in cold weather may look forward to future relief as manufacturers are poised to take advantage of a new technique for creating electrically heated cloth developed by materials scientist Trisha Andrew and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Transcranial electrical stimulation shows promise for treating mild traumatic brain injury
Using a form of low-impulse electrical stimulation to the brain, documented by neuroimaging, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS) and collaborators elsewhere, report significantly improved neural function in participants with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Immune system cells protect against CMV-induced hearing loss in mice
Immune system cells known as natural killer cells play an important protective role against hearing loss in mice infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), according to a new study published in PLOS Pathogens.

An epidemic of dream deprivation: UA review finds unrecognized health hazard of sleep loss
UA Center for Integrative Medicine sleep and dream specialist Dr.

Researchers explore why humans don't purge lethal genetic disorders from the population
The human population carries around more deadly genetic diseases than would be expected based on a simple comparison of mutation rates and deaths of affected individuals.

Children with craniofacial defects face most difficult social pressures in grade school
Elementary school children with craniofacial anomalies show the highest levels of anxiety, depression and difficulties in peer interactions when compared to youths with craniofacial defects in middle and high schools.

Scientists from RUDN University have analyzed the chemical bonds that shape proteins
An international group of scientists including visiting foreign professor from RUDN University Kamran Makhmudov has analyzed chemical bonds in proteins based on sulfur and other elements from the 16th group of the periodic table.

Study provides first estimate of total US population with felony convictions
New research led by a University of Georgia sociologist on the growth in the scope and scale of felony convictions finds that, as of 2010, 3 percent of the total US population and 15 percent of the African-American male population have served time in prison.

ECDC study: Nearly 1 in 6 new HIV diagnoses in Europe are among people over 50
A study published in The Lancet HIV showed that while the rate of newly reported HIV cases in Europe remained steady in younger people between 2004 and 2015, it increased by 2 percent each year overall in older people.

Ultra-fast and ultra-sensitive hydrogen sensor
A KAIST team made an ultra-fast hydrogen sensor that can detect hydrogen gas levels under 1 percent in less than seven seconds.

Did rapid sea-level rise drown fossil coral reefs around Hawaii?
Investigations to predict changes in sea levels and their impacts on coastal systems are a step closer, as a result of international collaboration between the University of Sydney and researchers from Japan, Spain, and the United States.

In people with OCD, actions are at odds with beliefs
The repeated behaviors that characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder are a manifestation of an underlying brain dysfunction that is not yet well understood.

Paper: Don't rely on mixed messages to change health behaviors
Self-improvement messages to lose weight, quit smoking or eat more fruits and vegetables can fall on deaf ears if the intervention message is mixed, says new research from U. of I. psychology professor Dolores Albarracin.

NASA sees Maria weaken to a Tropical Storm
NASA and NOAA satellites provided information and imagery to forecasters that showed Hurricane Maria weakened to a tropical storm on Sept.

End to circus in plastic surgery social media videos?
Videos are an ethical concern and may compromise patient safety.

Why are many dialysis patients readmitted to the hospital soon after discharge?
A new analysis found that nearly one-quarter of dialysis patients who are admitted to the hospital are readmitted soon after discharge, often for a diagnosis that is different than the one that led to the initial hospitalization.

Small scale energy harvesters show large scale impact
The production of nano-scale devices has drastically increased with the rise in technological applications, yet a major drawback to the functionality of nano-sized systems is the need for an equally small energy resource.

Popping bubbles: Surfactants have surprising effect on nanobubble stability
The stability of nanobubbles is well understood, but the mechanisms causing their eventual destabilization are still in question.

Sharks longer in the tooth than we thought
A James Cook University researcher has found that sharks and rays live a lot longer than we thought -- some twice as long as previously estimated.

JCU team's winning basketball formula
James Cook University scientists in Australia have come up with a winning formula for basketball teams looking to take home Olympic gold.

Parkinson's disease involves degeneration of the olfactory system
Scientists discover the anatomical link for the loss of smell in Parkinson's disease.

Bed bugs attracted to dirty laundry, study finds
Bed bugs are attracted to dirty laundry, according to new research published by University of Sheffield scientists this week.

Mapping the thylacine's mysterious loss from mainland
Ancient DNA extracted from fossil bones and museum specimens has shed new light on the mysterious loss of the Tasmanian tiger (thylacine) from Australia's mainland.

Central America 'kissing bug' carries two main subtypes of Chagas disease parasite
Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, is divided into six strains, each of which differs in where they are found and in how important they are in human infections.

Secrets from inside the womb that could provide clues to miscarriage
The major structures of a baby's heart form in just four days, according to new research using the latest imaging techniques.

UTA study says zinc can halt the growth of cancer cells
Zinc supplements can significantly inhibit the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells, according to a new study co-authored by a University of Texas at Arlington researcher.

Resolving the mysterious carbon contribution of the tropics
Tropical forests release more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than they remove from it, according to a new study, finding that most of the release is due to deforestation and degradation.

Scientists develop broad-spectrum inhibitors of influenza virus
A team of researchers from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and Janssen Research & Development (Janssen) has devised artificial peptide molecules that neutralize a broad range of influenza virus strains.

Study splits incurable childhood brain tumors into 10 new diseases
Scientists have found that deadly childhood brain tumors are actually 10 different diseases that should each be diagnosed and treated based on their specific genetic faults.

Fluorine-containing molecules from cell cultures
Natural organic compounds that contain fluorine are rare because living organisms -- with a few exceptions -- do not produce them.

Understanding connection between HIV transmission & racial/ethnic/geographical differences
The health effects of where people live, work, and interact are well documented, as are the value of neighborhood-level structural interventions designed to improve health.

How do zebrafish develop their stripes?
A Cardiff University mathematician has thrown new light on the longstanding mystery of how zebrafish develop the distinctive striped patterns on their skin.

Neuro-immune crosstalk in allergic asthma
A research team has uncovered a fundamental molecular cue that the nervous system uses to communicate with the immune system, and may potentially trigger allergic lung inflammation leading to asthma.

Disease resistance successfully spread from modified to wild mosquitoes
Using genetically modified mosquitoes to reduce or prevent the spread of disease is a rapidly expanding field of investigation.

Necessity is indeed mother of invention -- regardless of resources, study shows
Research by Dean Shepherd argues that people who live in extremely resource poor environments can also be highly innovative in a different way and provide benefits to a range of people through creative problem solving.

Students know about learning strategies -- but don't use them
Researchers find that university students have high levels of knowledge about self-regulated learning strategies, but many students don't use them.

Study finds driving speed affected when a driver's mind 'wanders'
Research finds that driving speed fluctuates more when a driver's mind wanders from focusing on the act of driving - and that the outside environment influences how often a driver's mind wanders.

Fever during labor may present risk to mother
A new Tel Aviv University study finds a link between the duration of fever during labor and maternal complications.

Generating terahertz radiation from water makes 'the impossible, possible'
Optics professor Xi-Cheng Zhang has worked for nearly a decade to solve a scientific puzzle.

Continental controls needed to maintain fightback against tree diseases
Tighter controls on timber and plant movements into Europe are necessary to prevent further disastrous effects of plant diseases, a new study of the ash-dieback pathogen advises.

Promising results for 2 genetic weapons against malaria
Antimalarial bacteria and immune-boosted mosquitoes show strong potential to spread in the wild.

Tsunami enabled hundreds of aquatic species to raft across Pacific
The 2011 Japanese tsunami set the stage for something unprecedented.

TSRI researchers get a lead on how to detect degenerative neurological diseases sooner
Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) may have found a way to help doctors diagnose diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's earlier in their progression.

Speedy urine test for amphetamines sends results via app
Researchers in Korea have developed a wireless sensor and a smartphone app that can detect the presence of speed in a drop of human urine in seconds.

Internists urge President Trump to 'consider taking additional actions' to provide relief
ACPtoday sent a letter urging President Trump

Exploring an ancient event in pumpkin, gourd and melon evolution
Recently, scientists have making great strides in better understanding with the genomes sequenced of cucumber, watermelon, and melons.

Delayed diagnosis, not gender, affects women's treatment for heart disease
Women with heart disease typically receive less complete surgical revascularization with arterial grafts than men do, but not because of gender bias.

Immeasurable hardiness of character
The Grit Scale questionnaire has gained popularity over the past decade, not only in research but also in practical psychology and in employee selection.
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