Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 04, 2017
Exposure to childhood bullying and mental health
To what degree does childhood exposure to bullying contribute to mental health difficulties and do the direct contributions of exposure to bullying persist over time?

Mental training changes brain structure and reduces social stress
Meditation can have positive effects on our health and well-being.

University of Guelph researchers discover why females have heart health advantage
University of Guelph Prof. Tami Martino has revealed in a first-ever study the biological reasons why females have a heart health advantage over men and it's tied to ovarian hormones.

What's next for nuclear medicine training?
The 'Hot Topic' article in the October issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, titled Nuclear Medicine Training: What Now?, examines the role of nuclear medicine in the era of precision medicine and the need for training to evolve with the practice.

Problems with senses may predict older adults' overall health, ability to function
Researchers have mainly focused on what happens after people lose one or two of their senses.

Virtual reality videos may help alleviate pre-surgical anxiety in children
A virtual reality tour of the operating room prior to anesthesia helped reduce preoperative anxiety in children scheduled to undergo surgery who took part in a clinical trial published in the BJS (British Journal of Surgery).

Anxiety and depression caused by childhood bullying decline over time
A new UCL-led study has provided the strongest evidence to date that exposure to bullying causes mental health issues such as anxiety years later.

Pay-it-forward college financing policies examined in new study
Pay-it-forward college financing programs that enable students to pay tuition upon departure rather than entry may make college more accessible to greater numbers of students in the US, a new analysis by University of Illinois higher education finance expert Jennifer Delaney and University of Chicago law professor Dhammika Dharmapala suggests.

Black tea may help with weight loss, too
UCLA researchers have demonstrated for the first time that black tea may promote weight loss and other health benefits by changing bacteria in the gut.

One in 4 people leave work a year after a heart attack, Danish study finds
One in four people in Denmark who suffer a heart attack leave their jobs within a year of returning to work.

Blood test for HPV may help predict risk in cancer patients
Preliminary findings presented at this year's American Society of Radiation Oncology Annual Meeting suggest a genetic test for HPV16 in the blood could be useful to help assess risk for patients, and could help identify patients suitable for lower treatment doses.

Air pollution and poverty stack the deck for ADHD
Scientists at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) at the Mailman School of Public Health report the first evidence that prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) -- carcinogenic and neurotoxic combustion byproducts commonly found in urban air -- combines with material hardship to significantly increase ADHD symptoms in children.

Nanoscale islands dot light-driven catalyst
Rice University scientists have combined aluminum nanoparticles and smaller metal particles to create a versatile nanostructure that could lead to new applications for plasmonics.

New use for alcohol aversion drug in treatment of chemo resistant lung cancer found
Scientists have had positive results from a laboratory-based study using a well-known alcohol aversion drug to try to combat chemotherapy resistance in the most common type of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Researchers demonstrate engineering approach to combine drugs, control parasitic worms
An international research team that includes engineers from Iowa State University has demonstrated that an engineering technology that's been used in cell studies can also be used for drug testing on parasitic roundworms used as a model whole organism.

NASA sees Tropical Depression 16 develop in southwestern Caribbean Sea
Infrared imagery from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites showed powerful thunderstorms around the center of Tropical Depression 16 as it developed early on Oct.

Healthy people are at risk of developing heart disease, says Surrey expert
Healthy people who consume high levels of sugar are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Healing molecule discovery could reduce limb amputations for diabetes patients
Scientists have discovered new insights into a molecule which is part of the body's tissue repair system, in a finding which could help treat non-healing wounds and injuries, such as diabetic foot.

Poorer health literacy associated with longer hospital stay after surgery
Among more than 1,200 patients who underwent major abdominal surgery, a lower health literacy level was associated with a longer hospital length of stay, according to a study published by JAMA Surgery.

Albatross feces show diet of fishery discards
The first-ever analysis of fish DNA in albatross scat indicates a high level of interaction between seabirds and commercial fisheries.

Healing and sealing: New surgical sealant derived from human protein seals without sutures
A newly engineered material could become the first suture-less sealant for wound closure.

Asthma increases risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery
Women with asthma suffer more often from preeclampsia (PE) and run a higher risk of giving birth to underweight babies.

Different sugars, different risks to your liver
Mice on a fatty diet who were given high levels of fructose in their diet suffered much worse metabolic effects than those given similar calories of glucose.

Brain damage caused by Zika exposure in utero can be detected by both fetal MRI and ultrasound
Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound provide complementary data needed to assess ongoing changes to the brains of fetuses exposed to Zika in utero.

Intense strength training benefits postmenopausal women with low bone mass
Exercise is known to be beneficial to bone health but there is reluctance to use high intensity programs in older women with low bone mass because of the risk of fracture or other injury.

Trophy hunting is unlikely to affect evolution
In recent years, there has been growing controversy surrounding the evolutionary effects of trophy hunting in big game animals worldwide.

Your brain on mental training: Structural changes and stress reduction
Two studies based on a nine-month investigation (called the ReSource Project) report long-term mental exercises may induce exercise-specific restructuring in the brain and reduce some indicators of stress.

Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
A new analysis suggests that open-ocean aquaculture for three species of finfish is a viable option for industry expansion under most climate change scenarios -- an option that may provide a new source of protein for the world's growing population.

Analysis highlights the importance of pharmacology measures in early clinical trials
A new analysis published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology indicates that 'first-in-man' clinical trial protocols in the Netherlands often lack a consistent consideration of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects in establishing drug doses.

Antidote to synthetic cannabis 'Spice' intoxication could be found in slimming drug
Early research from Queen Mary University of London has potentially found an antidote that can rapidly stop the intoxicating effects of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids.

Older-adult patients more likely to disclose suicidal thoughts as they age
Suicide among older adults is a growing public health issue.

ALMA and Rosetta detect freon-40 in space
Observations made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and ESA's Rosetta mission by an international team, including researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, have revealed the presence of the organohalogen Freon-40 in gas around both an infant star and a comet.

Safe motherhood campaign associated with more prenatal visits, birth planning, study finds
In Tanzania, pregnant women who were exposed to a national safe motherhood campaign designed to get them to visit health facilities for prenatal care and delivery were more likely to create birth plans and to attend more prenatal appointments.

Resistance training prevents age-related tendon damage
A study published online in The FASEB Journal suggests that resistance training may prevent age-related tendon problems, such as ruptures and tendinopathies.

Febuxostat prevents gout flares in recent clinical trial
As reported in the journal Arthritis & Rheumatology, the drug febuxostat reduced gout flares in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 314 adults with early gout.

In warmer climates, Greenlandic deltas have grown
Unlike most other deltas worldwide, Greenland's are growing.

Avoiding meat during pregnancy linked with later substance misuse by children
Lower meat consumption by women during pregnancy was linked with an increased risk of substance misuse by their children during adolescence.

Soil amendments for healthier spinach
Soils keep plants healthy by providing plants with water, helpful minerals, and microbes, among other benefits.

Gene therapy halts progression of cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy in clinical trial
In a recent clinical trial, a gene therapy to treat cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) -- a neurodegenerative disease that typically claims young boys' lives within 10 years of diagnosis -- effectively stabilized the disease's progression in 88 percent of patients.

Researchers find that accurately transcribing DNA overrides DNA repair
Researchers found that in the model organism E. coli, the fidelity of transcribing DNA comes at the expense of DNA repair.

New nanomaterial can extract hydrogen fuel from seawater
A new hybrid nanomaterial harvests solar energy and uses it to extract hydrogen from seawater, cheaply and efficiently.

Scientists identify a possible therapeutic target for regulating body weight
A new study published online in The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org) reveals a novel gene involved in maintaining body weight.

Rampant consumption of hippo teeth
A recent study by the School of Biological Sciences of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) examined the case of hippo teeth and revealed discordance in trade volumes declared between importers and exporters -- a scenario that could threaten the survival of the species.

'Squirtable' elastic surgical glue seals wounds in 60 seconds
University of Sydney media release about MeTro: A highly elastic and adhesive surgical glue that quickly seals wounds without the need for common staples or sutures could transform how surgeries are performed.

Health care professional's recommendation important factor for chemoprevention decisions
A health care professional's recommendation was the most important factor driving decisions by women at high risk for breast cancer on whether to take selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).

A win-win for spotted owls and forest management
Remote sensing technology has detected what could be a win for both spotted owls and forestry management, according to a study led by the University of California, Davis, the USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the University of Washington.

A super-elastic surgical glue that sticks and seals in vivo, even when tissues are moving
A study presents a robust solution for the efficient repair of wounds in mechanically challenging body areas.

Two intelligent vehicles are better than one
Researchers at EPFL are working to improve the reliability and fault tolerance of intelligent vehicle systems by combining the data they gather with that from other vehicles.

Nebraska discovery offers clues to why Zika became more dangerous
Virus with a certain sugar in its protein envelope more readily passes to the brain in infected mice, causing inflammation and death.

Mystery of breast cancer risk gene solved, 20 years after its discovery
More than 20 years after scientists revealed that mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose women to breast cancer, Yale scientists have pinpointed the molecular mechanism that allows those mutations to wreak their havoc.

Cell stress response sheds light on treating inflammation-related cancer, aging
Stress -- defined broadly -- can have a profoundly deleterious effect on the human body.

Impacts of ride-hailing on crashes differ from city to city
Ride-hailing services reduce drunk-driving crashes in some cities, reports a new study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania this month in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

Do delays in surgery for melanoma vary by insurance?
Timely treatment for cancer is important and a new article published by JAMA Dermatology examines how delays of surgery for melanoma vary by insurance type.

NASA satellite finds powerful storms in Tropical Storm Ramon's center
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite looked at Tropical Storm Ramon in infrared light, revealing powerful storms around the center.

Plants become more tolerant when living in symbiosis with fungi
By developing a symbiotic relationship with fungi, plants not only become more tolerant to diseases but can also help contribute to more sustainable agricultural practices.

Tungsten offers nano-interconnects a path of least resistance
As microchips become smaller, the shrinking size of their copper interconnects leads to increased electrical resistivity at the nanoscale.

Dutch children bereaved by domestic homicides 'more burdened than expected'
The majority of Dutch children who lost a parent to intimate partner homicide had already experienced violence, often without professional support, according to a study published Oct.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing in 30 minutes or less may help doctors
Scientists have pioneered a method to detect antibiotic susceptibility for urinary tract infections in less than 30 minutes -- potentially enabling patients to be diagnosed and prescribed effective treatments during a single clinical visit.

Hurricane exposes and washes away thousands of sea turtle nests
The University of Central Florida Marine Turtle Research Group today released estimates of sea turtle nests lost to Hurricane Irma, finding that 56 percent of green turtle nests and 24 percent of loggerhead nests were lost within Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge.

Research rethinks the evolutionary importance of variability in a population
It's been long thought that variability within a population is key to population's growth and survival but new research questions that assumption.

Women use gossip to compete for a man's attention
Although both men and women gossip, women may be more likely to use gossiping and rumour-mongering as tactics to badmouth a potential rival who is competing for a man's attention.

Meet Madagascar's oldest animal lineage, a whirligig beetle with 206-million-year-old origins
A new study in Scientific Reports suggests the Malagasy striped whirligig beetle Heterogyrus milloti boasts a genetic pedigree stretching back to the late Triassic period.

Flights worldwide face increased risk of severe turbulence due to climate change
Flights all around the world could be encountering lots more turbulence in the future, according to the first ever global projections of in-flight bumpiness.

Study: Sunlight and the right microbes convert Arctic carbon into carbon dioxide
A new study published this week in Nature Communications outlines the mechanisms and points to the importance of both sunlight and the right microbial community as keys to converting permafrost carbon to CO2.

Study investigates the presence of contaminants on drinking water
Comparative analysis between sanitation systems in Brazil and the USA shows the need to apply new technologies for the treatment of chemical compounds created by men, some of them endocrine deregulators.

Assessing regional earthquake risk and hazards in the age of exascale
Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore Lab and UC Davis are building the first-ever end-to-end simulation code to precisely capture the geology and physics of regional earthquakes, and how the shaking impacts buildings.

ASU examines Mars' moon Phobos in a different light
NASA's longest-lived mission to Mars has gained its first look at the Martian moon Phobos, pursuing a deeper understanding by examining it in infrared wavelengths.

Why does divorce run in families? The answer may be genetics
Children of divorced parents are more likely to get divorced when compared to those who grew up in two-parent families -- and genetic factors are the primary explanation, according to a new study by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University and Lund University in Sweden.

No clear evidence that most new cancer drugs extend or improve life
The majority of cancer drugs approved in Europe between 2009 and 2013 entered the market without clear evidence that they improved survival or quality of life for patients, finds a study published by The BMJ today.

Computer model unravels knotty problems in DNA
If you've ever tried to untangle a pair of earbuds, you'll understand how loops and cords can get twisted up.

Ancient humans left Africa to escape drying climate
Humans migrated out of Africa as the climate shifted from wet to dry about 60,000 years ago, according to new paleoclimate research.

Predicting depression and PTSD before deployment could help soldiers cope
A set of validated, self-reported questions administered early in a soldier's career could predict mental health problems such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after return from deployment, according to a study published in the open access journal BMC Psychology.

Delays for melanoma surgeries linked to insurance type
Researchers report in JAMA Dermatology that surgical treatment delays - defined as surgery that occurred more than six weeks after diagnosis - were common.

Low-cost, high-volume services make up big portion of spending on unneeded health care
Low-cost, high-volume health services account for a high percentage of unnecessary health spending, adding strain to the health care system.

Indicator of extraterrestrial life?
An international research team has discovered traces of the chemical compound Freon-40 around both an infant star and a comet in our solar system.

Tubules to stop cell growth
TORC1 is an enzyme complex that controls the normal growth of our cells; but, when too active, it can promote diseases such as cancer.

For women, high blood pressure in your 40s may be tied to increased risk of Dementia
Women who develop high blood pressure in their 40s may be more likely to develop dementia years later, according to a study published in the Oct.

Study examines home health care in medicare beneficiaries
According to an analysis published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Medicare beneficiaries receiving home health services who are dually enrolled in Medicaid, live in a low-income neighborhood, or are Black tend to receive care from lower-quality home health agencies and have higher rates of hospital admissions and visits to the emergency department than other Medicare beneficiaries.

Ornamented artifact may indicate long-distance exchange between Mesolithic communities
An ornamented bâton percé found in Central Poland may provide evidence of exchange between Mesolithic communities, according to a study published Oct.

Researchers create molecule that could 'kick and kill' HIV
Researchers have been looking for ways to eliminate the 'reservoirs' where the virus hides, and researchers from UCLA, Stanford University and the National Institutes of Health may have developed a solution.

DNA-based Zika vaccine candidate found safe and effective at inducing immune response
A new generation DNA-based Zika vaccine is the first to demonstrate both safety and the ability to elicit an immune response against Zika in humans, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted in partnership with The Wistar Institute, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, and GeneOne Life Science, Inc.

Trends, benefits, and costs of working remotely
A new assessment indicates that working remotely is a growing trend, and while it is associated with higher organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job-related well-being, these benefits come at the cost of work intensification and a greater inability to switch off.

Fish shrinking as ocean temperatures rise
One of the most economically important fish is shrinking in body weight, length and overall physical size as ocean temperatures rise, according to new research by LSU Boyd Professor R.

Parole violations, not new crimes, help drive prison's revolving door
Failing a drug test, associating with felons and other technical parole violations are among the key drivers of prison's 'revolving door,' according to new UC Berkeley research.

Night shift work linked to an increased risk of obesity
In an analysis of 28 published studies, night shift work was associated with a 29 percent increased risk of becoming obese or overweight.

Study: therapists lack knowledge to prevent transmission of CMV
Results from a new health-risk knowledge survey indicate that physical and occupational therapists are at increased risk of contracting cytomegalovirus (CMV), a leading cause of prenatal infection and lifelong disabilities, but that they lack sufficient knowledge to prevent its transmission.

Study pokes holes in fetal alcohol hypothesis
A new study published in the journal Brain Behavior and Immunity appears to challenge the theory that cells in the brain's immune system are the culprit behind the neurological damage that occurs in children exposed to alcohol while in the womb.

Scientists reverse advanced heart failure in an animal model
Researchers have discovered a previously unrecognized healing capacity of the heart.

Monoclonal antibody 'cocktail' halts Zika infection, according to new Miller School study
A collaborative study led by a University of Miami Miller School of Medicine researcher has found that a

Use of CPR, defibrillators improves after public health initiatives
After coordinated and comprehensive public health initiatives in North Carolina, more patients received bystander CPR and first-responder defibrillation at home and in public, which was associated with improved survival, according to a study published by JAMA Cardiology.

Discrimination more likely when resources are scarce
At the height of the Great Recession, psychologist Amy Krosch noticed a troubling trend: people of color seemed to be getting much harder hit than the white population on a number of socioeconomic indicators.

Discrimination on the grounds of political ideas prevails over any other
Following the gradual retreat of other stereotypes, political ideas are becoming established as a significant reason for arousing trust or mistrust between people.

Review articles put animal models under closer scrutiny
Human Society International will give grants of $5,000 (USD) to support the development and open access publication of in-depth review articles on different areas of human diseases.

The vitamin ergothioneine: an antioxidant for oxygen-free areas?
Chemists at the University of Basel have been able to show for the first time that anaerobic bacteria can produce the vitamin ergothioneine in the absence of oxygen.

Are we at a tipping point with weed control?
Imagine walking the cereal aisle at your favorite grocery store.

Toxic cocktail: Okinawan pit viper genome reveals evolution of snake venom
For the first time, researchers have sequenced a habu genome, that of the Taiwan habu, and compared it to that of its sister species.

NASA's Webb Telescope to witness galactic infancy
Scientists will use NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to study sections of the sky previously observed by NASA's Great Observatories, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope, to understand the creation of the universe's first galaxies and stars.

To kickstart creativity, offer money, not plaudits, study finds
The best way to reward creativity is not with social-recognition awards such as plaques or other plaudits.

Surface helium detonation spells end for white dwarf
An international team of researchers has found evidence that the brightest stellar explosions in our Universe could be triggered by helium nuclear detonation near the surface of a white dwarf star.

DNA-based Zika vaccine is safe and effective at inducing immune response
A new generation DNA-based Zika vaccine demonstrated both safety and ability to elicit an immune response against Zika in humans in a phase 1 clinical trial conducted through a partnership among the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, GeneOne Life Science, and The Wistar Institute.

Leaders of Congenital Zika Virus Program at Children's National share lessons learned with peers
The multidisciplinary team at Children's National Health System has consulted on 90 dyads (mothers and their Zika-affected fetuses/infants).

Research proves bioengineering as viable alternative to open fetal repair for spina bifida
Researchers from Children's Hospital Colorado and the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus recently discovered a promising alternative to open fetal surgery for spina bifida repair.

Imaging agents developed to better monitor growth of tumours
UAlberta researchers have created two new imaging agents that could help physicians visualize the formation of tumour-associated blood vessels, keep track of tumour growth and possibly generate new therapies.

Light-activated nanoparticles can supercharge current antibiotics
Light-activated nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots, can provide a crucial boost in effectiveness for antibiotic treatments used to combat drug-resistant superbugs such as E. coli and Salmonella, new University of Colorado Boulder research shows.

Test reveals antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a half hour
A new test developed at Caltech can identify whether bacteria are resistant to antibiotics in a mere half hour, giving medical professionals a new tool for fighting infections and superbug bacteria.

Multivitamins in pregnancy may be linked to lower autism risk in children
Taking multivitamins during early pregnancy may be associated with a reduced risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children compared with mothers who do not take multivitamins, finds a study published in The BMJ today.

New approach may hold the key to treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria
A new study published online in The FASEB Journal highlights the therapeutic potential of a simple chemical mimic of host defense peptides (C10OOc12O) to cure bacterial infections both on its own, as well as in combination with otherwise inefficient antibiotics.

How disliked classes affect college student cheating
One of the tactics that discourages student cheating may not work as well in courses that college students particularly dislike, a new study has found.

Teleoperating robots with virtual reality
Many manufacturing jobs require a physical presence to operate machinery.

Modified peptides could boost plant growth and development
A new Australian study of peptide hormones critical for plant development could result in wide-ranging benefits for agriculture, tissue culture, and related industries, and even improve knowledge of peptides in humans.

Forty years after Prince went pro a special issue celebrates his achievements
Prince turned pro in 1977, signing a six figure contract with Warner Bros.

Antifungals and probiotics may play a key role in the development of treatment for Crohn's disease
Scientists have determined that fungus may play a key role in chronic intestinal inflammation disorders.

Can census data better predict lead exposure in children?
Researchers have developed a computational model based on available childhood blood-lead level records and nationwide census data to predict the risk of lead exposure for children in the US.

Sperm banking is underutilized by adolescent and young adult cancer patients
Research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital found meeting with fertility specialists and parental recommendations play key roles in decisions at-risk male cancer patients make about fertility preservation.

Study reveals staggering economic burden of dementia in younger people
While the social and economic cost of Alzheimer's is well documented, a new study shows that frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) -- the most common dementia for people under age 60 -- inflicts a significantly higher economic burden on both patients and their caregivers.

Freeze frame microscopy for 3-D biological images captures 2017 Nobel Prize in chemistry
'The Nobel Committee's recognition of yet another type of biomedical imaging underscores just how important, and enabling imaging and microscopy techniques are to all areas of science and medicine,' stated Elizabeth M.C.

Milky Way's 'most-mysterious star' continues to confound
In 2015, a star called KIC 8462852 caused quite a stir in and beyond the astronomy community due to a series of rapid, unexplained dimming events.

Earlier school start times may increase risk of adolescent depression and anxiety
Teenagers with school starting times before 8:30 a.m. may be at particular risk of experiencing depression and anxiety due to compromised sleep quality, according to a recent study out of the University of Rochester Medical Center.

Newborns with CHD show signs of brain impairment even before cardiac surgery
Using a novel imaging technique, Children's National Health System researchers demonstrate for the first time that the brains of high-risk infants with congenital heart disease already show signs of functional impairment even before they undergo corrective open heart surgery.
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