Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 20, 2017
'Antelope perfume' keeps flies away from cows
In Africa, tsetse flies transfer the sleeping sickness also to cattle.

NASA sees a new depression form after another fizzled
The Northwestern Pacific Ocean generated another tropical depression hours after a different system quickly faded.

BU researchers create tool to measure, control protein aggregation
In the cover article in the current issue of Cell, BU Biomedical Engineer Ahmad S.

Dartmouth to debut wearables that warn and wow at UIST 2017
A smart watch that takes the user to another dimension and a smart ring that provides powerful feedback are among the top technology Dartmouth College will bring to the 30th ACM User Interface Software and Technology Symposium (UIST 2017).

'Selfish brain' wins out when competing with muscle power, study finds
New research on our internal trade-off when physical and mental performance are put in direct competition has found that cognition takes less of a hit, suggesting more energy is diverted to the brain than body muscle.

E-cigarettes may trigger unique and potentially damaging immune responses
E-cigarettes appear to trigger unique immune responses as well as the same ones that cigarettes trigger that can lead to lung disease, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

How obesity promotes breast cancer
Obesity leads to the release of cytokines into the bloodstream which impact the metabolism of breast cancer cells, making them more aggressive as a result.

Metacognition training boosts gen chem exam scores
Students, and people in general, can tend to overestimate their own abilities.

Physical inactivity and restless sleep exacerbate genetic risk of obesity
Low levels of physical activity and inefficient sleep patterns intensify the effects of genetic risk factors for obesity, according to results of a large-scale study presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla.

Experts recommend fewer lab tests for hospitalized patients
In a review article publishing this week in JAMA Internal Medicine, physicians at Johns Hopkins, along with experts from several other institutions across north America, compiled published evidence and crafted an experience-based quality improvement blueprint to reduce repetitive lab testing for hospitalized patients.

Pollution responsible for 16 percent of deaths globally -- Lancet Commission report
Diseases caused by pollution were responsible in 2015 for an estimated 9 million premature deaths -- 16 percent of all deaths worldwide, according to a report by The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health.

Researchers quantify breast cancer risk based on rare variants and background risk
Rare variants combined with background genetic risk factors may account for many unexplained cases of familial breast cancer, and knowing the specific genes involved could inform choice of prevention and treatment strategies, according to findings presented in a plenary session at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla.

Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light
Researchers have discovered a new way to produce high energy photon beams.

NASA-NOAA satellite sees Typhoon Lan's 50 nautical-mile wide eye
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and captured an image of Typhoon Lan in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and saw a well-organized storm with a clear eye that was 50 nautical miles in diameter.

New IOF Compendium documents osteoporosis, its management and global burden
On the occasion of World Osteoporosis Day, the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has issued the first edition of a comprehensive and scientifically referenced report on osteoporosis.

Swansea University's physicists develop a new quantum simulation protocol
A step closer to understanding quantum mechanics: Swansea University's physicists develop a new quantum simulation protocol.

Research predicts increase in inflammatory bowel disease in developing world
For the last century, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been a challenge for patients and the medical community in the western world.

Creation of coherent states in molecules by incoherent electrons
Coherent states of negative ion resonances in electron-molecule interaction are observed in experiments on e -- H2 and e -- D2 reactions.

US ocean observation critical to understanding climate change, but lacks long-term nat. planning
Ocean observing systems are important as they provide information essential for monitoring and forecasting changes in Earth's climate on timescales ranging from days to centuries.

Life goes on for marine ecosystems after cataclysmic mass extinction
One of the largest global mass extinctions did not fundamentally change marine ecosystems, scientists have found.

Global CO2 emissions stalled for the third year in a row
The annual assessment of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the JRC and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) confirms that CO2 emissions have stalled for the third year in a row.

High field magnet at BER II: Insight into a hidden order
A specific uranium compound has puzzled researchers for thirty years.

Exploring how herpes simplex virus changes when passed between family members
A new study offers a rare glimpse into the genetics of a herpes simplex virus transmission event -- information that may prove useful in future development of therapeutics and vaccines.

Delayed word processing could predict patients' potential to develop Alzheimer's disease
A delayed neurological response to processing the written word could be an indicator that a patient with mild memory problems is at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, research led by the University of Birmingham has discovered.

The perils of business ethics facing the UK's SME jewellery producers comes under scrutiny
Professor of Sustainability Morven McEachern looks at the ethical world of Birmingham's famous 250-year Jewellery Quarter, home to some 500 business.

Cool roofs have water saving benefits too
The energy and climate benefits of cool roofs have been well established: By reflecting rather than absorbing the sun's energy, light-colored roofs keep buildings, cities, and even the entire planet cooler.

Fewer stillbirths at East African hospital following introduction of childbirth guidelines
In collaboration with the health staff at Zanzibar's main hospital, Danish researchers have developed and introduced a short guide on childbirth care.

Novel 'converter' heralds breakthrough in ultra-fast data processing at nanoscale
A research team from the National University of Singapore has recently invented a novel 'converter' that can harness the speed and small size of plasmons for high frequency data processing and transmission in nanoelectronics.

Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry
Rice University researchers employ microfluidic devices to show how and why dispersants are able to break up deposits of asphaltene that hinder the flow of crude oil in wellheads and pipelines.

Carbon coating gives biochar its garden-greening power
A Nature Communications study, led by Germany's University of Tuebingen and published Oct.

Correction of known position errors in a spherical
The experimental validation of an efficient iterative technique for compensating known position errors in a spherical near to far-field transformation (NTFFT) for elongated antennas using a minimum number of near-field (NF) measurements has been provided.

The skinny on lipid immunology
In a new study published in Science Immunology, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Monash University in Australia reveal new insights into the basis for T cell receptor (TCR) autoreactivity to self-phospholipids, with implications for autoimmune diseases.

New function in gene-regulatory protein discovered
Researchers at UmeƄ and Stockholm universities in Sweden and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in the US have published a new study in the journal Molecular Cell.

The end of pneumonia? New vaccine offers hope
A new vaccine under development provoked an immune response to 72 forms of the bacteria that's responsible for pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis.

Waterside lighting drastically disrupts wildlife in the surrounding ecosystem
Researchers in Germany find that streetlights near waterways attract flying insects from the water and change the predator community living in the grass beneath the lights.

Chromosomes may be knotted
Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted.

Prozac in ocean water a possible threat to sea life, PSU study finds
Oregon shore crabs exhibit risky behavior when they're exposed to the antidepressant Prozac, making it easier for predators to catch them, according to a new study from Portland State University (PSU).

Apixaban -- metabolism, pharmacologic properties and drug interactions
New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent direct-acting drugs functioning selectively for one specific clotting factor.

Personal omics data informative for precision health and preventive care
Multi-omics profiling, the measurement and analysis of a person's genome along with other biomolecular traits, is an important step toward personal health management that provides valuable, actionable information, according to findings presented at the American Society of Human Genetics 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla.

Parents' alcohol use can set the stage for teenage dating violence, study finds
Having a parent with an alcohol use disorder increases the risk for dating violence among teenagers, according to a study from the University at Buffalo Research Institute on Addictions.

Mountain glaciers shrinking across the West
A technique using satellites to create twice-yearly elevation maps of US mountain glaciers provides new insight into thinning of glaciers in the lower 48 states.

RANKL expressed by osteocytes has an important role in orthodontic tooth movement
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers revealed that RANKL expressed by osteocytes is essential for the bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement.

Audit uncovers concerns about the use of electroconvulsive therapy in England
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be used in England without comprehensive national auditing.

How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defences by stealth mechanisms
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals.

Study reveals connection between microbiome and autoimmune disorders
Published last week in Cell, a study by Santamaria and Kathy McCoy, PhD, from the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine reveals a new mechanism in the gut microbiome that regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cells.
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