Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 24, 2017
Study finds smokers wrongly believe Natural American Spirit cigarettes are healthier
Smokers wrongly believe Natural American Spirit cigarettes to be healthier than other brands due to NAS's advertising claims, according to new research from the Penn Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science (TCORS) at the Annenberg School for Communication.

NASA examines heavy rainfall generated by former Typhoon Lan
When Typhoon Lan made landfall in Japan on Oct. 22, the Global Precipitation Measurement mission core satellite or GPM analyzed the storm and added up the high rainfall that it generated.

Self-esteem mapped in the human brain
A team of UCL researchers has devised a mathematical equation that can explain how our self-esteem is shaped by what other people think of us, in a new study published in the scientific journal eLife.

Study highlights value of acknowledging adolescents' perspectives
Across very different cultures -- Ghana and the United States -- when parents acknowledge the perspectives of their adolescent children and encourage them to express themselves, the youths have a stronger sense of self-worth, intrinsic motivation, and engagement, and also have less depression.

Research team led by NUS scientists breaks new ground in memory technology
An international research team led by scientists from the National University of Singapore pioneered the development of a novel thin, organic film that supports a million more times read-write cycles and consumes 1,000 times less power than commercial flash memories.

When humidity benefits batteries
Sometimes you can find simple solutions to complex problems, as demonstrated by the team of INRS's Dr.

Nurses' depression tied to increased likelihood of medical errors
Depression is common among nurses and is linked to a higher likelihood they'll make medical errors, new research suggests.

Weak social ties a killer for male whales
Male killer whales are more likely to die if they are not at the center of their social group, new research suggests.

Single nanoparticle mapping paves the way for better nanotechnology
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the Technical University of Denmark have developed a method that makes it possible to map the individual responses of nanoparticles in different situations and contexts.

Proton therapy may be better option for elderly patients with esophageal cancer
A study led by Mayo Clinic researchers has found that proton beam therapy, in combination with chemotherapy, prior to surgery, may be a better option than a combination using traditional radiation therapy techniques with chemotherapy when treating elderly patients with esophageal cancer.

Long-term opioid use does not increase risk of Alzheimer's disease
Opioid use is not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, shows a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland.

Study finds increase of herbicide in older adults
Among a sample of older adults living in Southern California, average urine levels of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite increased between 1993 and 2016, as did the proportion of samples with detectable levels, according to a study published by JAMA.

Colon cancer: APC protein affects immunity by preventing pre-cancerous inflammation
Adenomatous polyposis coli is a gene whose mutations are associated with a rare, hereditary form of colorectal cancer known as familial adenomatous polyposis.

Researchers introduce new method for monitoring Indian Summer Monsoon
Researchers from Florida State University have created a tool for objectively defining the onset and demise of the Indian Summer Monsoon -- a colossal weather system that affects billions of people annually.

Pilot project provides findings and advice on data sharing in development research
Having worked with seven volunteering IDRC-funded development research projects for sixteen months, a pilot data sharing project led by Prof.

Study provides more clarity on the genetic causes of children's food allergies
What role do genes play in egg, milk, and nut allergies?

Automatic acoustic gunshot sensor technology may benefit shooting victims
A number of U.S. cities have installed acoustic gunshot sensor technology to accurately locate shooting scenes and potential gunshot victims, but the effectiveness of this technology for saving lives had not been studied until surgeons at the University of California, San Francisco-East Bay in Oakland, Calif., found that this sensor technology may benefit shooting victims by helping them get to the emergency room sooner than they may have otherwise.

New way to prevent unfavorable intestinal microbiota
A physiological approach to restore the gut's ecosystem in various diseases by using antimicrobial peptides has been developed by Hokkaido University scientists.

Starting at age 6, children spontaneously practice skills to prepare for the future
Deliberate practice is essential for improving a wide range of skills important for everyday life, from tying shoelaces to reading and writing.

Animal models in regenerative medicine in upcoming special issue of tissue engineering
Novel approaches to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are first evaluated and optimized in animal models before making the leap to clinical testing in human subjects.

What we call postdoctoral researchers matters, scientists say
In an opinion piece in the journal eLife, eight scientists and science policy experts make the case for standardizing how postdoctoral researchers are categorized by human resources offices and provide a framework that institutions can follow.

A quantum spin liquid
Researchers from Boston College and Harvard report creating a metal oxide with a honeycomb lattice that scientists have sought to advance quantum computing research.

Comparison of outcomes for robotic-assisted vs. laparoscopic surgical procedures
Two studies published by JAMA compare certain outcomes of robotic-assisted vs. laparoscopic surgery for kidney removal or rectal cancer.

New study explores dried cranberries' effect on gut health
Novel investigation evaluates the potential impact of eating dried cranberries on typical indicators of a healthy gut microbiome.

No magic wand required: Scientists propose way to turn any cell into any other cell type
In fairy tales, all it takes to transform a frog into a prince or a mouse into a horse is the wave of a magic wand.

Exposure to glyphosate, chemical found in weed killers, increased over 23 years
Analyzing samples from a prospective study, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers found that human exposure to glyphosate, a chemical widely found in weed killers, has increased approximately 500 percent since the introduction of genetically modified crops.

Universities should actively support open scholarship
Universities should take action to support the sharing of educational resources, argues a new perspective publishing Oct.

Spots on supergiant star drive spirals in stellar wind
A Canadian-led international team of astronomers recently discovered that spots on the surface of a supergiant star are driving huge spiral structures in its stellar wind.

There is no safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy, new study shows
Any amount of alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause extreme lasting effects on a child, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Study investigates effects of domestic violence on workplaces -- by asking perpetrators
Researchers at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto and Western University released a new study today, taking an unconventional approach to understanding the significant effects of domestic violence in the workplace.

Diabetes: New Insulin Sensitizers Discovered
Researchers may have found a way to treat insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes, while avoiding side effects such as weight gain.

How to predict high school dropouts
Teenagers who do not access healthcare when needed are at greater risk of dropping out of high school.

Daydreaming is good. It means you're smart
A new study from the Georgia Institute of Technology suggests that daydreaming during meetings isn't necessarily a bad thing.

Fireworks in space
Some of the most exciting things that we've seen from looking at gene expression in space is that we really see an explosion, like fireworks taking off, as soon as the human body gets into space.

Toxicant levels are around 90 percent less in glo™ emissions compared to cigarette smoke
Toxicant levels in glo™ emissions are around 90 percent less than in cigarette smoke. glo™, a commercial tobacco-heating product, heats rather than burns tobacco.

Underwater sound waves help scientists locate ocean impacts
Scientists have developed a new method to locate the precise time and location that objects fall into our oceans.

Medicare graduate nurse education demonstration increases primary care workforce
The Report to Congress on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Graduate Nurse Education Demonstration has just been released documenting health care workforce gains addressing the nation's shortage of primary care.

Morgridge, UW scientists explore national security implications of gene editing
A trio of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Morgridge Institute for Research participated in an international think tank this month on the intersection of genome editing technology and national security.

Experts launch pioneering autism and mental health research
Leading researchers from Birmingham are today launching a major, new UK study into autism and mental health problems -- and are calling for autistic people and their families to get involved.

Energy firm branding, not deals, influences customer switching
UK energy companies are using branding approaches instead of product innovation to keep customers, according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

'Wing prints' may identify individual bats as effectively as fingerprints identify people
For decades, bats have defied scientists' best ideas for keeping track of individuals, a critical element in wildlife research.

Identifying the mechanism for a new class of antiviral drugs could hasten their approval
New research shows that a new class of antiviral drugs works by causing the virus' replication machinery to pause and backtrack, preventing the virus from efficiently replicating.

Managing risky behavior reduces future incarceration among aggressive juvenile offenders
Clinically aggressive juvenile offenders on probation in Cook County, Illinois, who participated in a two-week intervention program focusing on reducing risky behavior were four times less likely to be incarcerated in the 12 months after the intervention than their peers who participated in an information-based health promotion program.

Robot-assisted surgery for kidney removal not always cost-effective
Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery to remove a patient's entire kidney requires slightly longer operating times and results in increased costs compared with the use of traditional laparoscopic surgery, according to a large, multiyear analysis conducted by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Ice sheets may melt rapidly in response to distant volcanoes
Volcanic eruptions have been known to cool the global climate, but they can also exacerbate the melting of ice sheets, according to a paper published today in Nature Communications.

Construction material-based methodology for contingency base selection
In an era of global responsiveness, there is a continuing need for agencies and organizations to set up temporary contingency bases (CB) of operations in foreign nations.

Taste, not appearance, drives corals to eat plastics
Scientists have long known that marine animals mistakenly eat plastic debris because tiny bits of floating plastic look like prey.

UBC researchers create definitive method to detect wildfire tainted wine grapes
Wine producers and grape growers have a new, powerful tool at their disposal to help manage the impact of grapes exposed to smoke from forest fires.

How Neanderthals influenced human genetics at the crossroads of Asia and Europe
A new study explores the genetic legacy of ancient trysts between Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans, with a focus on Western Asia, the region where the first relations may have occurred.

A quarter of problematic pot users have anxiety disorders, many since childhood
About a quarter of adults whose marijuana use is problematic in early adulthood have anxiety disorders in childhood and late adolescence, according to new data from Duke Health researchers.

Vapor from glo™ had little or no biological impact on cells in laboratory tests
Unlike smoke, vapor from tobacco heating product -- gloTM -- is not toxic, does not cause oxidative stress, gene mutations or the promotion of tumors in cells in laboratory tests. gloTM, a tobacco heating device, heats rather than burns tobacco.

Studies support the reduced-risk potential of glo™
A comparative assessment of scientific results place glo™, other THPs, e-cigarettes and hybrid products at the opposite, least-risky end of the risk continuum relative to cigarettes. glo™, a tobacco heating product (THP), heats rather burns tobacco.

Heart failure therapy hope as drug blocks deadly muscle scarring
A potential treatment to prevent deadly muscle scarring that contributes to chronic heart failure has been uncovered by scientists at the University of Edinburgh.

Researchers discover which brain region motivates behavior change
Ever been stuck in a rut? University of Pennsylvania researcher Michael Platt and colleagues found that stimulating a region of the brain called the posterior cingulate cortex can lead to changes in routine behavior.

Study indicates arsenic can cause cancer decades after exposure ends
A new paper published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute shows that arsenic in drinking water may have one of the longest dormancy periods of any carcinogen.

SNMMI publishes appropriate use criteria for FDG PET/CT imaging of cancer patients
The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) has published appropriate use criteria (AUC) for FDG PET/CT in Restaging and Treatment Response Assessment of Malignant Disease.

New clinical care guidelines issued for patients with mitochondrial disease
Physicians who see patients with mitochondrial disease now have a practical new tool -- a set of guidelines for managing and caring for those patients.

High-speed locomotion neurons found in the brainstem
A clearly defined subpopulation of neurons in the brainstem is essential to execute locomotion at high speeds.

Weight loss after bariatric surgery can improve heart health
In overweight and obese people, fat often gets deposited in the midsection of the body.

Blood-based epigenetic research may hold clues to autism biology, study suggests
Using data from blood and brain tissue, a team led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that they could gain insights into mechanisms that might help explain autism by analyzing the interplay between genes and chemical tags that control whether genes are used to make a protein, called epigenetic marks.

Tarloxitinib puts tumor-seeking tail on anti-EGFR drug to precisely target lung cancer
University of Colorado Cancer Center study being presented Oct. 28 at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets: By pairing an anti-EGFR drug with a 'tail' that only activates the drug when it is very near tumor cells, tarloxitinib brings the drug to tumors while keeping concentrations safe in surrounding tissues.

UT Health San Antonio researchers define mechanism that causes kidney cancer to recur
Researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio) and US Department of Veterans Affairs have identified the molecular mechanism causing kidney cancer to resist drug treatment.

Auxin tells the stem cells to stop growing and the gynoecium to start forming in flowers
Nara Institute of Science and Technology-led research found the plant hormone auxin governs the change from cell division at shoot tips to the development of female parts of a flower.

New self-regulating nanoparticles could treat cancer
Scientists from the University of Surrey have developed 'intelligent' nanoparticles which heat up to a temperature high enough to kill cancerous cells -- but which then self-regulate and lose heat before they get hot enough to harm healthy tissue.

US dollar lures investors at the expense of the euro
A worldwide shift in the appetite for currency since the 2008 global financial crisis appears to have hurt the Eurozone and helped the United States, according to new research from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

Researchers advocate for single-cell diagnostics for breast cancer
Women diagnosed with breast cancer may benefit from having the molecular subtype of different cells within their tumors identified, argue two researchers in an opinion article published in Trends in Cancer.

Australian research highlights worldwide risk of HIV and Hepatitis C epidemics
Two reviews of the global prevalence of injecting drug use and of interventions to prevent the spread of blood borne viruses among people who inject drugs are published today in leading international journal The Lancet Global Health.

Novel histone modifications couple metabolism to gene activity
Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich (LMU) have discovered that two new classes of histone modifications couple cellular metabolism to gene activity.

Pollutant emitted by forest fire causes DNA damage and lung cell death
Scientists performed tests with particles from forest and crop fires in the Amazon.

Mysterious DNA modification seen in stress response
Emory geneticists have been studying methylation of the DNA letter A (adenine).

NASA sees Tropical Storm Saola near Guam
Infrared data from NASA satellites helped confirm that former Tropical Depression 27W has strengthened into a tropical storm near Guam.

Sacrificing one life to save others -- research shows psychopaths' force for 'greater good'
New research shows that people would sacrifice one person to save a larger group of people -- and in addition, the force with which they carry out these actions could be predicted by psychopathic traits.

Siletzia's origin along an oceanic spreading center: What's Bremerton got to do with it?
Fifty million years ago, Bremerton, Washington, may have looked a lot like Iceland: hot new land atop an oceanic spreading center.

Electronic entropy enhances water splitting
Northwestern University researchers find that an electron transitioning from state to state increases cerium's entropy, making it ideal for hydrogen production.

Antibiotics from a 'molecular pencil sharpener'
Scientists at Rutgers University-New Brunswick and other institutions have discovered a 'molecular pencil sharpener' that chews away its outer coating to release a powerful antibiotic.

Researchers test first drug to prevent the onset of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy is a very common side-effect of chemotherapy and may eventually lead to early discontinuation of treatment.

Jumping nanoparticles
Transitions occurring in nanoscale systems, such as a chemical reaction or the folding of a protein, are strongly affected by friction and thermal noise.

Separate but unequal: NYU Metro Center Report examines segregation in NYC schools
A new report by the NYU Metro Center explores patterns of segregation in New York City public schools and finds a link between increased school diversity and modest academic benefits.

Noninvasive brain imaging shows readiness of trainees to perform operations
While simulation platforms have been used to train surgeons before they enter an actual operating room (OR), few studies have evaluated how well trainees transfer those skills from the simulator to the OR.

Genetics may put a person at risk of high triglycerides, but adopting a healthy diet can help
Triglycerides, a type of fat in the blood, are important for good health.

Raton Basin earthquakes linked to oil and gas fluid injections
A rash of earthquakes in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico recorded between 2008 and 2010 was likely due to fluids pumped deep underground during oil and gas wastewater disposal, says a new University of Colorado Boulder study.

Blood-thinning drugs appear to protect against dementia as well as stroke in AF patients
Blood-thinning drugs not only reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but are also associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia, according to new research published in the European Heart Journal.

New combination therapy of registered drugs shortens anti-Wolbachia therapy
Researchers from LSTM's Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics have found a way of significantly reducing the treatment required for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis from several weeks to seven days.

Does stem cell therapy offer the best hope for neurodegenerative diseases?
As the brain has limited capability for self-repair or regeneration, stem cells may represent the best therapeutic approach for counteracting damage to or degeneration of brain tissue caused by injury, aging, or disease.

Study explores the seasonality of hair loss
A new British Journal of Dermatology study explores the relationship between seasonality and hair loss at a population level using Google Trends data.

Organic material matters
Researchers test the capability of a novel nanoparticle to remove cadmium toxicity from a freshwater system

'Choosing Wisely' movement: Off to a good start, but change needed for continued success
Five years ago, a group of medical organizations did something they'd never done before: give doctors a list of things they shouldn't do for their patients.

The problem with being pretty
While good-looking people are generally believed to receive more favorable treatment in the hiring process, when it comes to applying for less desirable jobs, such as those with low pay or uninteresting work, attractiveness may be a liability, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

'Gentle' dying -- or suicide?
When terminally ill patients wish to hasten death by fasting, should physicians assist them to do so?

Kent State professor receives NSF grant to develop eye-tracking software
Jonathan Maletic, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Computer Science in the College of Arts and Sciences at Kent State University, has received a three-year, $290,610 grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to help support basic research on how programmers write and develop large-scale software systems.

Prehospital blood transfusion among combat casualties associated with improved survival
Among medically evacuated US military combat causalities in Afghanistan, blood product transfusion within minutes of injury or prior to hospitalization was associated with greater 24-hour and 30-day survival than delayed or no transfusion, according to a study published by JAMA.

Anticipating aftershocks
Researchers from the US Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center used the Stampede1 and 2 supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to complete one of the world's largest earthquake simulation models: The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3).

NIH BRAIN Initiative launches cell census
A catalog of the brain's

How the financial press influences investors' opinion and behavior
Researchers at the University of Luxembourg have found that the financial press can have detrimental or positive effects on the behaviour of investors and their opinion on the economy as a result of the language used in reporting.
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