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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 30, 2017


Both the aggressor and the victim: alarming number of teens cyberbully themselves
A new form of self-harm in youth has emerged and is cause for concern.
Making glass invisible
By texturing glass surfaces with nanosized features, scientists almost completely eliminated surface reflections -- an achievement that could enhance solar cell efficiency, improve consumers' experience with electronic displays, and support high-power laser applications.
Financial ties of medical journal editors should be disclosed: University of Toronto study
Approximately half of the editors of 52 prestigious medical journals received payments from the pharmaceutical and medical device industry in 2014.
People who value virtue show wiser reasoning
From romantic dramas to tensions at work, we're often better at working through other people's problems than our own -- while we may approach our friends' problems with wise, clear-eyed objectivity, we often view our own problems through a personal, flawed, emotional lens.
New tool predicts risk of plant disease and infestation worldwide
Researchers in Mexico have developed a technique to predict the risk of disease or infestation in plants.
Breastfeeding for two months halves risk of SIDS, study finds
Breastfeeding for at least two months cuts a baby's risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome almost in half, a sweeping new international study has found.
Review finds poor compliance with helmet use in baseball and softball
Despite lower rates of traumatic brain injuries in baseball and softball, there is poor compliance overall with helmet use and return-to-play guidelines following a concussion across all levels of play, according to a new systematic review.
Immigrants living in the country without authorization at risk for anxiety and depression
Nearly a quarter of Mexican immigrants who live near the California-Mexico border without legal authorization have a mental disorder, particularly depression or anxiety.
Nanoscale platform aims to control protein levels
A nanoscale antibody first found in camels combined with a protein-degrading molecule is an effective new platform to control protein levels in cells, according to Rice University scientists.
High burden, high cost and low awareness of kidney disease in the United States
The United States Renal Data System 2017 report highlights current trends in kidney disease in the nation.
Cochrane review looks at the effectiveness and side effects of mefloquine
Researchers from LSTM Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group publish two systematic reviews this week about the safety of mefloquine (Lariam) for preventing malaria in travellers.
Albert Einstein teams find 89 percent of hispanic women use herbal remedies
A new study comparing use of herbal remedies among Hispanic women and non-Hispanic white women showed higher than expected use of herbal treatments by both groups, 89% and 81%, respectively.
EU research consortium LipiDiDiet finds a way to impact Alzheimer's disease before it's too late
Full results from the European LipiDiDiet clinical trial were published online today in The Lancet Neurology.
Smart artificial beta cells could lead to new diabetes treatment
Treating type 1 diabetes and some cases of type 2 diabetes has long required painful and frequent insulin injections or a mechanical insulin pump for insulin infusion.
Social media data use needs tighter research controls, experts say
Information shared on social media is being regularly used in research projects without users' consent, a study from the University of Edinburgh suggests.
Important mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation identified
How can defective gene activity, which can ultimately lead to cancer, be avoided?
Jupiter's X-ray auroras pulse independently
Jupiter's intense northern and southern lights pulse independently of each other according to new UCL-led research using ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra X-ray observatories.
Sight unseen
Research led by scientists from Harvard Medical School reveals
Research shows how environment plays key role in changing movement behavior of animals
University of Leicester mathematicians develop theory which helps to unravel long-standing mysteries of animal movement.
Bears not bothered by diet high in saturated fats
A new study found that captive bears fed a diet high in saturated fats and low in
Driving drug resistance out of fungi
A collaborative team at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, has developed a CRISPR-Cas9-based 'gene drive' platform to create diploid strains of the pathogen in which both gene copies could be efficiently deleted.
Spider silk could be used to power microphones in hearing aids, cell phones
Would you want a spider web inside your ear? Probably not.
Umbilical cord blood improves motor skills in some children with cerebral palsy
An infusion of cells from a child's own umbilical cord blood appears to improve brain connectivity and motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy, according to a randomized clinical trial published this week by Stem Cells Translational Medicine.
Tsunami reveals human noise pollution in Hawaiian waters
Spinner dolphins in bays along Hawaii's Kona Coast are subjected to underwater sound levels more than 16 times louder than natural due to noise pollution from ecotourism, sonar exercises and other human activities in the bays, a Duke University-led study finds.
Virtual reality reduces phantom pain in paraplegics
Virtual reality reduces phantom body pain in paraplegics and creates the illusion that they can feel their paralyzed legs being touched again.
Fish oil or fish consumption? New recommendations for pregnant women trying to prevent childhood asthma
Consuming 2-3 servings of fish a week during pregnancy prevents childhood asthma just as much as fish oil supplements.
Researchers show how nanoscale patterning can decrease metal fatigue
Fatigue due to repetitive strain is the leading cause of failure in metal components and structures, but new research shows how crystalline structures called nanotwins can slow the accumulation of fatigue-related damage.
Under pressure
UCSB postdoctoral scholar Erin Meyer-Gutbrod shows that right whales, already an endangered species, may face a dim future.
Feinstein Institute discovery challenges belief about brain's cellular makeup
A discovery made by Junhwan Kim, PhD, assistant professor at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, is challenging science's longstanding beliefs regarding the cellular makeup of the brain.
UT professor studies effects of medicaid expansion
UT social work professor Sunha Choi recently published an article in Population Health Management on the effects of Medicaid expansion on low-income individuals' access to health care.
Surprising monkey study: Bad times do not cause group members to change behavior
Researchers have observed an unexpected behavioral pattern in monkeys in Puerto Rico.
3-D 'scaffold' map to help the search for new cancer treatments
Researchers have produced the first three-dimensional (3-D) map of a molecular 'scaffold' called SgK223, known to play a critical role in the development and spread of aggressive breast, colon and pancreatic cancers.
Focused ultrasound shows promise for treating Parkinson's tremor
An initial test to determine if a scalpel-free form of brain surgery can reduce tremor caused by Parkinson's disease has produced encouraging results.
Satellite animation shows Tropical Storm Philippe absorbed by frontal system
NOAA's GOES-East satellite provided days of infrared and visible imagery that showed the quick development and demise of Tropical Storm Philippe in the Atlantic Ocean.
Long-term aspirin use reduces the incidence of digestive cancers by up to 47 percent
In a study involving over 600,000 people, those prescribed with aspirin showed a 47 percent reduction in liver and esophageal cancer incidence, a 38 percent reduction in gastric cancer incidence, a 34 percent reduction in pancreatic cancer incidence and a 24 percent reduction in colorectal cancer incidence.
Scientists discover surprising immune cell activity that may be limiting immunotherapy
Researchers have uncovered a surprising process within a key immune cell that may help explain the limitations of immunotherapy as a cancer treatment.
Less than half of patients prescribed new cholesterol drug receive insurance approval
In the largest study of its kind, less than half of patients prescribed the new class of cholesterol drugs, PCSK9 inhibitors, received insurance approval even if patients had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (plaque build-up of the arteries) or markedly elevated bad cholesterol.
It's mathematically impossible to beat aging, scientists say
Current understanding of the evolution of aging leaves open the possibility that aging could be stopped if only science could figure out a way to make selection between organisms perfect.
Bonding benefits of breastfeeding extend years beyond infancy
Women who breastfeed their children longer exhibit more maternal sensitivity well past the infant and toddler years, according to a 10-year longitudinal study published by the American Psychological Association.
Bacteria eradication reduces gastric cancer risk by 22 percent in over-60s, new research shows
The research analyzed the risk of gastric cancer development in a large group of individuals who had received antibiotic therapy to treat H. pylori infection.
Research aims to help renewable jet fuel take flight
The International Air Transport Association predicts that 7.2 billion passengers will fly in 2035, nearly doubling the 3.8 billion in 2016.
Competitive divers face high risk of back, shoulder and other injuries
Competitive divers face a high risk of injuring their shoulders, back, elbows, wrists and other body parts, according to a report by a Loyola Medicine sports medicine physician.
Satellite shows Post-tropical Cyclone Selma dissipate
NOAA's GOES East satellite provided an image of Post-Tropical Cyclone Selma as it dissipated near the border of El Salvador and Honduras.
Work-family balance can tip wrong way for some young doctors
Female medical interns are more likely to suffer from symptoms of depression than their male counterparts, and the conflict between work and family responsibilities is a factor in that gender difference about a third of the time.
For older adults with diabetes, losing weight with diet, exercise can improve circulation
Type 2 diabetes affects blood circulation. When blood flow in the brain is impaired, it can affect the way we think and make decisions.
Are the grandkids worth it? Climate change policy depends on how we value human population
Protecting future generations from environmental destruction depends on how society values human population.
The relentless rise of migration in Europe over last 10,000 years
Three major pulses of increased mobility in Europe over the last 10,000 years and a general upward trend in migration have been uncovered in a new study led by researchers from UCL, University of Cambridge and King's College London.
New approach for treatment of contact allergy
Researchers from the University of Bonn have isolated a molecule that is suitable for the control of contact allergies.
MIT Study: Long-term states of mind can affect short-term financial decisions
A new study by an MIT economist sheds more light on the quirks of people's actions in such cases and suggests that, in addition to immediate financial needs, persistent behavioral characteristics play a key role in even short-term pocketbook decisions.
Cobalt and tungsten -- the key to cheaper, cleaner hydrogen
Researchers at the Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) and Rovira and Virgili University (URV, both in Tarragona, Spain) presented their results in the prestigious scientific journal 'Nature Chemistry'.
Rousing masses to fight cancer with open source machine learning
Sharing is caring in the fight against cancer with this new open source software project to predict cancer drug effectiveness.
Moving neuroscience into the fast lane
Scientists at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan have developed a high-throughput system to study mouse behavior and physiology.
Studies reveal characteristics of bone and tendon injuries incurred by Olympic athletes
Female athletes participating in the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro were more likely to experience bone stress injuries in their lower extremities while competing in track and field compared to other events.
Despite improvements, death rates from lupus remain disproportionately high
Despite improving trends in mortality, death rates from systematic lupus erythematosus (lupus) remain high compared to those in the general population, and disparities persist between subpopulations and geographic regions.
Native trees, shrubs provide more food for birds
Plant native trees and shrubs in your yard, and you can really help songbirds.
Societies detail treatment for patients with ventricular arrhythmias
The American College of Cardiology, along with the American Heart Association and the Heart Rhythm Society, today published new guidelines for the treatment of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death.
Right-handed baseball players more successful when batting left-handed
It is known that baseball players who bat left-handed are overrepresented in the sport.
New studies on disordered cathodes may provide much-needed jolt to lithium batteries
In a pair of papers published this month in Nature Communications and Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has come up with a set of rules for making new disordered materials, a process that had previously been driven by trial-and-error.
UTHealth researchers' intriguing study
Researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) School of Dentistry and McGovern Medical School have discovered a previously unknown characteristic of brain-cell aging that could help detect late-onset Alzheimer's disease decades before symptoms begin.
Helping smokers quit: Payments, personalized support can work
A new study found that smokers who received financial incentives, in addition to personalized support, to help them quit were more successful than smokers who did not receive these interventions.
VIMS study may add to resource managers' toolbox
A study by researchers at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science suggests fish 'condition' can help guide management efforts for Chesapeake Bay.
Red Sea is warming faster than global average
The world's warmest sea is heating up faster than the global average, which could challenge the ability of the Red Sea's organisms to cope.
Quantum dots visualize tiny vibrational resonances
When laser light is used to drive the motion of a thin, rigid membrane, the membrane vibrates in resonance with the light.
UA Cancer Center research team explores anti-breast cancer properties of soy
Genistein, a major compound in soy foods, might aid in the proper functioning of a gene that can malfunction to cause breast cancer.
Research pinpoints powerful biomarker of ,ultiple sclerosis
A breakthrough study led by the University of Sydney's Brain and Mind Centre and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital has revealed unique molecules in the blood of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) that could become definitive diagnostic biomarkers of the world's most common neurologic disability in young adults.
Less fat, more hair and younger skin: Study shows benefits from calorie-restricted diet
A research conducted by Brazilian scientists and published in Cell Reports shows that mice subjected to the diet presented body fat reduction and fur production increase.
Intake of pesticide residue from fruits, vegetables and infertility treatment outcomes
Eating more fruits and vegetables with high-pesticide residue was associated with a lower probability of pregnancy and live birth following infertility treatment for women using assisted reproductive technologies.
Voltage-driven liquid metal fractals
Researchers from North Carolina State University have found that gallium indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal with one of the highest surface tensions, can be induced to spread and form patterns called fractals with the application of low voltage.
CCNY study reveals power supply might not be as vulnerable to climate change as we thought
Here's a bit of surprising news. A closer look at how climate change could impact our power supply shows that America's infrastructure might be more adaptable than scientists anticipated.
Building a sustainable future: Urgent action needed
We need to act urgently to increase the energy efficiency of our buildings as the world's emerging middle classes put increasing demands on our planet's energy resources.
White rot fungi's size explained by breadth of gene families involved
Armillaria fungi are among the most devastating fungal pathogens, causing root rot disease in more than 500 plant species found in forests, parks and vineyards.
Scientists penetrate mystery of raging black hole beams
They are nature's very own Death Star beams -- ultra-powerful jets of energy that shoot out from the vicinity of black holes like deadly rays from the Star Wars super-weapon.
Minor merger kicks supermassive black hole into high gear
A team of researchers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and the Open University of Japan used the Subaru Telescope to study the galaxy M77, which is famous for its super-active nucleus that releases enormous energy.
Sulfur respiration in mammals
Researchers have gained new insight into the formation of a group of compounds found in almost all organisms, which are reportedly shown to be a powerful antioxidant that protects cells from damage by free radicals.
Food should be marketed as a 'meal' rather than a 'snack' to avoid overeating
Marketing food as a 'snack' leads to increased consumption and continued overeating, a new study in the journal Appetite reports.
Researchers discover cause of brain sensitivity to lack of oxygen
Researchers at Maastricht University Medical Center and Maastricht University have discovered why the brain is more sensitive to oxygen deprivation than other organs.
NASA sees Tropical Storm Philippe off Florida coast
Tropical Depression 18 had strengthened into Tropical Storm Philippe and on Sunday, Oct.
Monster colliding black holes might lurk on the edge of spiral galaxies
The outskirts of spiral galaxies like our own could be crowded with colliding black holes of massive proportions and a prime location for scientists hunting the sources of gravitational waves, said Rochester Institute of Technology researchers.
3-D-printed device builds better nanofibers
In the latest issue of the journal Nanotechnology, MIT researchers describe a new device for producing nanofiber meshes, which matches the production rate and power efficiency of its best-performing predecessor --- but significantly reduces variation in the fibers' diameters, an important consideration in most applications
Examining potatoes' past could improve spuds of the future
Examining the ancestors of the modern, North American cultivated potato has revealed a set of common genes and important genetic pathways that have helped spuds adapt over thousands of years.
Genetic study uncovers evolutionary history of dingoes
A major study of dingo DNA has revealed dingoes most likely migrated to Australia in two separate waves via a former land bridge with Papua New Guinea.
Early childhood adversities linked to health problems in tweens, teens
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a pathway in the brain that seems to connect exposure to adverse experiences during early childhood with depression and problems with physical health in teens and preteens.
Wristband devices detect dangerous seizures in patients with epilepsy
New research published in Epilepsia, a journal of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), indicates that wristband devices may improve the detection and characterization of seizures in patients with epilepsy.
Depression is on the rise in the US, especially among young teens
Depression is on the rise in the United States. From 2005 to 2015, depression rose significantly among Americans age 12 and older with the most rapid increases seen in young people.
The advent of 'green' cattle
Implications of livestock farming on climate change should not be drawn from aggregate statistics, reveals a study based on a new method of carbon footprinting for pasture-based cattle production systems that can assess the impacts of individual animals.
Liquids take a shine to terahertz radiation
In a significant breakthrough, scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai have devised a high power radiation source in the much sought after terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
NASA sees extra-tropical storm Saola moving by Japan
Former Tropical Storm Saola transitioned into an extra-tropical storm on Oct.
Study suggests the US' power supply has capacity to adapt to climate change
A new paper written by City University of New York (CUNY) scientists -- 'Climate and Water Resource Change Impacts and Adaptation Potential for U.S.
Political views have limited impact on how we perceive climate anomalies, study finds
Individual perceptions of climate anomalies are largely immune to political bias, especially when people observe large and persistent departures from average conditions.
Graphene enables high-speed electronics on flexible materials
A flexible detector for terahertz frequencies (1,000 gigahertz) has been developed by Chalmers researchers using graphene transistors on plastic substrates.
UNIST unveils new fast-charging, high-energy electric-car battery technology
An international team of researchers, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has presented a novel hydrogen isotope separation system based on a porous metal organic framework (MOF).
Cover crops provide bed and breakfast layover for migrating birds
After harvesting a corn or soybean crop, farmers may plant a cover crop for a variety of reasons -- to reduce soil erosion and nutrient runoff, increase organic matter in the soil, and improve water quality.
How flu shot manufacturing forces influenza to mutate
According to a new study from scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the common practice of growing influenza vaccine components in chicken eggs disrupts the major antibody target site on the virus surface, rendering the flu vaccine less effective in humans.
Group exercise improves quality of life, reduces stress far more than individual work outs
Group exercise participants showed significant improvements in all three quality of life measures: mental (12.6 percent), physical (24.8 percent) and emotional (26 percent).
Wait a minute! Clamping the umbilical cord later saves preterm babies' lives
Thousands of preterm babies could be saved by waiting 60 seconds before clamping the umbilical cord after birth instead of clamping it immediately -- according to two international studies coordinated by the University of Sydney's National Health and Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Centre.
Combatting viruses: Code breakers turn code writers
Researchers who successfully cracked a code that governs infections by a major group of viruses have gone a step further, creating their own artificial code.
E-cigarette use by high school students linked to cigarette smoking
Use of e-cigarettes by high school students was strongly associated with later cigarette smoking, according to a large study conducted in two Canadian provinces and published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Minorities less likely to have breast reconstruction, but not for the reason many think
Minority women are far less likely to undergo breast reconstruction than white women, even if they live in the same area and have similar insurance.
Willingness to take risks -- a personality trait
People differ in their willingness to take risks. An individual's propensity for risk taking can also vary across domains.
CMU and Pitt brain imaging science identifies individuals with suicidal thoughts
Researchers have developed an innovative and promising approach to identify suicidal individuals by analyzing the alterations in how their brains represent certain concepts, such as death, cruelty and trouble.
Results from the EXCEL QOL study reported at TCT 2017 and published simultaneously in JACC
New study results from the EXCEL trial comparing the quality of life (QoL) of patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) found significant and similar QoL improvement at three years, although a greater benefit was observed with PCI at one month.
Montessori preschool boosts academic results and reduces income-based inequality
US researchers find that children in Montessori preschools show improved academic performance and social understanding, while enjoying their school work more.
Microscopic defects make batteries better
Defects in a common cathode material for lithium-ion batteries can potentially improve performance over
Spooky conservation: Saving endangered species over our dead bodies
The secret to the survival of critically endangered wildlife could lie beyond the grave, according to a University of Queensland researcher.
'Precision medicine' for cancer patients may not always be so precise
A new study finds that precision medicine for oncology -- genetic testing to determine the best drug treatment for each cancer patient -- is not always so precise when applied to people of non-European descent.

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