Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 10, 2017
Uneven growth in US medical and health R&D investments across sectors
Total US investment in medical and health R&D in the US grew by 20.6% from 2013 to 2016 led by industry and the federal government, according to US Investments in Medical and Health Research and Development, a new report from Research!America.

Russian chemists discovered a surprising effect of a well-known leukemia drug
Researchers from RUDN University and Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have identified an alternative mechanism for the effective antitumor drug -- an enzyme called L-asparaginase.

Research highlights ethical sourcing of materials for modern technology
Researchers from the Camborne School of Mines have identified methods to predict the environmental and social cost of resourcing new deposits of rare earth minerals used in the production of mobile phones, wind turbines and electric vehicles.

Scientists investigate how different houses and lifestyles affect which bugs live with us
Humans have lived under the same roof with bugs since we first began building shelters 20,000 years ago.

Patients with depression and advanced cancer survive longer with palliative care intervention
A new Dartmouth-led study finds that patients with depression and advanced cancer live longer when exposed to palliative care interventions designed to improve quality of life.

Ludwig researchers uncover novel mechanism by which tumors evade cancer immunotherapies
A Ludwig Cancer Research study led by Benoit Van den Eynde, Director of Ludwig Brussels, has identified a novel mechanism by which tumors of the aggressive skin cancer melanoma can resist cancer immunotherapy.

Smell test challenge suggests clinical benefit for some before development of Alzheimer's
In a new study, researchers have determined that a declining sense of smell may be able to identify patients with mild cognitive impairment that could respond to certain drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

The end of 'Pump Fiction'
Our cells move energy and matter to the places it is needed.

Both obese and anorexic women have low levels of 'feel good' neurosteroid
Women at opposite extremes of the weight spectrum have low levels of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone, according to new research published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

Brain chemistry study shows chronic fatigue syndrome, Gulf War illness as unique disorders
Researchers have found distinct molecular signatures in two brain disorders long thought to be psychological in origin -- chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Gulf War Illness (GWI).

How a 'shadow zone' traps the world's oldest ocean water
New research from an international team has revealed why the oldest water in the ocean in the North Pacific has remained trapped in a shadow zone around 2km below the sea surface for over 1000 years.

Crunch time for food security
Insects have been a valuable source of nutritional protein for centuries, as both food and feed.

Common genetic fusion event may be associated with low-risk prostate cancer
Establishing the way in which a genetic alteration called a TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion forms in a prostate cancer, rather than the presence of the gene fusion itself, could help identify patients with prostate cancer with a low risk of spreading, which might determine the best course of treatment for the patient.

Cancer immunotherapy uses melanin against melanoma
Researchers have developed a melanin-enhanced cancer immunotherapy technique that can also serve as a vaccine, based on early experiments done in a mouse model.

Sleep Apnea may increase risk of developing Alzheimer's disease
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may put elderly people at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Effective interventions needed to tackle diabetes prevention in Hispanics
A new study finds that diabetes prevalence varies widely among different Hispanic heritage groups and in different Latin American countries.

Exit through the lymphatic system
ETH Zurich scientists have disproved a decades-old orthodoxy: cerebrospinal fluid does not leave the cranial cavity via blood vessels, but instead through the lymphatic system.

Blue lighting is scientifically proven to help us relax faster than white lighting after an argument
Researchers from the University of Granada say that blue light accelerates the relaxation process after acute psychosocial stress such as arguing with a friend or when someone pressures you to quickly finish some task.

Ink from ancient Egyptian papyri contains copper
Until recently, it was assumed that the ink used for writing was primarily carbon-based at least until the fourth and fifth centuries AD.

Winds blowing off a dying star
Using ALMA, Japanese scientists explain why aluminum oxide is so abundant around AGB stars.

Understanding the Berlin patient's unexpected cure
Researchers have a new way to understand the much-studied Berlin patient's unexpected cure from HIV and improve outcomes of stem cell transplants for patients with other blood-related diseases such as leukemia and sickle-cell disease.

Diagonal methods for expensive global optimization developed by Russian scientists
Russian scientists from Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod have improved the method of global optimization by offering the so-called 'diagonal approach.' The goal of global optimization is essentially to search for optimal solutions in various areas of human activity.

Working to reduce brain injury in newborns
Research-clinicians at Children's National Health System led the first study to identify a promising treatment to reduce or prevent brain injury in newborns who have suffered hypoxia-ischemia, a serious complication in which restricted blood flow deprives the brain of oxygen.

The path length of light in opaque media
A transparent substance will allow the light to travel through on a straight line, in a turbid substance the light will be scattered numerous times, travelling on more complicated zig-zag trajectories.

Insomnia linked to alcohol-use among adolescents, says Rutgers University-Camden
'Parents, educators, and therapists should consider insomnia to be a risk marker for alcohol use, and alcohol use a risk marker for insomnia, among early adolescents,' writes Rutgers-Camden researcher Naomi Marmorstein in the study, published recently in the journal Addictive Behaviors.

HKBU Chinese medicine scholars develop HKBU Chinese medicine scholars develop
Chinese Medicine scholars at Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) have succeeded in developing a novel targeted delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 to achieve therapeutic genome editing of VEGFA in osteosarcoma (OS).

Plasma from lasers can shed light on cosmic rays, solar eruptions
A team of researchers led by PPPL physicist Will Fox recently used lasers to create conditions that mimic astrophysical behavior.

Boys could benefit from greater numbers of girls in schools
Boys are more likely to perform well in schools with a higher proportion of girls, shedding new light on why girls continue to outperform boys in many educational subjects.

Green rooves to reduce the effects of climate change
it would be necessary to have between 207 and 740 hectares of green rooves in a city like Seville (Spain), depending on the scenario that is contemplated, to reduce the effects of climate change in relation to the maximum temperature rises of between 1.5 and 6 ÂșC that are estimated by the end of the century.

Engaging children in math at home equals a boost in more than just math skills
Preschool children who engage in math activities at home with their parents not only improve their math skills, but also their general vocabulary, according to research from Purdue University.

Promising sensors for submarines, mines and spacecraft
Researchers from the Physics Department of Moscow State University and their colleagues have discovered a mechanism that allows gas sensors, based on nanocrystalline metal oxides, to work at room temperature.

Factors in the fabrication of heterojunctions of 2D-materials through CVD
The results of recent researches on the fabrication of heterojunctions of 2D-materials through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are reviewed.

No-growth economy could mean fewer crashes and higher wages, study shows
An economy based on zero growth could be more stable -- experiencing fewer crashes -- and bring higher wages, suggests a new University of Sussex study.

NIH study finds donor corneas can be safely preserved for longer period
Results from a large, national clinical trial show that corneal donor tissue can be safely stored for 11 days without negatively impacting the success of transplantation surgery to restore vision in people with diseases of the cornea.

Site of asteroid impact changed the history of life
The impact of the asteroid heated organic matter in rocks and ejected it into the atmosphere, forming soot in the stratosphere.

HKU researchers generate tomatoes with enhanced antioxidant properties by genetic engineering
The School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, the University of Hong Kong (HKU), in collaboration with the Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes (CNRS, Strasbourg, France), has identified a new strategy to simultaneously enhance health-promoting vitamin E by ~6-fold and double both provitamin A and lycopene contents in tomatoes, to significantly boost antioxidant properties.

New wake-promoting node pinpointed in brain
Neurologists had suspected that a component of the 'ascending arousal system' could be found in this part of the brain for more than 100 years.

Researchers exploit rhythm of DNA replication to kill cancer cells
Human cells divide and create new cells throughout life. In this process, a steady -- even rhythmic -- supply of DNA building blocks is needed to create new DNA.

Biomarker may predict early Alzheimer's disease
Researchers at SBP have identified a peptide that could lead to the early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

UK and EU action plans should 'lose jargon' in a bid to win the battle with 'sup
One of the UK's leading microbiologists is concerned that confusing language and a lack of specific objectives are hampering the global fight against antibiotic-resistant infections.

Metal membranes in construction: From Russia with love
RUDN University professor brought together disparate information about metal membrane suspended roofs, that allow designing buildings with large spans.

Mass. panel reviews cataract surgery adverse events, makes recommendations for prevention
A team of specialists in anesthesiology, ophthalmology and patient safety convened in response to a series of injuries to patients receiving cataract surgery has reported its findings regarding factors contributing to those and other adverse events and strategies for preventing patient harm in such procedures.

Nitric oxide: Experimental analysis of its role in brain tissue in simulated ischemia
A joint study conducted by scientists at the National Academy of Sciences in Belarus and Kazan Federal University in Russia, looks at the role of nitric oxide (NO) in brain tissue in simulated ischemia in rats.

Genetic treatment for blindness may soon be reality
Patients who had lost their sight to an inherited retinal disease could see well enough to navigate a maze after being treated with a new gene therapy, according to research presented today at AAO 2017, the 121st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

World Science Forum 2017 Jordan issues Science for Peace Declaration
On behalf of the coordinating organizations responsible for delivering the World Science Forum Jordan, the concluding Science for Peace Declaration issued at the Dead Sea represents a global call for action to science and society to build a future that promises greater equality, security and opportunity for all, and in which science plays an increasingly prominent role as an enabler of fair and sustainable development.
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