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Science News and Current Events for November 13, 2017


AI tool quantifies power imbalance between female and male characters in Hollywood movies
UW researchers who used machine learning tools to analyze language in 800 Hollywood movie scripts found subtle but widespread gender bias in the amount of power and agency given to male and female characters.
Exercise increases brain size, new research finds
Aerobic exercise can improve memory function and maintain brain health as we age, a new Australian-led study has found.
Record high CO2 emissions delay global peak
Global carbon emissions are on the rise again in 2017 after three years of little to no growth, according to University of East Anglia researcher.
Secret alter ego of well-known protein fights leaky blood vessels
Scientists at the Wyss Institute set out to solve the mystery of how the force of blood flowing through arteries and veins helps keep the cells that line them healthy and, to their surprise, discovered a completely new cell signaling pathway involving the well-known transmembrane protein Notch1.
Another reason to exercise: Protecting your sight
People who engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity may be able to significantly lower their risk of glaucoma, according to research presented today at AAO 2017, the 121st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Scientists update their 'warning to humanity' on its 25th anniversary
In 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists and some 1700 leading scientists issued the 'World Scientists' Warning to Humanity.' That letter has now been updated to reflect humanity's successes and failures in managing the biosphere.
Exposure to benzene during pregnancy: a pilot study raises concerns in British Columbia
Université de Montréal research reveals that 29 pregnant women living near natural-gas hydraulic fracturing sites had a median concentration of a benzene biomarker in their urine that was 3.5 times higher than that found in women from the general Canadian population.
Researchers rethink how 'beige' fat cells burn calories
It has been known for decades that low temperatures can trigger specialized fat cells to burn energy to produce heat, but in a new study, UC San Francisco researchers have discovered a new heat-producing pathway in fat cells that works by burning excess blood glucose, suggesting a potential new approach to treating metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Combating Trump administration threat to environmental justice data: A progress report
The Environmental Data and Governance Initiative (EDGI) was formed in November 2016 to respond to the threat posed by the new Trump Administration to environmental data, environmental policies, and federal environmental agencies.
Driving the conversation: FSU researcher finds media impacts public expression
The five-year study, scheduled for publication in the journal Science on Nov.
What can Twitter reveal about people with ADHD?
People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder tend to tweet using words like 'hate' or 'disappointed,' messages related to lack of focus, self-regulation, intention and failure and expressions of mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, according to research from the University of Pennsylvania.
Harder for T cells to fight cancer in absence of VEGF-A
Contrary to what was previously believed, the immune system's cancer-killing T cells are more effective in a tumour's anoxic environment when they have access to growth factor VEGF-A.
Scalable clusters make HPC R&D easy as Raspberry Pi
A quest to help the systems software community work on very large supercomputers without having to actually test on them has spawned an affordable, scalable system using thousands of inexpensive Raspberry Pi nodes.
Epigenetic editing reveals surprising insights into early breast cancer development
Changing the epigenetic code of a single gene is enough to cause a healthy breast cell to begin a chain reaction and become abnormal, according to research by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
People will desire something even more if you increase their focus on it
The relationship between desire and attention was long thought to only work in one direction: When a person desires something, they focus their attention on it.
Improving the neuron factory -- new modulator of stem cell identity found
Since their discovery in 2006, induced pluripotent stem cells are a glimmer of hope for many diseases.
How to manage forest pests in the Anthropocene? Bring theory.
A survivor's guide to why forests around the world are being impacted by invasive pests and what can be done about it in an era of overwhelming human activity and climate change.
At-home vision monitoring app may improve patient care
Patients with age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy who used a mobile application to test their vision at home got comparable results to in-office vision testing, according to research presented today at AAO 2017, the 121st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
More adults use marijuana in states where it is legal
Daily use of marijuana as well as past month rates rose for both men and women aged 26 and older in states with medical marijuana laws in effect.
High-efficiency building bloopers revealed through WSU led occupant studies
Many researchers know that new high-efficiency buildings don't typically get used as intended.
Annual influenza vaccination does not prevent natural immunity
Earlier studies have suggested that having repeated annual influenza vaccination can prevent natural immunity to the virus, and potentially increase the susceptibility to influenza illness in the event of a pandemic, or when the vaccine does not 'match' the virus circulating in the community.
Researchers create largest, longest multiphysics earthquake simulation to date
A multi-disciplinary team of researchers from LMU and TUM in Munich simulated the largest, longest multiphysics earthquake simulation to date at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre.
CRISPR-carrying nanoparticles edit the genome
MIT researchers have developed nanoparticles that allow for CRISPR genome-editing in adult animals.
Global carbon dioxide emissions projected to rise after three stable years
A new report provides an in-depth look at the amount of fossil fuels that nations around the world burn and where it ends up.
Next-generation optogenetic molecules control single neurons
Researchers at MIT and Paris Descartes University have developed a new optogenetic technique that allows them stimulate individual neurons with precise control over both the location and timing of the activation.
Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the perceived
Chapman University has published research measuring women's perceptions of how media impacts their body image.
Your stress and mine
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that people often project their own experiences with stress onto their colleagues and employees, causing miscommunication and, often, missed opportunities.
Global emissions inching up after years of flat growth
An international research team reports that the increase in global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels has resumed after a 3-year respite and may increase again next year.
Poison-ivy an unlikely hero in warding off exotic invaders?
The invasive Japanese knotweed causes much more severe damage to floodplain forests along the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, USA, than previously thought, report Bucknell University biology professor Chris Martine and his two student co-authors.
Scientists to brief UNFCCC's Patricia Espinosa on climate tipping points
The Earth statement will be officially launched at a briefing event with the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Patricia Espinosa.
How bacteria get their groove: Mechanism behind flagellar motility
Most motile bacteria move by the use of flagella. While the flagellar motor components have been identified, it remains unclear how they are assembled and activated.
Sex poses little risk of triggering sudden cardiac arrest
Worried whether your heart health is strong enough for sex?
Study finds racial disparities in gun-related eye trauma in the United States
A review of patients who suffered firearms-related eye trauma shows significant disparities in race, location, and circumstance, according to research presented today at AAO 2017, the 121st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
High cognitive ability not a safeguard from conspiracies, paranormal beliefs
A University of Illinois at Chicago social psychologist reports on two studies that examined why some people are inclined to believe in various conspiracies and paranormal phenomena.
Hair cortisol levels predict which mothers are more likely to suffer postpartum depression
UGR researchers have proven that hair cortisol levels, which is a steroid hormone secreted as a response to stress, are higher in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy for those women that will later suffer postpartum depression
The unbelievable speed of electron emission from an atom
In a unique experiment, researchers have clocked how long it takes for an electron to be emitted from an atom.
Researchers find first wild alligator snapping turtle in Illinois since 1984
Researchers report the first sighting in 30 years of a wild alligator snapping turtle in Illinois.
Supercomputing speeds up deep learning training
Researchers from UC Berkeley, UC Davis and TACC used Stampede2 to complete a 100-epoch ImageNet deep neural network training in 11 minutes -- the fastest time recorded to date.
Zipping DNA
ETH researchers have developed a method that allows large amounts of genetic information to be compressed and then decompressed again in cells.
Neutrons probe oxygen-generating enzyme for a greener approach to clean water
A new study sheds light on a unique enzyme that could provide an eco-friendly treatment for chlorite-contaminated water supplies and improve water quality worldwide.
Blood test spots overdose patients at risk of liver damage
People who overdose on paracetamol could be helped by a blood test that shows immediately if they are going to suffer liver damage, research led by the universities of Edinburgh and Liverpool has found.
Genetic engineering mechanism visualized
Researchers at Kanazawa University and the University of Tokyo report in Nature Communications the visualization of the dynamics of 'molecular scissors' -- the main mechanism of the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic-engineering technique.
When water met iron deep inside the Earth, did it create conditions for life?
Reservoirs of oxygen-rich iron between the Earth's core and mantle could have played a major role in Earth's history, including the breakup of supercontinents, drastic changes in Earth's atmospheric makeup, and the creation of life, according to recent work from an international research team published in National Science Review.
Cholera: The link between the world's major outbreaks leads to better control strategies
Researchers at the Institut Pasteur and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, in collaboration with international institutions, recently published two studies tracing the history of cholera outbreaks from the last 60 years.
Duo of titanic galaxies captured in extreme starbursting merger
ALMA has uncovered the never-before-seen close encounter between two astoundingly bright and spectacularly massive galaxies in the early universe.
Photopolymerization-triggered molecular motion for flexible liquid crystal display
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and McGill University have developed a new dye-free photoalignment method that enables 2-D patterns of liquid crystals in one step by guiding nonpolarized light temporally and spatially on the photopolymerization process.
CMU software assembles RNA transcripts more accurately
Computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a more accurate computational method for reconstructing the full-length nucleotide sequences of the RNA products in cells, called transcripts, that transform information from a gene into proteins or other gene products.
Ben-Gurion U. researchers camouflage an optical chip rendering it invisible
The researachers showed that it is possible to bend the light around an object located on the cloak on an optical chip.
Eating regular variety of nuts associated with lower risk of heart disease
People who regularly eat nuts, including peanuts, walnuts and tree nuts, have a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease compared to people who never or almost never eat nuts, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
New mechanisms discovered that bacteria use to protect themselves from antibiotics
Researchers at the University of Birmingham have identified new mechanisms used by bacteria to resist infection-fighting antibiotics.
Regenerative medicine in society: Interdisciplinary perspectives
A new two-part Special Focus Issue from the leading MEDLINE-indexed journal Regenerative Medicine explores research and perspectives on key issues impacting innovation within the field.
Increased risk of vascular dementia in heart attack survivors
It is well known that vascular dementia is triggered by factors such as stroke, but an extensive study from Aarhus University, Denmark, now shows that heart attack also is associated with increased risk -- by 35 per cent, in fact.
Researchers identify hormone for treating sepsis
A research team led by a biomedical scientist at UC Riverside has discovered that the human protein resistin could be used to treat sepsis, the body's extreme and uncontrolled immune response to an infection.
Seals, birds and humans compete for fish in the Baltic Sea
In Sweden and in other parts of Europe there are concerns that seals and birds compete with humans for fish resources.
Gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes will be spotted within 10 years
New research published November 13 in Nature Astronomy predicts that gravitational waves generated by the merger of two supermassive black holes -- the strongest gravitational waves in the universe -- will be detected within 10 years.
Researchers put new spin on old technique to engineer better absorptive materials
A team of University of Illinois bioengineers has taken a new look at an old tool to help characterize a class of materials called metal organic frameworks -- MOFs for short.
Biocatalysts are a bridge to greener, more powerful chemistry
New research from the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute is building a bridge from nature's chemistry to greener, more efficient synthetic chemistry.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm linked to dysregulated tryptophan metabolism, study finds
Researchers have found a link between dysregulated tryptophan metabolism and abdominal aortic aneurysm, a life-threatening vascular disease, according to a new study led by Georgia State University.
Response after single treatment with canakinumab predicts which patients will benefit most
A pre-specified analysis on CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study) that identifies a simple, clinical method to define patient groups most likely to benefit from long-term canakinumab treatment.
VIMS study identifies tipping point for oyster restoration
Study shows that reefs built to reach a foot or more above the bottom develop into healthy, self-sustaining ecosystems, while those rebuilt at lower heights are quickly buried by sediment.
Memory complaints and cognitive decline: Data from the GuidAge study
A memory complaint, also called Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD), is a subjective disorder that appears to be relatively common, especially in elderly persons.
PharmaMar presents positive results from a Phase II study of PM1183 in Ewing's sarcoma
PharmaMar (MSE:PHM) has presented positive results from a Phase II study of lurbinectedin in Ewing´s sarcoma at the Connective Tissue Oncology Society´s (CTOS) International Congress that took place in Hawaii from the 8th to the 11th of November.
The anatomy of a cosmic snake reveals the structure of distant galaxies
We have a fair understanding of star formation, from the interstellar matter to the diffuse clouds whose gravitational contraction gives birth to stars.
How #ScientistsWarningtoHumanity signed up 15,000 scientists
Twenty-five years ago, a majority of the world's Nobel Laureates united to sign a warning letter about the Earth; today, scientists have taken grassroots action, with a scorecard -- created in the United States and seeded in Australia going viral and continuing to gain signatures -- showing that of nine areas only one has improved.
Did prolonged breastfeeding reduce risk of asthma, atopic eczema in adolescents?
A breastfeeding program appeared to reduce the development of atopic eczema (an allergic skin response) but not asthma and lung function among children at age 16.
Ancient life form discovered in remote Tasmanian valley
A team of Tasmanian researchers has uncovered rare, living stromatolites deep within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.
Definitive global transfusion study supports patient safety, positive patient outcomes
Lower thresholds for blood transfusions during cardiac surgery have proven to be safe and provide good patient outcomes compared to traditional thresholds, according to the largest research study ever performed in this area.
Study on integrative medicine in military health finds extensive offerings, widespread use
A new study evaluating the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) across the military health system shows that the large majority of military treatment facilities offer at least one type of CAM, and an estimated 76,000 military patients receive integrative health services each month.
Uncovering a reversible master switch for development
In a paper published in Genes & Development, BWH principal investigator Mitzi Kuroda, PhD, and her team identified a reversible 'master switch' on most developmental genes.
Breastfeeding does not protect children against asthma and allergies
The effect of breastfeeding on the risk of developing asthma and allergy has been debated for a long time.
Hormone replacement therapy may protect against eye disease
Women who took estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy after ovary removal had a lower risk of developing glaucoma, according to research presented today at AAO 2017, the 121st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Mapping functional diversity of forests with remote sensing
Productivity and stability of forest ecosystems strongly depend on the functional diversity of plant communities.
PCSK9 Inhibitor improves outcomes for patients with peripheral artery disease
A new sub-analysis of the FOURIER clinical trial, however, now offers information on the safety and effectiveness of giving the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab on top of statin therapy to patients with peripheral artery disease.
Exploring the neural mechanisms behind social decision-making, cooperation, and aggression
Humans, primates, and many other animals are innately social, spending much of their lifetimes in the presence of other individuals, but little is known about the neural mechanisms that generate social behaviors.
Researchers fold a protein within a protein
A research team led by a clinician scientist at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, has demonstrated it is possible to fold a protein within an engineered protein shell.
Obesity during pregnancy may lead directly to fetal overgrowth, NIH study suggests
Obesity during pregnancy -- independent of its health consequences such as diabetes -- may account for the higher risk of giving birth to an atypically large infant, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
Scientists make a major breakthrough to treat fibrotic diseases that cause organ failure
Scientists at Duke-NUS and National Heart Centre Singapore make a breakthrough discovery and show that the critical protein interleukin 11 (IL11) causes fibrosis and widespread organ damage
When continents break it gets warm on Earth 
The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere determines whether the Earth is in greenhouse or ice age state.
Remove toxic derivatives of phenol from water? Now that's really easy!
Researchers from RUDN University (Russia) have come up with a new method to convert titanium nanoparticles into an efficient substance capable of removing toxic phenol from water, even in visible light.
The first effective therapy against glioblastoma by attacking telomeres
Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have shown that it is possible to block the growth of human and murine glioblastoma in mouse models by blocking the TRF1 protein; an essential component of the telomere-protective complex.
Parental Medicaid expansion translates into preventive care for their children
When low-income parents enroll in Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) state expansion program, their children have considerably better odds of receiving annual preventive care pediatrician visits.
Expanded networks, faculty mentorship bolster female undergrads' pursuit of geoscience
To retain more undergraduate women in geoscience majors, a supportive network that includes faculty mentorship seems to be a key driver, according to a new study led by Colorado State University.
Hitomi mission glimpses cosmic 'recipe' for the nearby universe
Thanks to an in-depth look into the composition of gas in the Perseus galaxy cluster, Japan's Hitomi mission has given scientists new insights into the stellar explosions that formed its chemical elements.
Molecular magnetism packs power with 'messenger electron'
A UW-Madison lab has made a molecule that gains magnetic strength through an unusual way of controlling those spins, which could lead to a breakthrough in quantam computing.
Simple water test could prevent crippling bone disease
A simple colour-changing test to detect fluoride in drinking water, devised by researchers at the University of Bath, could in the future prevent the crippling bone disease, skeletal fluorosis, in developing countries such as India and Tanzania.
Fuel cell x-ray study details effects of temperature and moisture on performance
To find the right balance of moisture and temperature in a specialized type of hydrogen fuel cell, Berkeley Lab scientists have used X-rays to explore the inner workings of its components at tiny scales.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increases risk of liver, colorectal, and breast cancers
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the more common chronic liver diseases worldwide.
Nano-targeting treatment for prostate cancer
Metastatic or castrate-resistant prostate cancer can spread to the bone in certain patients.
Monopole current offers way to control magnets
Using numerical simulations, the group showed how a magnetic field could be used to control the properties of north and south poles, which are fractionalized from magnetic moments of electrons, on a frustrated magnet called a quantum spin ice.
Study explores how Scotland and Northern Ireland can fulfil aspirations post-Brexit
Significant changes to both the current UK and European Union (EU) constitutional frameworks are 'almost unavoidable' in order to accommodate the very different aspirations of Scotland and Northern Ireland post-Brexit.
A genus of European paper wasps revised for the first time using integrative taxonomy
The European and Mediterranean species of the paper wasp genus Polistes were revised by scientists at the SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München.
Learning from photosynthesis
Hao Yan and Neal Woodbury from ASU's Biodesign Institute and colleagues from Harvard and MIT, explore new methods to capitalize on Nature's light-harvesting secrets.
Infants with extra fingers may receive non-evidence-based, complication-prone treatment
The authors of the study believe surgical excision is the more effective treatment option as it is completed in one visit, typically creates little scarring and rarely leaves painful or unsightly residual tissue.
In the fight against viral infection, spelling counts
Scientists have discovered a peculiarity in the genetic code of HIV that might explain how this and other viruses evolved ways to dodge our immune system.
New tool identifies headache patients at risk of aneurysms in emergency department
A new tool to identify potentially fatal aneurysms in patients with headaches who seem otherwise well will help emergency departments to identify high-risk patients, improve survival rates and cut out unnecessary imaging, according to new research published in CMAJ.
Genes that hold the clues to bladder cancer and its treatment
Scientists have discovered the 'genetic signatures' of the most common form of bladder cancer -- and it could open up the possibility of better-targeted treatment, according to research published today.
Doctors and patients make more decisions together
In a shift away from the more patriarchal/matriarchal relationship between doctor and patient, patients report an increased partnership with their physicians in making medical decisions, reports a new study.
Lobachevsky University scientists create a prototype neural network based on memristors
Lobachevsky University scientists under the supervision of Alexey Mikhailov, Head of the UNN PTRI Laboratory of Thin Film Physics and Technology, are working to develop an adaptive neural interface that combines, on the one hand, a living culture, and on the other, a neural network based on memristors.
Urbanization may have a positive effect on the soils
Soil scientist from RUDN University (Russia) and his colleagues modeled how the expansion of the boundaries of the city of Moscow would affect the rural landscape in the next 30 years.
Why head and face pain causes more suffering
Duke university scientists have discovered why pain from the head and face can be more disruptive, and more emotionally draining, than pain elsewhere in the body.
Distributed cooperative anti-disturbance control of multi-agent systems: An overview
Recently, a review paper concerned on recent progress in distributed cooperative anti-disturbance control (DCADC) of multi-agent systems is published by journal SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences.
Dengue immunity can protect against Zika virus
A study published the Nov. 13, 2017, issue of Nature Communications by La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI) investigator Sujan Shresta, Ph.D., now addresses interplay between dengue and ZIKV infections.
Experts call for ethics rules to protect privacy, free will, as brain implants advance
In a new essay in Nature, Columbia neuroscientist Rafael Yuste joins more than two dozen researchers in calling for ethical guidelines to cover the evolving use of computer hardware and software to enhance or restore human capabilities.
Urban trees are growing faster worldwide
Trees in metropolitan areas have been growing faster than trees in rural areas worldwide since the 1960s.
Cellular network identified that 'short circuits' the antitumor effect of immunotherapies
Wistar researchers discovered a novel form of crosstalk among tumor cells and other cell types in the tumor microenvironment, elucidating the mechanism of action of an immunotherapeutic strategy that inhibits tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and instructing a more effective use of this therapeutic approach.
Medicaid expansion under ACA linked to higher rate of smoking cessation
When low-income adults were newly covered by Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), they were more likely to quit smoking cigarettes than their counterparts in states that did not offer Medicaid expansion.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP finds Tropical Depression Haikui dissipating
The final warning was issued on Tropical depression Haiku on Nov.
The hidden cost of crime: Tanzanians pay as much as 7 percent to protect money from theft
While sending money to others is often seen as the primary value arising from mobile money, a forthcoming study in the INFORMS journal Marketing Science, a leading scholarly marketing publication, shows that in developing countries, mobile money provides another important source of value -- a form of theft insurance by protecting cash from street robberies and stealing by relatives or burglars at home.
UC-led study could bring about strategies to increase 'good' cholesterol
After decades of individual attempts to identify the structure of the main building block of HDL (high-density lipoproteins), the so-called 'good' cholesterol that associates with protection from cardiovascular disease, a research team representing eight academic institutions across the US and Australia has come to agreement on a predictive model.
Ludwig scientists share findings at 2017 Society for Neuro-oncology Annual Meeting
Ludwig Cancer Research has released the scope of its participation at this year's Annual Meeting and Education Day of the Society for Neuro-Oncology in San Francisco, California, Nov.
Older people with bowel disease receive older medicines
Inflammatory bowel disease is common amongst older people and there are big differences in the choice of treatment for different age groups.
Bright and shining molecules for OLEDs and new drugs
Chemists from Russia and Kazakhstan have come up with new, convenient, and effective two-step procedure for producing new thiophene derivatives from starting materials that are simple and easy to obtain.
Harmful effects of stress on the brain and promising approaches for relief
Stress can have numerous harmful effects on the mind and body, both immediately and over long periods of time.
Texas' odds of Harvey-scale rainfall to increase by end of century
An MIT study finds Texas' risk of Harvey-scale rainfall will increase by the end of this century.
Dry eye sufferers will soon have a drug-free solution
A study of dry eye sufferers who inserted a handheld neurostimulator device in their nose to make their eyes produce more tears experienced significant relief from their disease, according to research presented today at AAO 2017, the 121st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Left-brained: Study suggests conservative Democrats don't compute for liberal voters
Magnetic Resonance Imaging research finds self-identified liberals more likely to notice when candidates deviate from the party line.
Research advances understanding of opioid addiction in face of public health crisis
As the United States grapples with the devastating effects of an opioid epidemic, researchers are making progress in advancing our understanding of opioid addiction-related health issues, according to studies presented today at Neuroscience 2017, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience and the world's largest source of emerging news about brain science and health.
Annoyed by floating specks in your vision? You may soon be able to zap them away
Millions of people who put up with seeing annoying specks drift through their field of vision may now have a safe, high-tech solution to their problem.
World's largest clinical specialty database yields critical insights
The American Academy of Ophthalmology today announced key milestones and clinical insights from studies powered by its clinical database.
Brain structure, cognitive function in treated HIV-positive individuals
Adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and good viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy had poorer cognition and reduced brain thickness and volume on magnetic resonance imaging than adults without HIV, but changes over time in cognitive performance and brain structure were similar between the two groups over two years.
Engineering non-immune cells to kill cancer cells
ETH researchers have reprogrammed normal human cells to create designer immune cells capable of detecting and destroying cancer cells.
Novel gene therapy approach to treating methamphetamine abuse
While there are no FDA-approved medicines to treat methamphetamine (meth) use disorders, researchers are reporting early findings of a second-generation gene therapy in animal models for meth abuse.
How bacteria in the gut influence neurodegenerative disorders
Humans have roughly as many bacterial cells in their bodies as human cells, and most of those bacteria live in the gut.
Memory: Recognizing images seen briefly ten years previously
Emotion and repeated exposure are both known to play a role in long-term memorization, but why do we remember things that are not emotionally charged and have only been seen or experienced a few times in the past?
Parkinson's disease: A looming pandemic
New research shows that the number of people with Parkinson's disease will soon grow to pandemic proportions.
New study backs up earlier findings -- Omega-6 fatty acids do not promote low-grade inflammation
The higher the serum linoleic acid level, the lower the CRP, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland.
Mirror image: Researchers create higher-quality pictures of biospecimens
Researchers from the National Institutes of Health and the University of Chicago improved the speed, resolution, and light efficiency of an optical microscope by switching from a conventional glass coverslip to a reflective, mirrored coverslip and applying new computer algorithms to process the resulting data.
Some Latinos believe science may negatively impact their kids' faith
More than one-third of Latinos interviewed in a recent study believe science education may have a negative impact on the religious faith of their children.
The pros and cons of large ears
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have compared how much energy bats use when flying, depending on whether they have large or small ears.
Breastfed babies are less likely to have eczema as teenagers, study shows
Babies whose mothers had received support to breastfeed exclusively for a sustained period from birth have a 54 percent lower risk of eczema at the age of 16, a new study led by researchers from King's College London, Harvard University, University of Bristol and McGill University shows.
'Mini liver tumors' created in a dish for the first time
Scientists have created mini biological models of human primary liver cancers, known as organoids, in the lab for the first time.
Big data resources presented at American Public Health Association meeting
Although studies and surveys have shown that using information technology to analyze big health datasets and guide public health decisions can improve health equity, the majority of community health center leaders and staff report receiving little to no training in health informatics.
Wouldn't it be great if eyedrops didn't spill out of your eyes?
A new kind of eyedropper can deliver tiny droplets of medication, treating the eye more precisely than traditional eyedroppers, while reducing waste and avoiding dangerous side effects.
Heart attack test could help patients across the globe, experts say
A low-cost, rapid blood test that spots whether people are at risk of a heart attack could improve the treatment of people with chest pain at emergency departments around the world, a study led by the University of Edinburgh suggests.
ACA program to reduce hospital readmissions not all it's cracked up to be
A federal program that has been shown to reduce hospital readmissions may not have been as successful as it appears, University of Michigan researchers report in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine.
Urgent protection for the environment needed to safeguard human health
Strong messages from Dr. Samuel Myers, keynote speaker at The Academy of Medical Sciences & The Lancet International Health Lecture, on how urgent protection of the environment is needed to safeguard human health.
15,000 scientists in 184 countries warn about negative global environmental trends
Human well-being will be severely jeopardized by negative trends in some types of environmental harm, such as a changing climate, deforestation, loss of access to fresh water, species extinctions and human population growth, scientists warn in today's issue of BioScience, an international journal.
No cardiovascular disease reduction with intensive blood pressure lowering treatment
Blood pressure lowering treatment does not reduce death or cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals with a systolic blood pressure below 140.
Now you see me! New insect mimics dead leaves -- but sings loud enough for humans to hear
A new species of bushcricket which mimics dead leaves to the point of near invisibility and sings so loud humans can hear it has been examined for the first time using advanced technologies to reveal unusual acoustic properties of its wings.
Cellphone data reveals Hurricane Maria's impact on travel in Puerto Rico
Researchers from the Boston Children's Hospital Computational Epidemiology Group, MIT Media Lab and Google, Inc., take a data-driven look at how travel and human behavior have changed since Hurricane Maria.

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