Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 28, 2017
Experts see dawn of environmental sustainability in technology-driven 'Age of Optimization'
The world is entering 'a technology-driven Age of Optimization' bringing about more sustainable production, consumption and work in many manifestations and at every scale, say international experts meeting in Kuala Lumpur for the 8th Global Innovation Summit, focused this year on environmental sustainability.

Fat distribution in women and men provides clues to heart attack risk
It's not the amount of fat in your body but where it's stored that may increase your risk for heart attack, stroke and diabetes, according to a new study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

Comparison of fecal transplant using capsule vs. colonoscopy to prevent Clostridium difficile infection
Fecal transplant administered by swallowing a capsule was no worse than transplant using colonoscopy to reduce the risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile.

Diabetes and obesity together responsible for nearly 800,000 cancers worldwide
For the first time researchers have quantified the number of cancers likely to be caused by diabetes and high body mass index (BMI) worldwide.

Largest study of opioid deaths reveals who is at most risk
A new study of 13,000 people who died of an opioid overdose found that more than half had been diagnosed with chronic pain; many had psychiatric disorders.

Weight loss through exercise alone does not protect knees
Obese people who lose a substantial amount of weight can significantly slow down the degeneration of their knee cartilage, but only if they lose weight through diet and exercise or diet alone, according to a new MRI study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).

How having too much or too little of CHRNA7 can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders
Using new pluripotent stem cell technology, researchers have discovered unexpected effects on calcium flux on neurons from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders carrying either fewer or extra copies of the CHRNA7 gene.

Advances in MALDI mass spectrometry within drug discovery
SLAS Discovery marks the 30th anniversary of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI TOF), the soft ionization technique for analyzing non-volatile biomolecules using mass spectrometry, with a special issue showcasing 10 new research reports.

Feinstein Institute researchers identify new genes associated with cognitive ability
Investigators at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research discovered dozens of new genetic variations associated with a person's general cognitive ability.

Researchers trained neural networks to be fashion designers (sort of)
Researchers from the University of California San Diego and Adobe Research have demonstrated how artificial intelligence and neural networks could one day create custom apparel designs to help retailers and apparel makers sell clothing to consumers based on what they learned from a buyer's preferences.

Scientists identify the segmentation and consolidation mechanism of long-term memories
A study led by the IDIBELL has identified a neural mechanism in humans that allows us to segment our experience in discrete memory units.

Biogerontology Research Foundation trustee to keynote at the Digital Health World Congress
The Biogerontology Research Foundation is pleased to announce that its Managing Trustee, Dmitry Kaminskiy, will be giving a keynote presentation at the Digital Healthcare World Congress on Nov.

Comparison of the health determinants of the people in the greater mekong subregion (GMS)
This article aims to compare the determinants of the health service system and the health status of the people in Thailand, the Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia; and to recommend policies that impact the population's health and the country's development.

Biology and chemistry combine to generate new antibiotics
Combining the innovations of synthetic biology with biology and chemistry, a team of scientists at the University of Bristol have generated a brand-new platform that will allow the production of desperately needed brand-new antibiotics.

Abbreviated breast MRI may be additional screening option for dense breasts
Among women with dense breast tissue, for whom traditional mammograms are less effective at detecting cancer, who request additional screening after a negative mammogram, abbreviated breast MRI (AB-MR) may be a valuable cancer detection tool.

Researchers trace timeline of tumor evolution in metastatic breast cancer patients
A new study by researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah observed how breast cancer tumors evolve over time and demonstrated how changes within tumors may contribute to the process by which cancers no longer respond to treatment.

African business schools must change tack to combat corruption
Business schools in Africa must equip future business leaders with political skills, if business education is to play a significant role in combating systemic corruption, says research from the University of Bath.

The land of the Vega Granada area subsides up to one centimeter per year as a result of the drought
Three satellites have monitored ground variations of the Vega de Granada area since 2003 as part of a study by the University of Granada and the Geological Survey of Spain

Researchers combine EEG and MRI to find improved ways of understanding ALS
Researchers in the Academic Unit of Neurology at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland have been studying brain wave patterns in the neurodegenerative condition amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Study: Regulators should not consider 'lost pleasure' of quitting smoking
Federal officials considering new regulations on tobacco products should give more weight to the fact that a majority of smokers are unhappy about feeling addicted to cigarettes, and should put less emphasis on the theory that smokers who quit are losing 'pleasure' in their lives, according to a recent study by the School of Public Health at Georgia State University.

Expression of certain genes may be key to more youthful looking skin
Some individuals' skin appears more youthful than their chronologic age.

DIY: Scientists release a how-to for building a smartphone microscope
Add one more thing to the list of tasks your smartphone can perform.

Resilience of Great Barrier Reef offers opportunities for regeneration
New research has found that, despite the extensive damage to coral in recent events, there are still 100 reefs on the Great Barrier Reef that are well suited to promoting the regional recovery of the ecosystem after major disturbances.

Cardiovascular disease: The immune response to heart attacks
The damage caused by a heart attack triggers an inflammatory reaction which degrades the affected tissue.

A fear of getting dumped kills romance and commitment
Can the fear of a relationship ending actually lessen love and cause a break-up?

BU: Immediate ART treatment improves retention rates
Starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following an HIV diagnosis dramatically improves retention in clinical HIV care, according to a study led by a Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researcher.

Study: How to get patients to share electronic health records
Education is the key to getting patients to share their medical records electronically with health care providers, according to a new study from the University at Buffalo School of Management.

NREL develops switchable solar window
Thermochromic windows capable of converting sunlight into electricity at a high efficiency have been developed by scientists at the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Quantum systems correct themselves
Quantum devices allow us to accomplish computing and sensing tasks that go beyond the capabilities of their classical counterparts.

Nationalism from international sports may increase international conflict
Nationalism associated with international sporting events like the World Cup may increase state aggression according to a study published in International Studies Quarterly.

Beating heart patch is large enough to repair the human heart
Duke University engineers have developed a 'heart patch' that is just as strong and electrically active as healthy adult cardiac tissue and large enough to cover the damage caused by most heart attacks.

What helps international students to adapt
Conscious decision-making and internalized intentions, as opposed to extrinsic influencing factors, are the key to a student's successful adaption to life in a foreign country.

Molecular profiling of melanoma tumours explains survival differences after T cell therapy
The more times metastasised melanoma has mutated and the patient's immune system has been activated against the tumor -- the better the chances of survival after immunotherapy.

A horse is a horse, of course, of course -- except when it isn't
An international team of researchers has discovered a previously unrecognized genus of extinct horses that roamed North America during the last ice age.

ASERF outlines recommendations to increase safety of gluteal fat grafting procedures
Buttock augmentation is one of the fastest growing aesthetic procedures in the United States.

Is breakfast the most important meal of the day -- for your fat cells?
Regularly eating breakfast affects our body fat cells by decreasing the activity of genes involved in fat metabolism and increasing how much sugar they take up, according to new research from The Journal of Physiology.

Capsule research paves way for simpler C. difficile treatment
An Alberta-led clinical trial has shown Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) is as effective in treating clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections whether delivered by colonoscopy or by swallowing capsules.

Dyslexia: When spelling problems impair writing acquisition
Several studies have sought to identify the source of the problems encountered by individuals with dyslexia when they read.

There's a deeper fish in the sea
A new fish species, the deepest in the ocean, was discovered and named by an international team of researchers.

The pediatric submersion score predicts children at low risk for injury following submersions
A risk score can identify children at low risk for submersion-related injury who can be safely discharged from the ED after observation.

Texas A&M-Galveston team finds cave organisms living off methane gas
In a surprising find deep in an underwater cave in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, a team of researchers led by a Texas A&M University at Galveston doctoral student have discovered that cave-adapted organisms can exist off of methane gas and the bacteria near it, and it raises the possibility that other life forms are also living this way in similar caves around the world.

NUS researchers achieve significant breakthrough in topological insulator based devices
The current induced magnetisation switching by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an important ingredient for modern non-volatile magnetic devices like magnetic random access memories and logic devices required for high performance data storage and computing.

Research finds midlife women twice as likely as men to have asthma
In childhood, asthma is more common in boys than girls.

Why is massive star formation quenched in galaxy centers?
A study led by IAC researcher Fatemeh Tabatabaei, published in Nature Astronomy, proposes that one of the reasons that slows down the rate at which massive stars form in galaxies is the existence of relatively large magnetic fields.

UTSA researcher studies how professional sports fans use mobile phones
Seok Kang, an associate professor in the Department of Communication at The University of Texas at San Antonio, is researching how professional sports teams build loyalty by engaging their fans through their mobile devices.

In populations of microbes, bioengineers find a balance of opposing genomic forces
Recent study examines the dynamics that govern the genomic diversity of microbes by modeling the effects of several different factors on evolution of the genome sequence.

Malaria: Protective antibodies following natural infection
No effective vaccine exists to date against the tropical disease malaria.

Living in a 'war zone' linked to delivery of low birthweight babies
Mums-to-be living in war zones/areas of armed conflict are at heightened risk of giving birth to low birthweight babies, finds a review of the available evidence published in the online journal BMJ Global Health.

More doctors are becoming 'nursing home specialists'
The number of doctors and advance practitioners in the United States who focus on nursing home care rose by more than a third between 2012 and 2015, according to a new study published today in JAMA from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

New computer model sheds light on biological events leading to sudden cardiac death
A powerful new computer model replicates the biological activity within the heart that precedes sudden cardiac death.

Understanding a therapeutic paradox for treating thrombo-vascular complications in kidney disease
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have discovered a potential treatment target to prevent chronic kidney disease patients from developing blood clots without causing bleeding complications - an unwanted and perplexing side effect.

Marriage may help stave off dementia
Marriage may lower the risk of developing dementia, concludes a synthesis of the available evidence published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

Gastric cancer: A new strategy used by Helicobacter pylori to target mitochondria
Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and CNRS have recently identified new strategies used by Helicobacter pylori bacteria to infect cells.

Dogs mouth-lick to communicate with angry humans
New research has found that dogs lick their mouths as a response to looking at angry human faces, suggesting that domestic canines may have a functional understanding of emotional information.

ACR submits comments to CMS regarding 2019 benefit and payment parameters proposed rule
In its response yesterday to the 2019 Benefit and Payment Parameters proposed rule, which governs the state and federal health exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) urged the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to reconsider proposals that would reduce health exchange insurance coverage, affordability and patient choice.

Mixing cultures and nationalities in rugby teams changes the way they play
The cultural identity of rugby players in a team changes the way the team plays, according to a new study published in Heliyon.

Geophysicists uncover new evidence for an alternative style of plate tectonics
Scientists have determined that a volcano and mountain plateau across Turkey formed not by the collision of tectonic plates, but by a massive detachment of plate material beneath Earth's surface.

Thinner photodiode with higher stability and performance
A research team from Korea has increased the stability and performance of photodiodes using cubic perovskite nanocrystals The result expected to be used for autonomous vehicles, military, space exploration and ubiquitous fields.

UTSW scientists take early step to personalized breast cancer care
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have developed a method to map protein changes that occur in different subtypes of breast cancer cells in response to DNA damage from a new class of chemotherapy drugs.

Researchers inadvertently boost surface area of nickel nanoparticles for catalysis
Researchers have discovered that a technique designed to coat nickel nanoparticles with silica shells actually fragments the material -- creating a small core of oxidized nickel surrounded by smaller satellites embedded in a silica shell.

This 'sweet spot' could improve Melanoma diagnosis
Too much, too little, just right. It might seem like a line from 'Goldilocks and the Three Bears,' but actually describes an important finding that will enhance computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of melanoma.

Delaying surgery for hip fracture for more than one day associated with small increased risk of death
Waiting more than 24 hours to undergo hip fracture surgery may be associated with an increased risk of death and complications.

Scientists reveal rules for making ribs
Scientists from the USC Stem Cell lab of Francesca Mariani recently shared a recipe for ribs, and it doesn't even require barbecue sauce.

First evidence for Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain discovered
University of Leicester archaeologists suggest Caesar's fleet first landed in Pegwell Bay, Isle of Thanet, Kent in 54BC and constructed fort nearby

The WHT measures the size of a stellar-mass black hole jet
Researchers of the IAC participate in a study, in which they have measured the delay between the X-rays and the visible light of a jet emitted by a black hole.

Scientists show how Himalayan rivers influenced ancient Indus civilization settlements
Scientists have discovered that much of the Indus civilization developed around an extinct river, challenging ideas about how urbanization in ancient cultures developed.

How do cells release IL-1? After 3 decades, now we know
A study in the journal Immunity identifies, for the first time, the molecule that enables living immune cells to release interleukin-1, key to our innate immune response.

Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula reveals a cryptic methane-fueled ecosystem in flooded caves
In the underground rivers and flooded caves of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, where Mayan lore described a fantastical underworld, scientists have found a cryptic world in its own right.

Microwave-based test method can help keep 3-D chip designers' eyes open
NIST scientists have invented a new approach to testing the multilayered, three-dimensional computer chips that now appear in some of the latest consumer devices.

Trophy hunting may cause extinction in a changing environment
Trophy hunting and other activities involving the targeting of high-quality male animals could lead to the extinction of certain species faced with changing environmental conditions, according to new research from Queen Mary University of London.

Synthetic cannabis-like drug reduces sleep apnea
A synthetic cannabis-like drug in a pill reduced apnea and daytime sleepiness in the first large multi-site study of a drug for apnea.

Decoding the molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer progression
Researchers identify several lncRNAs that are linked to the ovarian cancer in a cohort of patients.

New technique reduces side-effects, improves delivery of chemotherapy nanodrugs
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed a new method for delivering chemotherapy nanodrugs that increases the drugs' bioavailability and reduces side-effects.

Harnessing the rattling motion of oxygen ions to convert T-rays to visible light
A team of researchers led by Hideo Hosono at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) has shown that terahertz rays can be converted to light visible to the human eye.

NIAID scientists link cases of unexplained anaphylaxis to red meat allergy
While rare, some people experience recurrent episodes of anaphylaxis -- a life-threatening allergic reaction -- for which the triggers are never identified.

Low frequency brain stimulation improves cognition in Parkinson's disease
A multidisciplinary neuroscience study using rare, intraoperative brain recordings suggests that low frequency stimulation of a deep brain region may be able to improve cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Type 2 diabetes, it all starts in the liver
Among the detrimental effects of obesity is the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Making a case for health literacy
The inability to understand and effectively use health information is linked to higher rates of hospitalization, reduced preventive care and increased health costs.

Complications at birth associated with lasting chemical changes in the brain
New King's College London research, published today in eLife, shows that adults born prematurely -- who also suffered small brain injuries around the time of birth - have lower levels of dopamine in the brain.

Kant, Hume, and the retailer's dilemma
To help retailers decide how to handle situations when customers abuse the retailer's rules for their own advantage, the authors explore the consequences for the retailer and for ethically behaving customers and come to unexpected conclusions.

How much should a victim be compensated for emotional suffering?
When assessing total compensation for a victim, the presence of a small economic loss 'crowds out' the presence of an emotional loss, according to new research from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business Professor Christopher Hsee and PhD candidate Shirley Zhang.

Feathered dinosaurs were even fluffier than we thought
A University of Bristol-led study has revealed new details about dinosaur feathers and enabled scientists to further refine what is potentially the most accurate depiction of any dinosaur species to date.

Migraines linked to high sodium levels in cerebrospinal fluid
Migraine sufferers have significantly higher sodium concentrations in their cerebrospinal fluid than people without the condition, according to the first study to use a technique called sodium MRI to look at migraine patients.

Quantum-emitting answer might lie in the solution
Lead trihalide perovskite nanocrystals are promising candidates as light sources.

Why do more women have asthma than men? Blame hormones
Women are twice as likely as men to have asthma, and this gender difference may be caused by the effects of sex hormones on lung cells.

AgriLife Research study: Winter wheat feasible cover crop for Rolling Plains cotton
Interest in using cover crops to improve soil health continues to grow in the Texas Rolling Plains region, but the nagging concern of reductions in soil moisture and effects on yields of subsequent cash crops still exists.

One in two people living with HIV in Europe is diagnosed late
The WHO European Region is the only Region worldwide where the number of new HIV infections is rising.

Brazilian ethanol can replace 13.7 percent of world's crude oil consumption
Expansion of sugarcane cultivation for biofuel in areas not under environmental protection or reserved for food production could also reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide by up to 5.6%, according to a study by researchers in Brazil, the US and Europe.

Prehospital supraglottic airway is associated with good neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest victims
With the adjustment of postresuscitation variables, as well as prehospital and resuscitation variables, the prehospital use of supraglottic airway (SGA) is associated with good neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest victims, particularly in those who receive CPR.

Defending the science of infant imitation
In a counter-response recently published in the journal Developmental Science, Elizabeth Simpson and her co-authors argue that the Current Biology study failed to use appropriate methods, and is highly flawed.

Dual virtual reality/treadmill exercises promote brain plasticity in Parkinson's patients
A new Tel Aviv University study suggests that a therapy that combines Virtual Reality and treadmill exercise dramatically lowers the incidence of falling among Parkinson's patients by changing the brain's behavior and promoting beneficial brain plasticity, even in patients with neurodegenerative disease.

Continuous glucose monitors warn of low blood sugar threat
Continuous glucose monitors (CGM) can protect individuals who have had type 1 diabetes for years and are at risk of experiencing dangerously low blood sugar by increasing their awareness of the symptoms, according to a study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Sometimes, it pays for the boss to be humble
It's good to be humble when you're the boss -- as long as that's what your employees expect.

How hand sanitizers work (video)
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are the ubiquitous little squeeze-bottle heroes of airports and hospitals, our allies during cold and flu season, and supposedly effective against a huge variety of disease-causing viruses and bacteria.

Genetic mutation could, if altered, boost flumist vaccine effectiveness, research suggests
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have discovered a genetic mutation in the FluMist intranasal flu vaccine that has the potential to be altered to enhance the vaccine's protective effect.

Abominable Snowman? Nope -- study ties DNA samples from purported Yetis to Asian bears
The research, which will be published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, analyzed nine 'Yeti' specimens, including bone, tooth, skin, hair and fecal samples collected in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

Antibiotics administered during labor delay healthy gut bacteria in babies
The study utilized data from 74 mother-infant pairs in the McMaster pilot cohort called Baby & Mi.

Key component for quantum computing invented
In a critical step towards scaling up quantum computers, University of Sydney physicists have invented a microcircuit based on topological insulators, a new phase of matter awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics.

ALMA discovers infant stars surprisingly near galaxy's supermassive black hole
ALMA has revealed the telltale signs of eleven low-mass stars forming perilously close -- within three light-years -- to the Milky Way's supermassive black hole.

Second phase 3 study results for LMTX® published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
TauRx Therapeutics Ltd today reported the full results from its second Phase 3 clinical study of LMTX®, the first tau aggregation inhibitor in Alzheimer's disease, published online in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

Critical link between obesity and diabetes has been identified
UT Southwestern researchers have identified a major mechanism by which obesity causes type 2 diabetes, which is a common complication of being overweight that afflicts more than 30 million Americans and over 400 million people worldwide.

UNM researcher finds stress during pregnancy affects the size of the baby
A new study has been published that suggests babies are physically affected by the stress level of their mother during pregnancy.

Denying patient requests lowers physician ratings
Patients who ask for specialist referrals, laboratory tests or certain medications and don't get them tend to be less satisfied with their doctors than those whose requests are fulfilled, new research from UC Davis Health shows.

A new way to do metabolic engineering
University of Illinois researchers have created a novel metabolic engineering method that combines transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference, and gene deletion, and executes them simultaneously, making the process faster and easier.

Severity of post-operative delirium relates to severity of cognitive decline
Researchers from the Harvard affiliated Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research (IFAR), in collaboration with scientists from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School (HMS), and Brown University, have found increasing evidence that the level of delirium in post-surgical patients is associated with the level of later cognitive decline in those same patients.

Newfound protein may prevent viral infection and herpes-induced cancer
Keck School of Medicine of USC researchers have identified a human protein that could prevent cancer by restricting a type of herpes virus from replicating.

Child-proofing the Internet of Things
As many other current, and potentially future, devices can connect to the Internet researchers are keen to learn more about how so called IoT devices could affect the privacy and security of young people.

Trisomy 21: Research breaks new ground
Researchers from UNIGE and ETHZ have analysed the proteins of individuals with trisomy 21: the goal was to improve our understanding of how a supernumerary copy of chromosome 21 could affect human development.

Performance-enhancing drugs sold via the Internet are inaccurately labeled
Researchers have analyzed the chemical composition of products sold online as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

Catastrophic failures in the NHS can be caused by basic communication breakdowns
The NHS sometimes struggles to manage basic communication systems that are often critical to the safety of patients.

Pay-for-performance fails to perform
The first large Medicare pay-for-performance program for doctors and medical practices, which ran between 2013 and 2016, failed to deliver on its central promise to increase value of care for patients.

New 3-D printer is 10 times faster than commercial counterparts
MIT engineers have developed a new desktop 3-D printer that performs up to 10 times faster than existing commercial counterparts.

Call for workers to rise up
A study from James Cook University in Australia has found nearly three quarters of office workers believe there is a negative relationship between sitting down all day at work and their health -- and that bosses are crucial to helping solve the problem.

CHOP researchers highlight advances in pediatric heart disease at 2017 AHA scientific sessions
Physician-researchers from the Cardiac Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) recently presented new findings on pediatric cardiovascular disease at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2017 in Anaheim, Calif.
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