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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 01, 2017


Researchers ID bacteria tied to esophageal cancer
Researchers at NYU Langone Health's Perlmutter Cancer Center report that at least three kinds of bacteria in the mouths of Americans may heighten or lower their risk of developing esophageal cancer.
Study finds reading information aloud to yourself improves memory
You are more likely to remember something if you read it out loud, a study from the University of Waterloo has found.
Uranium to replace plastic? Chemistry breakthrough could pave the way for new materials
Uranium can perform reactions that previously no one thought possible, which could transform the way industry makes bulk chemicals, polymers, and the precursors to new drugs and plastics, according to new findings from The University of Manchester.
Bottle gourd genome provides insight on evolutionary history, relationships of cucurbits
Researchers from the Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and collaborators in China and France have produced the first high-quality genome sequence for the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and a reconstructed genome of the most recent Cucurbitaceae ancestor.
Drought-resistant plant genes could accelerate evolution of water-use efficient crops
Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have identified a common set of genes that enable different drought-resistant plants to survive in semi-arid conditions, which could play a significant role in bioengineering and creating energy crops that are tolerant to water deficits.
3-D-printed prosthetic implants could improve treatment for hearing loss
Researchers using CT scans and 3-D printing have created accurate, custom-designed prosthetic replacements for damaged parts of the middle ear, according to a study being presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
To drop CO2 emissions, look to local transportation and housing
Local efforts in the transportation and residential-housing sectors could help the United States meet the greenhouse gas reduction commitment it made as a Paris Climate Accord signatory, according to research from John Landis and Erick Guerra of the University of Pennsylvania and David Hsu of MIT.
Chick embryos provide valuable genetic data for understanding human development
An international collaboration of researchers from Japan, Russia, Spain, and Australia has created the first genome-wide set of avian transcription start sites.
NASA's GPM Satellite observes Tropical Cyclone Dahlia and landslide potential
On Nov. 29 Tropical Cyclone Dahlia became the first tropical cyclone of the 2017-2018 Southwest Indian Ocean season.
Sperm RNA may serve as biomarkers of future health, Wayne State researchers find
Human sperm may hold the potential to serve as biomarkers of the future health of newborn infants, according to a new study by a Wayne State University School of Medicine research team.
Model of galaxy and star cluster formation is rectified
Numerical simulations show the phenomenon displays unique behavior with entropy oscillation in the initial stage of the process.
Topological insulators are among this year's top achievements in photonics
Optics & Photonics News recognised a recent study on three-dimensional topological insulators as one of the most promising advances in photonics this year.
Women with Parkinson's disease less likely than men to have caregivers
Female Parkinson's disease patients are much less likely than male patients to have caregivers, despite the fact that caregivers report greater strain in caring for male patients.
Study sheds light on turbulence in astrophysical plasmas
Research from MIT and the University of Wisconsin provides better explanations of the turbulent behavior of plasmas in space.
Most glaucoma patients don't ask about medication costs
Less than one-third of patients with glaucoma talk to their doctor about the costs of medications needed to control their disease, reports a study in the December issue of Optometry and Vision Science, the official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.
Jawbone loss predates rheumatoid arthritis
Jawbone loss caused by periodontitis predates the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.
Kids and screen time: Signs your child might be addicted
It's a familiar sight in the majority of young families: young children bent over a screen for hours, texting or gaming, lost in a digital world.
Researchers develop graphene nano 'tweezers' that can grab individual biomolecules
Researchers from the University of Minnesota College of Science and Engineering have found yet another remarkable use for the wonder material graphene -- tiny electronic 'tweezers' that can grab biomolecules floating in water with incredible efficiency.
Ultrasound imaging needle to transform heart surgery
Heart tissue can be imaged in real-time during keyhole procedures using a new optical ultrasound needle developed by researchers at UCL and Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
Study links child abuse, high school dropout
Children who have been victims of violence are more likely to drop out of high school before graduation than their peers, according to a new study co-authored by a Duke scholar.
Placenta consumption offers few benefits for new moms
UNLV research finds that consuming encapsulated placentas has little to no effect on postpartum mood and maternal bonding; detectable changes shown in hormones.
Lung cancers in some African-Americans and European-Americans may have biological differences
Differences in the genes expressed in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from some African-Americans and European-Americans suggest that there are racial differences in the biology of NSCLC, which could have clinical relevance.
Young people in sub-Saharan Africa integral to shaping future HIV/AIDS policy
'To end HIV/AIDS it's crucial we start engaging with young people in sub-Saharan Africa who are affected - interventions to improve their lives needn't be complex and costly, just sustainable, targeted and developed closely with them,' said Peter Piot, Director of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Handa Professor of Global Health, today, World AIDS Day.
Fighting myocardial infarction with nanoparticle tandems
How can damaged cardiac tissue following a heart attack best be treated with replacement muscle cells?
African protected area saving endangered megafauna
One of Africa's last remaining wilderness areas is in good shape and could potentially support 50,000 elephants and 1000 lions, a University of Queensland-led study has found.
Exceptionally preserved eggs and embryos reveal the life history of a pterosaur
Dr. WANG Xiaolin, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and his team reported on hundreds of three-dimensional (3-D) pterosaur eggs of the species Hamipterus tianshanensis from a Lower Cretaceous site in the Turpan-Hami Basin, 16 of which contain embryonic remains, allowing for an unexpected look at the embryology and reproductive strategy of these flying reptiles.
Gene regulation: Risk-free gene reactivation
Chemical modification of DNA subunits contribute to the regulation of gene expression.
Oral microbiota indicates link between periodontal disease and esophageal cancer
An analysis of bacteria present in the mouth showed that some types of bacteria that lead to periodontal disease were associated with higher risk of esophageal cancer.
New method to determine before surgery which prostate tumors pose a lethal threat
A team at CSHL reports success in a small-scale test of a new analytical method to improve the early detection of potentially lethal prostate cancer.
Protein associated with ALS points to possible targets for therapeutic intervention
Scientists at the University of Alberta may have found possible targets for therapeutic interventions in the fight against Lou Gehrig's disease.
Medical note system could boost patients' engagement in their health care
In research published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, doctors at UCLA Health and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center found that patients could benefit if they are invited to co-produce medical notes, called 'OurNotes,' with their doctors, rather than merely reading them.
BGRF and SILS scientists analyze viability of shRNA therapy for Huntington's Disease
Researchers from the Biogerontology Research Foundation, Department of Molecular Neuroscience at the Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences at the University of Amsterdam, and the Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society at the Karolinska Institute announce the publication of a paper in Translational Neurodegeneration, a BioMedCentral journal, titled RNAi mechanisms in Huntington's disease therapy: siRNA versus shRNA.
Johns Hopkins scientists propose efficiency 'rules' for enhancing use of new gene editing technology
Johns Hopkins scientists have developed a streamlined method and accompanying efficiency 'rules' for introducing new DNA sequences into cells after using the gene-cutting tool known as CRISPR.
NASA sees Ockhi strengthening off southwestern coast of India
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Ockhi, it measured cloud top temperatures that showed strongest storms were off the coast of southwestern India.
70Gb/s optical intra-connects in data centers based on band-limited devices
High-speed and low-cost data center optical intra-connects have been developed quickly.
Stephanie Faubion, M.D., talks genitourinary syndrome of menopause
A new article in Mayo Clinic Proceedings reviews options for women going through genitourinary syndrome of menopause -- an encompassing term for vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia and urinary tract infections brought on by low estrogen levels after menopause.
Fewer urinary tract infections seen postoperatively at ACS NSQIP®-participating hospitals
A new study of procedure-specific trends in postoperative complications finds that most of 10 types of operations have improved rates of surgical site and bladder infections since 2008.
When Listeria monocytogenes goes to sleep....
A serious infection of dietary origin that is caused by the Listeria monocytogenes bacterium, listeriosis is associated with severe clinical symptoms and a high mortality rate in individuals whose immune system is weakened.
Robot learning improves student engagement
The first-ever study of Michigan State University's pioneering robot-learning course shows that online students who use the innovative robots feel more engaged and connected to the instructor and students in the classroom.
Harmful effects of being overweight underestimated
The harmful effects of being overweight have been underestimated, according to a new study that analysed body mass index (BMI), health and mortality data in around 60,000 parents and their children, to establish how obesity actually influences risk of death.
The brain is still 'connected' during non-REM sleep
When we sleep, our organism goes through different phases of sleep, however the brain remains interconnected during non-REM sleep, which was thought not to happen.
Why do we see similarities across languages? Human brain may be responsible
For years, researchers have been interested in the similarities seen across human languages.
From Alaska to Amazonia: First global maps of traits that drive vegetation growth
Detailed global maps of key traits in higher plants have been made available for the first time, thanks to work led by researchers from the University of Minnesota's (UMN) College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences (CFANS).
Virtual reality for bacteria
Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a computer.
Mosquitoes more likely to transmit dengue virus in hot weather
Researchers show that dengue virus in mosquitoes grows and spreads faster at higher temperatures, but slows when temperatures are lower or fluctuate.
Engineering electron pathways in 2-D-topological insulators
In a recent article published in Physical Review Letters researchers from CIC nanoGUNE, the Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics of Oxford, together with colleagues from Wuerzburg and Stanford University reported new insight into the electronic conduction and interference on 2-D-topological insulators -- an exotic kind of insulators that conduct only at the edge and that could be key for the development of a new generation of electronic devices.
Genetic link found between the immune system and lymphoma
People who inherit genetic changes which alter the function of their immune system are at increased risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma, a major new study reports.
Mental health disorder therapeutic modalities modified for the GMS
The purposes of this study were to identify the elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS.
Belowground fungal interactions with trees help explain non-native plant invasions
The invasion of nonnative plants above-ground is strongly related to what type of mycorrhizal fungi are dominant below-ground in forest ecosystems.
Lobachevsky University scientists in search of fast algorithms for discrete optimization
Lobachevsky University scientists are implementing a research project
Under Pressure: Novel technology to model pressure-induced cellular injuries in the brain
Brain injuries -- whether caused by trauma, tumors, hemorrhage or developmental anomalies -- often produce elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn causes cellular injuries in the brain and additional neurological deficits beyond those associated with the initial insult.
Neutron spectroscopy: New detector module MultiFLEXX increases count rate tenfold
The triple axis spectrometer FLEXX at BER II provides a new detector module for user service.
Teens get more sleep when school starts later
A later school start time could mean teens are more likely to get adequate amounts of sleep, according to Penn State researchers.
Evolution: In the beginning there was the sponge
Which group of animals evolved first? This problem has become a bone of contention among biologists.
UTHealth scientists help explain how dietary fat affects stem cell differentiation
You are what you eat when it comes to fat, report scientists from McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) in the journal Science Advances.
3D-printed minifactories
ETH researchers have developed a biocompatible ink for 3-D printing using living bacteria.
Location, location, location: Immunization delivery site matters
In vaccination, a certain subpopulation of dendritic cells is vital to triggering the body's adaptive immune system, report researchers at the Jackson Laboratory, Yale University and Astra-Zeneca.
Highly efficient photocatalyst capable of carbon dioxide recycling
A research team from Korea has developed titanium dioxide-based photocatalyst with the highest efficiency in the world that converts carbon dioxide into methane.
The microbiological art of making a better sausage
Fermented sausages can vary in taste quality depending on whether the fermentations begin 'spontaneously,' or using a commercial starter culture.
Stanford study links common male medical condition and vascular disease
Men who suffer symptoms from varicoceles, enlarged veins in the scrotum, are more likely to develop vascular disease and metabolic disease, such as diabetes, according to a study by Stanford University School of Medicine researchers.
New imaging study reveals how saturated fatty acids damage cells
Columbia University researchers developed a new microscopy technique that allows for the direct tracking of fatty acids after they've been absorbed into living cells.
Yelp reviewers take a dimmer view of nursing homes than the feds
A new study by the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology shows that Yelp reviewers give nursing homes significantly less favorable ratings than those found on the federal website, Nursing Home Compare, run by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
New gene-based model suggests, for microbes, it's not who you are but what you do
A new model simulates the impact of microbial activities on the chemistry in the North Atlantic and suggests that the evolution of a metabolic function rather than the evolution of an individual species shapes the ocean as we know it.

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