Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 11, 2017
As building floor space increases, time running out to cut energy use and meet climate goals: UN
The UN-backed Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction predicts that the floor area of buildings worldwide (235 billion m2 in 2016) will roughly double by 2060, some 230 billion m2 of additional buildings -- the equivalent of all the buildings in Japan added every year; a Paris every week.

Exposure to air pollution just before or after conception raises risk of birth defects
Women exposed to air pollution just prior to conception or during the first month of pregnancy face an increased risk of their children being born with birth defects, such as cleft lip or palate or abnormal hearts.

Poll: Younger women, college educated women more likely to say they have been harassed
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Study identifies barriers to transplant therapy to treat multiple myeloma among racial minority groups
A study by researchers at Mayo Clinic's campus in Jacksonville, Fla., has found that barriers to patients receiving stem cell therapy as part of their treatment for multiple myeloma include income, education, insurance status and access to care at an academic center or facility that treats a high volume of patients.

Patients with atrial fibrillation at greater risk of death in rural hospitals than urban hospitals
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) admitted to rural hospitals in the United States have a greater chance of dying during their hospital stay than patients admitted to urban hospitals for the same condition, according to a new report in HeartRhythm.

AGU Fall Meeting: Mistletoe is 'kiss of death' to drought-stressed trees
Around the holidays, a sprig of mistletoe over a doorway is festive and romantic.

Research offers guidelines to improve patient care for sexual assault survivors
Disclosing personal history of sexual assault and other forms of abuse to a primary care physician can have a profound impact on the patient's experience in the doctor's office as well as the quality of care, according to a review published in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

Multi-year submarine-canyon study challenges textbook theories about turbidity currents
At the Fall 2017 meeting of the American Geophysical Union, scientists from around the world will present 19 talks and posters about the Coordinated Canyon Experiment -- the most extensive, long-term effort to monitor turbidity currents ever attempted.

Rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy may increase chronic disease risk in children
New research reveals that children born to women with rheumatoid arthritis face an increased susceptibility for certain chronic diseases.

Scientists urge endangered listing for cheetahs
A comprehensive assessment of cheetah populations in southern Africa supported by the National Geographic Society reveals the dire state of one of the planet's most iconic big cats.

Anesthetics have the same effects on plants as they have on animals and humans
A new study published in Annals of Botany has shown that plants react to anesthetics similarly to the way animals and humans do, suggesting plants are ideal objects for testing anesthetics actions in future.

Drug suppresses spread of breast cancer caused by stem-like cells
Rare stem-like tumor cells play a critical role in the spread of breast cancer, but a vulnerability in the pathway that powers them offers a strategy to target these cells using existing drugs before metastatic disease occurs, report University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center researchers.

Dark side of the moon: Motorcycle deaths linked to full moons
On nights illuminated by a full moon, fatal motorcycle accidents increased by 5 percent compared to nights without a full moon.

PharmaMar presents positive results of the pivotal Phase III trial with plitidepsin in MM
As previously informed, the Phase III trial, ADMYRE, which compared plitidepsin in combination with dexamethasone versus dexamethasone alone met its primary endpoint, progression free survival, and secondary objectives, overall survival and safety

Bioengineering and specialized therapies yield results for rare, challenging blood diseases
In four studies being presented today during the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta, researchers announce promising findings on innovative tools and therapies for hard-to-treat blood disorders including sickle cell disease (SCD), beta thalassemia, and X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID).

How social networking keeps people healthy
Microblogging may be a valuable online tool for reducing negative emotions for people who experience social anxiety.

Brazilian researchers uncover 6 new species of silky anteater
In a recent study published in Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, a team of Brazilian researchers discovered six new species of silky anteater, a mammal that lives in tropical rain forests of the Amazon region and Central America.

Twitter can reveal our shared mood
In the largest study of its kind, researchers from the University of Bristol have analysed mood indicators in text from 800 million anonymous messages posted on Twitter.

'Black box' recorder puts surgeons' robotic surgery skills under the microscope
A new study from Keck Medicine of USC finds that data from a novel recorder can be used to objectively measure surgeons' proficiency in robotic-assisted prostate cancer surgery.

Eclipse 2017: Science from the moon's shadow
While people across North America took in the Aug. 21 eclipse, hundreds of citizen, student, and professional scientists were collecting scientific data, and their efforts are beginning to return results.

E-cig use increases risk of beginning tobacco cigarette use in young adults
Young adults who use electronic cigarettes are more than four times as likely to begin smoking tobacco cigarettes within 18 months as their peers who do not vape, according to new University of Pittsburgh research.

Internal forces directing cell migration are revealed by live-cell microscopy
Two new studies from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) show how cells respond to internal forces when they orient, gain traction, and migrate in a specific direction.

People say they want to live longer -- if in good health
Individually most people only want to live long lives if they will be healthy, according to a new study that includes a University of Kansas gerontologist.

Soy, cruciferous vegetables associated with fewer common breast cancer treatment side effects
Consuming soy foods (such as soy milk, tofu and edamame) and cruciferous vegetables (such as cabbages, kale, collard greens, bok choy, Brussels sprouts, and broccoli) may be associated with a reduction in common side effects of breast cancer treatment in breast cancer survivors, say a team of scientists.

Researchers identify epigenetic orchestrator of pancreatic cancer cells
Genentech researchers have identified an enzyme that shifts pancreatic cancer cells to a more aggressive, drug-resistant state by epigenetically modifying the cells' chromatin.

Physicians, especially female and rural doctors, retiring earlier than expected
Physicians in British Columbia are retiring earlier than previously thought and many are reducing their working hours in the years leading up to retirement, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

'Smoke rings' in the ocean spotted from space
Researchers from the University of Liverpool have spotted the equivalent of smoke-rings in the ocean which they think could 'suck-up' small marine creatures and carry them at high speed and for long distances across the ocean.

AML study reports high response rates with combination targeted therapy
Initial findings from a multi-national open-label phase Ib study of inhibitory drug therapy for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have demonstrated a complete response in up to 50 percent patients say researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Teenagers with incontinence are at risk of underachieving at secondary school
New research has found teenagers with incontinence are at greater risk of underachieving academically, and need more support to remove barriers so they can reach their academic potential.

The likelihood for mixed breeding between two songbird species lessens with warmer springs
Global climate warming is considered a major threat to many living organisms but not all consequences of warming need to be harmful to species.

Study finds variation within species plays critical role in health of ecosystems
Concerns about biodiversity tend to focus on the loss of species, but a new study suggests that the loss of variation within species can also have important and unexpected consequences on the environment.

Natural route masters
Few people draw a parallel between bumblebees and travelling salesmen but that's what comes after months of tracking the flight paths of the foraging pollinators as they refine their routes around multiple destinations and, in the process, provide insights into analogous problems in logistics and robotics and into how land might be used more efficiently.

South Carolina & George Mason link women's sexual orientation to (un)happiness about birth
Dr. Lisa Lindley and colleagues examined birth happiness among women by sexual orientation discordance using data from the 2006-2015 National Survey of Family Growth.

Researchers examine how errors affect credibility of online reviews
Shoppers increasingly consult online reviews before making holiday purchases. But how do they decide which reviewers to trust?

A good decision is not made in one go
The best decisions are made on the basis of the average of various estimates: this has been confirmed by the research of Dennie van Dolder and Martijn van den Assem, scientists at VU Amsterdam.

Disagreements can be a healthy antidote for biases
New research shows that people who are exposed to others who disagree with their views are more likely to let go of pre-existing biases.

Researchers invent novel RNA nanotech to decorate exosomes for effective cancer therapy
A new study shows that attaching antibody-like RNA nanoparticles to microvesicles can deliver effective RNA therapeutics specifically to cancer cells.

How much can 252-million-year-old ecosystems tell us about modern Earth? A lot.
New paleontological research shows that during the late Permian, the equator was dry and desert-like, yet surprisingly a hotspot for biodiversity.

Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake
Engineers at Duke University develop a realistic proposition for creating a water cloak that moves water around an object by applying forces on dissolved ions through a carefully designed electromagnetic field.

Searching for the CRISPR Swiss-army knife
Scientists at the University of Copenhagen, led by the Spanish Professor Guillermo Montoya, are investigating the molecular features of different molecular scissors of the CRISPR-Cas system to shed light on the so-called 'Swiss-army knives' of genome editing.

Scientists discover new way to help nerve regeneration in spinal cord injury
A new way of triggering nerve regeneration to help repair spinal cord injury and in the longer-term potentially paralysis has successfully been demonstrated by University of Bristol scientists.

Patient satisfaction, caregiver communication can reduce risk of hospital readmission
A survey of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has found that patients reporting greater levels of satisfaction with their care and good communication with the health care providers were significantly less like to readmitted to the hospital in the 30 days after discharge.

New model for Zika developed to aid in testing vaccines and treatments
An alternative animal model that mimics key features of the Zika virus infection, including its lingering presence in bodily fluids, has been developed at Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio.

Quality control is vital for the energy production of cells
Researchers have uncovered a mitochondrial error-correction mechanism, which is vital for the construction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the energy production of cells.

Marine turtles dying after becoming entangled in plastic rubbish
Hundreds of marine turtles die every year after becoming entangled in rubbish in the oceans and on beaches, including plastic 'six pack' holders and disgarded fishing gear.

Mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs
The purpose of this article was to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors.

Patients' individual genomes may affect efficacy, safety of gene editing
Gene editing has begun to be tested in clinical trials, using CRISPR-Cas9 and other technologies to directly edit DNA inside people's cells, and multiple trials are recruiting or in planning.

Drug for spinal muscular atrophy prompts ethical dilemmas, Stanford bioethicists say
Medical experts at Stanford and their colleagues at several other universities have raised ethical questions about the way a treatment for spinal muscular atrophy is being used.

A new weapon against bone metastasis?
A new antibody developed by Princeton researchers fights bone metastasis by undermining cancer's defense strategy and allowing chemotherapy to work.

After the fire, charcoal goes against the grain, with the flow
A two-year study of Rice University property damaged by a 2011 forest fire found that charcoal behaved very differently from other forms of soil carbon as the land rebounded from the fire.

Glioblastoma survival mechanism reveals new therapeutic target
A Northwestern Medicine study, published in the journal Cancer Cell, has provided new insights into a mechanism of tumor survival in glioblastoma and demonstrated that inhibiting the process could enhance the effects of radiation therapy.

New statistical method links vast records, shows negative effect of Texas voter ID law
As state voter identification (ID) laws across the country are being contested amid questions about the integrity of the voting process, researchers have developed a new statistical method that not only matches multiple records with precision, but can also identify the scope of discrimination when applied to voter ID laws.

AGU Fall Meeting: New simulations suggest meteors explode from the inside
Researchers have identified an explosive new mechanism that breaks down meteors as they hurtle toward Earth.

Scientists use ears in the ground to monitor the eyes of hurricanes
The strong atmospheric pressure of hurricanes also generates detectable seismic waves.

Sustainable dams -- are they possible?
Humans have been altering natural waterways for centuries, but only in the last several decades have dams raised ecological concerns.

Study: Too many nutrients make microbes less responsive
Bacteria in lakes play a key role in maintaining water quality by absorbing excess nitrogen and phosphorus.

Certain books can increase infant learning during shared reading, study shows
Parents and pediatricians know that reading to infants is a good thing, but new research shows reading books that clearly name and label people and objects is even better.

Immunotherapy strategy could be beneficial for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers will present preliminary results from an ongoing phase II trial of chemotherapy and pembrolizumab in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia at the 59th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting in Atlanta on Saturday, Dec.

Scientists from UCLA, National Gallery of Art pioneer new way to analyze ancient artwork
Scientists from UCLA and the National Gallery of Art have used a combination of three advanced imaging techniques to produce a highly detailed analysis of a second century Egyptian painting.

New silicon structure opens the gate to quantum computers
In a major step toward making a quantum computer using everyday materials, a team led by researchers at Princeton University has constructed a key piece of silicon hardware capable of controlling quantum behavior between two electrons with extremely high precision.

Transfusion dependence a barrier to quality end-of-life care for some with leukemia
For patients with advanced leukemia, access to high-quality end-of-life care appears to be reduced in those dependent on blood transfusions, according to a new study being presented during the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta.

Turning pathogens against each other to prevent drug resistance
Limiting a much-needed resource could pit pathogens against one another and prevent the emergence of drug resistance.

Researchers find simpler way to deposit magnetic iron oxide onto gold nanorods
Researchers have found a simpler way to deposit magnetic iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles onto silica-coated gold nanorods, creating multifunctional nanoparticles with useful magnetic and optical properties.

Saturn's rings cast shadows, affect the planet's ionosphere
Data collected by the Cassini spacecraft, before it was deliberately crashed into Saturn's atmosphere in September 2017, show that the planet's illustrious rings are casting a shadow in ionized particles over the planet.

Tumors heat up
Nanorods made of bismuth sulfide kill tumor cells with heat when they are irradiated with near-infrared light (NIR).

Violence a matter of scale, not quantity, researchers show
Researchers at the University of Notre Dame studying violence found the larger the population of a society, the smaller its war group size, proportionally -- which means fewer casualties in a conflict.

Liver cancer: Lipid synthesis promotes tumor formation
Lipid, also known as fat, is an optimal energy source and an important cell component.

Researchers at Mount Sinai and Sema4 develop powerful new method for microbiome analysis
This approach can identify antibiotic resistance and virulence markers missed by conventional techniques.

New research links brain structure with hallucinations and musical aptitude
New research published in Schizophrenia Research conducted at the University of Liverpool links brain structure to an individual's likelihood of experiencing hallucinations and to their musical aptitude.

Single-dose vaccine could provide faster protection in cholera epidemics
Each year there are more than three million cases of cholera worldwide.

New therapies improve outlook for bleeding and clotting disorders
In three studies being presented today during the 59th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta, researchers report remarkable benefits from new, more easily administered therapies for bleeding and clotting disorders, including hemophilia A and people with cancer experiencing venous thromboembolism.

Battery research could triple range of electric vehicles
New research at the University of Waterloo could lead to the development of batteries that triple the range of electric vehicles.

Major cause of dementia discovered
An international team of scientists have confirmed the discovery of a major cause of dementia, with important implications for possible treatment and diagnosis.

Insights on how SHARPIN promotes cancer progression
SBP and Technion Institute researchers have SHARPIN-ed their knowledge of how a malicious form of a protein drives the formation of melanoma through modulation of the PRMT5 pathway.

Report: New system for more accurate cancer staging to aid precision medicine
Adding a blood test called liquid biopsy to a standard tissue biopsy could significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment for patients with cancer, according to researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

A global north-to-south shift in wind power by end of century
Wind resources in the next century may decrease in many regions in the Northern Hemisphere -- and could sharply increase in several hotspot regions down south.

Ben-Gurion U. researcher indicates nicotine replacement is safer for pregnant women than smoking
Smoking during pregnancy is the most significant, preventable risk factor for poor maternal and infant health outcomes.

WSU chemists develop novel Washington Red dye for bio-imaging
Washington State University scientists have created an injectable dye that illuminates molecules with near infrared light, making it easier to see what is going on deep inside the body.

Financial incentives may increase breastfeeding rates
Offering new mothers financial incentives may significantly increase low breastfeeding rates, new research from the University of Sheffield and the University of Dundee has found.

World-first uses satellites and ocean models to explain Antarctic seafloor biodiversity
In a world-first, a research team of Australian and international scientists has used data collected by satellites and an ocean model to explain and predict biodiversity on the Antarctic seafloor.

Your mood depends on the food you eat, and what you should eat changes as you get older
Diet and dietary practices differentially affect mental health in young adults versus older adults, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Private sector support is key to reducing emissions in the Middle East and North Africa
Air quality experts from the University of Surrey are calling on private businesses to help the Middle East and North African (MENA) region reduce harmful emissions after conducting a comprehensive review on air pollution.

Novel framework to infer microbial interactions
Inferring the underlying ecological networks of microbial communities is important to understanding their structure and responses to external stimuli.

Updated brain cell map connects various brain diseases to specific cell types
Researchers have developed new single-cell sequencing methods that could be used to map the cell origins of various brain disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

People aged 75 years and older are underrepresented in blood cancer clinical trials
In the first comprehensive analysis of clinical trial enrollment among older adults with blood cancers, researchers from the US FDA found significant gaps in participation among those aged 75 and older when considered against the incidence of these malignancies in this age group, according to research being presented today during the 59th ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition in Atlanta.

African deforestation not as great as feared
The loss of forests in Africa in the past century is substantially less than previously estimated, an analysis of historical records and paleontology evidence by Yale researchers shows.

Study: Most enrolled in Michigan's Medicaid expansion already either work or can't work
Nearly half of the people who enrolled in Medicaid after it expanded in Michigan have jobs, a new study finds.

New research identifies how 3-D printed metals can be both strong and ductile
A new technique by which to 3-D print metals, involving a widely used stainless steel, has been show to achieve exception levels of both strength and ductility, when compared to counterparts from more conventional processes.

Kidney disease increases risk of diabetes, study shows
Diabetes is known to increase a person's risk of kidney disease.

Scientists discover possible master switch for programming cancer immunotherapy
Researchers from The Scripps Research Institute and the University of California, San Diego report the discovery that a protein called 'Runx3' programs killer T cells to establish residence in tumors and infection sites.

Use of chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer declines, Stanford-led study says
A study of nearly 3,000 women with early stage breast cancer indicates a recent, significant decline in the use of chemotherapy despite the lack of any change in national treatment recommendations or guidelines, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of Michigan.

How Zika virus induces congenital microcephaly
Epidemiological studies show that in utero fetal infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) may lead to microcephaly, an irreversible congenital malformation of the brain characterized by an incomplete development of the cerebral cortex.

Artificial intelligence and supercomputers to help alleviate urban traffic problems
Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and the City of Austin have developed a tool that uses artificial intelligence to recognize objects in raw traffic camera footage and characterize how those objects move and interact.

Bacteria development marks new era in cellular design
Scientists have built a miniature scaffold inside bacteria that can be used to bolster cellular productivity, with implications for the next generation of biofuel production.

New study identifies genetic basis for western corn rootworm resistance in maize
Farmers are stuck. Western corn rootworm can destroy cornfields -- and profits -- but populations of the 'billion-dollar bug' have stopped responding to insecticides and the genetically modified corn hybrids designed to resist insect attacks.

Managing concerning behaviors when opioids are taken for chronic pain
Patients receiving long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain sometimes demonstrate challenging and concerning behaviors, such as using more opioid medication than prescribed or concomitant alcohol or drug use.

Research shows why meteroids explode before they reach Earth
When a meteor comes hurtling toward Earth, the high-pressure air in front of it seeps into its pores and cracks, pushing the body of the meteor apart and causing it to explode.

Omalizumab improves efficacy of oral immunotherapy for multiple food allergies
Combining a 16-week initial course of the medication omalizumab with oral immunotherapy (OIT) greatly improves the efficacy of OIT for children with allergies to multiple foods, new clinical trial findings show.

Using software, researchers predict tumor markers that could be immune targets
Researchers report at the 59th Annual American Society for Hematology Annual Meeting in Atlanta on Saturday, Dec.

The direct route from A to C
We use specialized nerve cells for spatial orientation. The place cells fire whenever we stay in a particular place.

Technology developed by LSUHealthNo to drive advances in obesity-related diseases
For the first time, researchers led by Frank Lau, MD, Assistant Professor of Clinical Surgery at LSU Health New Orleans, have successfully kept white fat tissue alive outside of the body for up to eight weeks.

Quantum effects explain changes in nanometric circuit electron flows
Study may contribute to the feasibility of transistors with electrical currents consisting of the passage of one single electron at a time, with applications for future computers.

Large genetic study links tendency to undervalue future rewards with ADHD, obesity
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have found a genetic signature for delay discounting -- the tendency to undervalue future rewards -- that overlaps with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), smoking and weight.

Tiny ice losses at Antarctica's fringes can accelerate ice loss far away
It is known that the ice shelves surrounding the continent regulate the ice flow from the land into the ocean.

Discovery sets new world standard in nano generators
A team of University of Alberta engineers has developed a new way to produce electrical power that can charge handheld devices or sensors that monitor anything from pipelines to medical implants.

Radar tracking reveals how bees develop a route between flowers
As bees gain foraging experience they continually refine both the order in which they visit flowers and the flight paths they take between flowers to generate better and better routes, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London.

Rice University advances asphalt-based filter to sequester greenhouse gas at wellhead
Rice University scientists discovered that adding a bit of water to asphalt-derived porous carbon greatly improves its ability to sequester carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, at natural gas wellheads.

Graphene spin transport takes a step forward towards applications
Researchers from the Graphene Flagship have predicted and demonstrated a giant spin anisotropy in graphene, paving the way for new spintronic logic devices.

Injuries from window blinds send two children to the emergency department every day
almost 17,000 children under six years of age were treated in hospital emergency departments in the US for window blind-related injuries from 1990 through 2015, averaging almost two per day.

Blueprints for anti-cancer drugs discovered in bacterial genomes
New research suggests these hidden genes hold the blueprints for designing new, even more effective cancer-targeting compounds.

Survivorship care plan improves cancer care-related distress levels for HCT recipients
Survivorship care plan improves patient cancer care-related distress levels for hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Two holograms in one surface
Engineers at Caltech have developed a way to encode more than one hologram in a single surface with no loss of resolution.

Cold suns, warm exoplanets and methane blankets
Three million years ago, the sun shone weaker, but Earth stayed surprisingly warm.

NASA shows new Tongan island made of tuff stuff, likely to persist years
In late December 2014, a submarine volcano in the South Pacific Kingdom of Tonga erupted, sending a violent stream of steam, ash and rock into the air.

Protein Daple coordinates single-cell and organ-wide directionality in the inner ear
Sensory hair cells in the inner ear combine into hair bundles to convert sound waves into electrical signals.

Multiple health implications of women's early marriage go beyond early childbearing
A new study of four South Asian countries argues that early marriage should be considered a major public health issue, due to its complex associations with women's education, health and nutrition -- which may also affect the next generation of children.

Payment incentives to psychiatrists in Ontario do not increase access for new patients
Incentive payments, introduced to encourage community-based psychiatrists to see new patients after discharge from a psychiatric hospital or following suicide attempts, do not increase access, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Percutaneous coronary intervention is a well-justified option also in severe coronary artery disease
The treatment of left main coronary artery disease by percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with a smaller risk of severe cardiovascular events than coronary artery bypass grafting in the weeks following surgery.

Scientists identify promising new approach for immune system defense against cancer
Researchers have identified a promising new strategy to fight infections and cancer.

Yeast can be engineered to create protein pharmaceuticals
It took several years, but a research team headed by Professor Jens Nielsen at Chalmers University of Technology has finally succeeded in mapping out the complex metabolism of yeast cells.

Unravelling the mysteries of extragalactic jets
University of Leeds researchers have mathematically examined plasma jets from supermassive black holes to determine why certain types of jets disintegrate into huge plumes.

Researchers peer under the hoods of neural networks
In several recent papers, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and the Qatar Computing Research Institute have used a recently developed interpretive technique, which had been applied in other areas, to analyze neural networks trained to do machine translation and speech recognition.

Cascading use is also beneficial for wood
Another ten years -- that is approximately how long sustainable forestry will be able to satisfy the continuously growing demand for wood.

Glass with switchable opacity could improve solar cells and LEDs
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania have created glass that lets through a large amount of light while appearing hazy, a combination of properties that could help boost the performance of solar cells and LEDs.

Health warnings on cigarettes could deter young people
Young people are less likely to try cigarettes with the printed health warning 'Smoking kills' on each stick than standard cigarettes, according to a new study by Cancer Research UK published in Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

A diamond as the steppingstone to new materials, using plasma physics technology
University of Alabama at Birmingham physicists have taken the first step in a five-year effort to create novel compounds that surpass diamonds in heat resistance and nearly rival them in hardness.

'Death receptors' -- New markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have found that the presence of death receptors in the blood can be used to directly measure the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

Does prescription opioid use by one household member increase risk of prescribed use in others?
Living in a household with a prescription opioid user may be associated with increased risk of prescription opioid use by other household members.

Reductions in individual plant growth sometimes boost community resilience
In sports, sometimes a player has to take one for the team.

Stable quantum bits
Physicists from Konstanz, Princeton and Maryland created a stable quantum gate as a basic element for the quantum computer.

High-intensity exercise delays Parkinson's progression
High-intensity exercise three times a week is safe for individuals with early-stage Parkinson's disease and delays progression of motor symptoms, reports a new study of individuals with the disease.

UCI scientists unveil new satellite-based global drought severity index
Just in time for the holidays, researchers at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions are rolling out a new satellite-based drought severity index for climate watchers worldwide.

How do you track a secretive hawk? Follow the isotopes
A study by the University of Cincinnati found that the rare Henst's goshawk of Madagascar hunts lemurs in low-lying areas that are most at risk to deforestation.

CAR T-cell therapies drive outcomes in lymphoma, myeloma
For people with certain types of aggressive, refractory blood cancers, treatment options are woefully limited.

Presurgical imaging may predict whether epilepsy surgery will work
A statistical approach to combining presurgical PET scans and functional MRI of the brain may help predict which patients with drug-resistant epilepsy are most likely to benefit from surgery.

Russian scientists developed new approaches to treating diabetes
'We decided to create new approaches to prevention and treatment of diabetes by using synthesized anti-diabetic chemical compounds.

Presenting facts as 'consensus' bridges conservative-liberal divide over climate change
New evidence shows that 'social facts' highlighting expert consensus changes perceptions across US political spectrum -- particularly among highly educated conservatives.

Hyperlens crystal capable of viewing living cells in unprecedented detail
A fundamental advance in the quality of an optical material used to make hyperlenses makes it possible to see features on the surface of living cells in greater detail than ever before.

Medicaid expansion popular among Americans connected to program
A concerted effort by Republicans in Congress to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act hit a surprising road block earlier this year: strong pushback against cuts to Medicaid.

Stress hormone may identify family members likely to suffer from anxiety after loved one's ICU care
When a loved one has been hospitalized in intensive care for a critical illness, many family members experience anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress or other negative effects lasting months, according to new research.

Midwife and signpost for photons
Targeted creation and control of photons: This should succeed thanks to a new design for optical antennas developed by Würzburg scientists.

Immunotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma -- novel research highlights quality of life benefits
Researchers have presented the association between tumor response and health-related quality of life in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma treated with avelumab.

Shatter-proof mobile phone screens a step closer with ANU research
An international study on glass led by The Australian National University (ANU) and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris in France could lead to the development of shatter-proof mobile phone screens.

The origin of the Andes unravelled
Why do the Andes exist? Why is it not a place of lowlands or narrow seas?

Major life events shared on social media revive dormant connections, study shows
New research from the University of Notre Dame examines the impact of major life events, on social network evolution, which, the study shows, has important implications for business practices, such as in marketing.

Typhoid fever toxin has a sweet tooth
Although the insidious bacterium Salmonella typhi has been around for centuries, very little is actually known about its molecular mechanisms.

Selecting sounds: How the brain knows what to listen to
How is it that we are able--without any noticeable effort--to listen to a friend talk in a crowded café or follow the melody of a violin within an orchestra?

Scientists sug­gest ti­ta­ni­um nit­ri­de in­ste­ad of gold in op­to­e­lec­tro­nics
An international team of scientists from Russia, Sweden and the USA suggested replacing gold and silver, which are used in optoelectronic devices, with an inexpensive material of titanium nitride.

Pathological mechanisms in congenital myotonic dystrophy unveiled
Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is a severe form of myotonic dystrophy characterized by muscle fiber immaturity not observed in adult DM, suggesting specific pathological mechanisms.
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