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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | January 31, 2018


Stealth virus for cancer therapy
Scientists from the University of Zurich have redesigned an adenovirus for use in cancer therapy.
MD Anderson study evaluates need for biopsies during follow-up care in women with early breast cancer
In an analysis of more than 120,000 women diagnosed with and treated for early-stage breast cancer, researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center determined the rate of additional breast biopsies needed for these patients during their follow-up care.
The science behind the fizz: How the bubbles make the beverage
From popping a bottle of champagne for a celebration to cracking open a soda while watching the Super Bowl, everyone is familiar with fizz.
Cancer patients: Web-based help improves quality of life
A diagnosis of cancer causes huge psychological stress, but many patients do not receive any psychological support.
Discovery of molecular nets inside heart muscles hold promise for new treatment
Local researchers have discovered that a group of molecules, called chondroitin sulfate, normally found only in connective tissues such as the cartilage, accumulates and causes inflammation in the hearts of patients with heart failure.
New report evaluates the VA's mental health services, finds substantial unmet need
While the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides mental health care of comparable or superior quality to care provided in private and non-VA public sectors, accessibility and quality of services vary across the VA health system, leaving a substantial unmet need for mental health services among veterans of the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Spinal cord injury research: Bonus benefit to activity-based training
Researchers in the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (KSCIRC) at the University of Louisville have discovered that the training, designed to help individuals with SCI improve motor function, also leads to improved bladder and bowel function and increased sexual desire.
Dating partners more violent and account for more domestic violence than spouses
More than 80 percent of intimate partner violence reported to local police involves current and former boyfriends and girlfriends, according to research from Susan B.
Galaxies that feed on other galaxies
An international team of astronomers led by Giuseppina Battaglia, researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), finds signs that the outer halo of the Milky Way contains stellar remains of massive dwarf galaxies that were devoured by our own.
Forest conservation can have greater ecological impacts by allowing sustainable harvesting
New research at the University of Missouri has found that forest owners at greater risk of illegally cutting trees from their forests prefer to participate in conservation programs that allow sustainable timber harvesting.
Fitness in childhood linked to healthy lungs in adulthood
Children who are fitter and whose fitness improves during childhood and adolescence have better lung function as young adults, according to a large study published in the European Respiratory Journal.
Rutgers engineers 3-D print shape-shifting smart gel
Rutgers engineers have invented a '4-D printing' method for a smart gel that could lead to the development of 'living' structures in human organs and tissues, soft robots and targeted drug delivery.
Chlorinated lipids predict lung injury and death in sepsis patients
Researchers studied blood samples taken from patients diagnosed with sepsis and found that elevated chlorinated lipids predicted whether a patient would go on to suffer acute respiratory distress symptom (ARDS) and die within 30 days from a lung injury.
ID'ing features of flu virus genome may help target surveillance for pandemic flu
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified features of the influenza virus genome that affect how well the virus multiplies.
Kids born later in the year can still excel in sport
A child's birth month shouldn't affect their long-term prospects in high-level sport and those who hold off on specialising until later years may be the most successful, according to new research from the University of Sydney.
Study reveals substantial impact of chronic diseases on cancer risk
Several common chronic diseases together account for more than a fifth of new cancer cases and more than a third of cancer deaths, finds a study published by The BMJ today.
HKBU study reveals human skin flakes lead to bad smell in air-conditioning systems
Skin squames are a source of food for the bacteria found in air-cooling units, which produce odours even in a dust-free air-conditioning system, a research by Hong Kong Baptist University scholars revealed.
How can students with autism be supported through college?
Thirty years ago it was rare for a student with ASD to enter college.
These bacteria produce gold by digesting toxic metals
High concentrations of heavy metals, like copper and gold, are toxic for most living creatures.
Teens need vigorous physical activity and fitness to cut heart risk
Guidelines for teenagers should stress the importance of vigorous physical activity and fitness to cut the risk of heart disease, new research suggests.
Body movements just need a 'puff' of dopamine to get started
A new study in mice suggests that a burst of dopamine levels at the beginning of a movement only, as opposed to all the time, is what gets us going.
Indigenous people face higher risk of transportation injuries in British Columbia
Indigenous people in British Columbia suffered transportation-related injuries at a rate 1.89 times higher than the province's total population between 1991 and 2010, a new University of BC study has found.
Scientists join international research team in discovery that could improve HD TV
Scientists at Queen's University Belfast have been working as part of an international team to develop a new process, which could lead to a new generation of high-definition (HD), paving the way for brighter, lighter and more energy efficient TVs and smart devices.
Tasty and pink, sea urchin species may be a climate-tolerant food source
A hardy urchin species shows potential to relieve pressure on more vulnerable species, according to new research by California Sea Grant-funded scientists.
'Anxiety cells' identified in the brain's hippocampus
Researchers have identified cells in the brains of mice that indicate when the animal is anxious.
Interstellar molecules inspire new transformations
When illuminating with LED light, chemists at ICIQ generated carbynes, a highly reactive chemical species that allowed them to modify drugs like anticancer paclitaxel, antidepressant duloxetine and NSAID ibuprofen.
A mutational timer is built into the chemistry of DNA
Scientists have discovered that DNA contains a kind of built-in timer that clocks the frequency with which mutations occur.
Following ISIS captivity, Yazidi women suffering from high percentage of C-PTSD
From what long-term psychological effects are Yazidi women suffering after being captured, raped, beaten, and locked away by ISIS?
Colorado potato beetle genome gives insight into major agricultural pest
A team of scientists led by University of Wisconsin-Madison entomologist Sean Schoville sequenced the Colorado potato beetle's genome, probing its genes for clues to its surprising adaptability to new environments and insecticides.
Overabundance of massive stars in the Tarantula Nebula
An international team of astronomers with participation of researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL) has revealed an 'astonishing' overabundance of massive stars in a neighbouring galaxy.
Maternal age over 40 is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth
Pregnant mothers aged 40 and over may have an increased risk for preterm birth, regardless of confounding factors, according to a study published Jan.
CALIFA renews the classification of galaxies
This project, in which the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) is collaborating, has made a map with 300 galaxies close to the Milky Way, which they have classified on the basis of the way the stars are moving, rather than using the morphological classification used until now.
A glimpse in the flora of Southeast Asia puts a spotlight on its conservation
Covering only 3 percent of Earth's total land area, four overlapping biodiversity hotspots in South East China -- Indo-Burma, Philippines, Sundaland and Wallacea -- are estimated to be the home of the astonishing 20 to 25 percent of higher plant species in the area.
Living too far from advanced cardiac care decreases your odds of survival
A new study published in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology determined that patients with acute cardiac syndrome (ACS) and cardiogenic shock (CS), who live far from the only cardiac catheterization facility in Nova Scotia, Canada, have a survival rate about half that of patients with more direct access.
Eye and heart complications are tightly linked in type 1 diabetes
People with chronic kidney disease have much higher risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death for those with type 1 diabetes.
Stroke recovery improved by sensory deprivation, mouse study shows
Mice that had experienced strokes were more likely to recover the ability to use a front paw if their whiskers were clipped following a stroke.
Falling IQ scores in childhood may signal psychotic disorders in later life
New research shows adults who develop psychotic disorders experience declines in IQ during childhood and adolescence, falling progressively further behind their peers across a range of cognitive abilities.
Cells rockin' in their DNA
Kyoto University Researcher find that some mechanosensitive genes are suppressed when subjected to audible sound.
Standing several hours a day could help you lose weight, Mayo Clinic research finds
Standing instead of sitting for six hours a day could help people lose weight over the long term, according to a Mayo Clinic study published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.
Glory from gloom
A dark cloud of cosmic dust snakes across this spectacular wide field image, illuminated by the brilliant light of new stars.
T cell therapy shows persistent benefits in young leukemia patients
Updated results from a global clinical trial of the CAR T-cell therapy, tisagenlecleucel, a landmark personalized treatment for a high-risk form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), reveal that children and young adults continued to show high rates of durable, complete remission of their disease.
Early access to palliative care associated with better quality of life
Patients with advanced cancer have a significantly better quality of life in the weeks before they die if they receive early access to palliative care, according to research published today.
New universe simulation prompts breakthrough discoveries in astrophysics
Novel computational methods have helped create the most information-packed, universe-scale simulation ever produced.
America's child poverty rate remains stubbornly high despite important progress
While many American families have experienced economic gains, children are still most likely to live in households too poor to cover their basic needs.
Small molecule plays a big role in reducing cancer's spread
One small molecule that helps regulate gene expression plays a big role in keeping us safe from the machinations of cancer, scientists report.
Pulling an all-nighter impairs working memory in women
Over the last few decades, a wealth of evidence has accumulated to suggest that a lack of sleep is bad for mind and body.
Smog-forming soils
A previously unrecognized source of nitrogen oxide is contributing up to about 40 percent of the NOx emissions in California, according to a study led by the University of California, Davis.
New explanation for why airways close in asthma holds promise for future class of drugs
Houston Methodist researchers have a new explanation for what causes the lungs' airways to close during asthma attacks that could change the lives of the 300 million people worldwide who suffer from asthma.
Migraine linked to increased risk of cardiovascular problems
Migraine is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular problems (conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels) including heart attacks, stroke, blood clots and an irregular heart rate, say researchers in a study published by The BMJ today.
NASA finds Extra-Tropical Cyclone Fehi sheared
Tropical Cyclone Fehi has transitioned into an extra-tropical cyclone was wind shear pushed the bulk of clouds and thunderstorms south of its center.
All in the family: Relatives of Zika virus may cause birth defects
Relatives of Zika virus can damage developing fetuses in mice and were able to replicate in human maternal and fetal tissues, researchers report.
Stand up -- it could help you lose weight
You might want to read this on your feet. A new study published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology found that standing instead of sitting for six hours a day could prevent weight gain and help people to actually lose weight.
Skin-inspired coating that's as hard as teeth and can heal itself
Self-healing smart coatings could someday make scratches on cell phones a thing of the past.
Vitiligo treated successfully with arthritis drug and light therapy
Building on prior research that examined the use of an arthritis medication to treat vitiligo, a team of Yale dermatologists has successfully applied a novel combination therapy -- the medication and light -- to restore skin color in patients.
University of Minnesota study shows wetlands provide landscape-scale reduction in nitrate pollution
A study by University of Minnesota researchers provides new insights to demonstrate that multiple wetlands or 'wetland complexes' within a watershed are extremely effective at reducing harmful nitrate in rivers and streams.
Balance exercises may help people with multiple sclerosis
MINNEAPOLIS - A special program that involves balance and eye movement exercises may help people with multiple sclerosis (MS) with their balance problems and fatigue, according to a study published in the Jan.
NETs will not compensate for inadequate climate change mitigation efforts: EASAC report
A new report confirms that negative emission technologies (NETs) offer only 'limited realistic potential' to remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and not at the scale envisaged in some climate scenarios.
Taking the long view: US scientists affirm value of long term research
A new Yale-led study provides a detailed glimpse into how the US ecological community views the direction of long-term research, its critical role in the advancement of knowledge, and research areas that scientists believe should be prioritized in the future.
Trust is good, quantum trickery is better
An international team of scientists prove, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don not have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not.
Confirmed: Black holes regulate star formation in massive galaxies
An International team with participation by researchers with close links to the IAC, obtains the first clear observational evidence that the mass of the supermassive central black hole in a massive galaxy affects the formation of new stars during its lifetime.
Columbia engineers develop flexible lithium battery for wearable electronics
Columbia Engineering researchers have developed a prototype of a high-performance flexible lithium-ion battery that demonstrates?concurrently?both good flexibility and high energy density.
Prenatal famine drives DNA methylation and adult health six decades later
Epigenetic fine-tuning of genes involved in development and metabolism plays a key role in the link between prenatal famine exposure and adult metabolic health.
Slow but steady: New study sheds light on the brain evolution of turtles
A new study led by the University of Birmingham shows that the brain of turtles has evolved slowly, but constantly over the last 210 million years, eventually reaching a variety in form and complexity, which rivals that of other animal groups.
Development of egg white-based strong hydrogel via ordered protein condensation
How to Cook Egg to Tough Material: Egg white-based strong hydrogel was created.
ColoradoSPH research uncovers risk factors for mysterious kidney disease in farm workers
Previous studies have identified an illness called 'Mesoamerican Nephropathy,' also referred to as Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Origin (CKDu).
Penn engineering research gives optical switches the 'contrast' of electronic transistors
Penn Engineers have taken an important step toward the creation of a working optical transistor: precisely controlling the mixing of optical signals via tailored electric fields, and obtaining outputs with a near perfect contrast and extremely large on/off ratios.
Catheter ablation better than pharmacological atrial fibrillation therapies
A new study revealed patients receiving radiofrequency catheter ablation compared to traditional drug therapies for atrial fibrillation (AF), a contributing factor to heart failure, had significantly lower hospitalization and mortality rates.
Materials research team lights the way for more efficient LEDs
NRL researchers, working with an international team of physicists, show that cesium lead halide perovskites nanocrystals emit light much faster than conventional light emitting materials, enabling more efficient lasers and LEDs.
In-person license renewal tied to fewer crash hospitalizations of drivers with dementia
Requiring physicians to report patients with dementia to state driver's licensing authorities is not associated with fewer hospitalizations from motor vehicle crashes.
Letting molecular robots swarm like birds
A team of researchers from Hokkaido University and Kansai University has developed DNA-assisted molecular robots that autonomously swarm in response to chemical and physical signals, paving the way for developing future nano-machines.
Improving the sensitivity for ionic solutes analysis
Japanese researchers have found that using electrodialytic ion transfer to enrich ionic solutes in aqueous sample before detection is a highly effective method to improve the sensitivity of analytical systems.
The same psychological mechanism explains violence among Muslim and Western extremists
Why do some Westerners attack Muslim minorities and asylum seekers and why do some Muslims support and engage in terror against the West?
Lone star ticks not guilty in spread of Lyme disease
The bacteria that cause Lyme disease are transmitted to humans primarily by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
NASA's GPM probes Category 4 Tropical Cyclone Cebile
NASA's GPM Probes Category 4 Tropical Cyclone Cebile NASA analyzed a major tropical cyclone spinning in the Southwestern Indian Ocean and measured its rainfall.
MIT engineers explore microfluidics with LEGO bricks
The field of microfluidics involves minute devices that precisely manipulate fluids at submillimeter scales.
The potential impact of hydraulic fracturing on streams
Concerns over hydraulic fracturing, an oil and gas extraction method that injects millions of gallons of freshwater and chemicals into shale, have largely focused on potential impacts on water quality.
From fungi to humans, 'smart valves' assist communication within, between cells
Googling 'SNARE proteins,' neuroscientist Edward Chapman gets a screenful of images showing corkscrew-shaped molecules, intertwined as they seize the outer membranes of two cells.
IAC astronomers find one of the first stars formed in the Milky Way
Researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) have identified, using the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) a star which is a key to the formation of the first chemical elements in the Galaxy.
The influence of hydropower dams on river connectivity in the Andes Amazon
Hydropower dams in the Andes Amazon significantly disturb river connectivity in this region, and consequently, the many natural and human systems these rivers support, according a new study.
Prostate cancer: Poor prognosis in men with diabetes
Men with type 2 diabetes are less likely to develop prostate cancer than patients without diabetes.
Biomarker tests could someday help improve outcomes for organ transplant patients
Organ transplants save lives, but the story doesn't end when a patient emerges from the operating room.
Emission from the centre of a galaxy has a serpentine shape
An international group of scientists led by members of the National Instituto of Astrophysics (Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino (INAF-OATo) with participation by researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the La Laguna University (ULL) has discovered a peculiar spiral jet with many twists.
News about Tabby's star, the most mysterious star of 2017
Several telescopes of the Canary Island Observatories are studying this controversial star in a coordinated campaign involving over a hundred professional and amateur astronomers throughout the world, among them researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL).
HPV may lurk in your throat
URMC researchers found human papilloma virus (HPV), the culprit behind cervical and head and neck cancers, hiding in small pockets on the surface of tonsils.
NASA confirms re-discovered IMAGE satellite
The identity of the satellite re-discovered on Jan. 20, 2018, has been confirmed as NASA's IMAGE satellite.
Faculty research describes how ions play key roles in controlling mucosal surfaces
Two recent papers from KGI Professor James Sterling and Shenda Baker, President and COO at Synedgen, describe how ions interact with the mucosal surface glycans to ensure health.
Coastal water absorbing more carbon dioxide
New research by a University of Delaware oceanographer and colleagues at other universities reveals that the water over the continental shelves is shouldering a larger than expected portion of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Diabetes management improved in high-risk population through community program
An ethnic population at high risk for Type 2 diabetes achieved significant control of the disease through participation in community-based health programs, according to a randomized controlled trial published Jan.
Reconstructing an ancient lethal weapon
University of Washington researchers reconstructed prehistoric projectiles and points from ancient sites in what is now Alaska and studied the qualities that would make for a lethal hunting weapon.
Interventions increase attendance for diabetic retinopathy screening, says study
Targeted interventions can significantly improve screening for diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes and the leading cause of vision loss amongst working-age adults in the Western word, according to a new Cochrane Systematic Review.
New parasitoid wasp likely uses unique saw-like spines to break out of its host body
A newly discovered parasitoid wasp species from Costa Rica might be only slightly larger than a sesame seed, yet it has quite vicious ways when it comes to its life as an insect developing inside the body of another.
Gene enhancers are important despite apparent redundancy
Scientists answered a long-standing question about the role of enhancers.
How black holes shape the cosmos
Astrophysicists from Germany and the USA gained new insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies.
Who's still smoking: Report highlights populations still at risk
Although tobacco control measures have reduced overall smoking rates in the United States, a new report says several vulnerable subpopulations continue to smoke at high rates.
Lab-on-a-chip for tracking single bacterial cells
Researchers at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, together with researchers from the Max Planck Institute in Dresden, have set up a novel lab-on-a-chip with accompanying automatic analysis software.
Kids' well visits linked to lower appendicitis complications
The study suggests that families with an established relationship with their primary care doctor are more likely to seek emergency care promptly when a child is experiencing painful symptoms.
Scientists reveal the evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China
The research team led by Dr. CHEN Zhiduan from the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), in collaboration with other researchers have investigated the spatial and temporal divergence patterns of 92 percent of the angiosperm flora in China.
McGill research team studies how calcium compounds accumulate in the arteries
McGill research team studies how calcium compounds accumulate.
Deaths from liver cancer nearly double since the 1990s, new figures reveal
Over the last two decades, deaths caused by liver cancer have increased by 80 percent, making it one of the fastest-growing causes of cancer deaths worldwide.
Early benefit assessments: 220th dossier assessment completed by the turn of the year
A host of dossiers assessed by IQWiG to date have addressed oncology drugs.
Brain's insular cortex mediates approach and avoidance responses to others in distress
Searching for clues to complex social behaviors, experiments found that laboratory rats - much like humans - will approach distressed juveniles but avoid distressed adults -- responses known as social affective behaviors, Boston College researchers report in Nature Neuroscience.
Like Zika, West Nile virus causes fetal brain damage, death in mice
Two viruses closely related to Zika -- West Nile and Powassan -- can spread from an infected pregnant mouse to her fetuses, causing brain damage and fetal death, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Dinosaur age meets the space age at NASA Goddard
A slab of sandstone found on the campus of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland may help scientists rewrite the history of mammal and dinosaur co-existence during the Cretaceous era.
Machine learning techniques generate clinical labels of medical scans
Researchers used machine learning techniques, including natural language processing algorithms, to identify clinical concepts in radiologist reports for CT scans.
The amazing flexibility of red blood cells
Red blood cells must be flexible to squeeze through tiny capillaries to deliver oxygen.
Cancer 'vaccine' eliminates tumors in mice, Stanford researchers find
Injecting minute amounts of two immune-stimulating agents directly into solid tumors in mice can eliminate all traces of cancer in the animals, including distant, untreated metastases, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
New and highly sensitive ELISA technique for bioanalysis of bevacizumab
Bevacizumab is an anti-growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody, it is the antiangiogenic agent at the most advanced stage of development in the treatment of NSCLC.This drug was selected because of its inter individual differences in clinical response, its therapeutic importance in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Evolution of China's flowering plants shows East-West divide between old, new lineages
An international team of scientists has mapped the evolutionary relationships between China's 30,000 flowering plant species, uncovering a distinct regional pattern in biodiversity.
Computer models reveal best way to kill deadly bacteria
In a new study, USC Viterbi School of Engineering professors used computer-based models to identify mechanisms or 'strategies' used by bacterial spores to evade attack from extreme temperatures, chemicals and radiation.
Getting ready for the summer sun with 'green' sunscreens
Although it's been a tough winter for many people in the US, summer is coming.
BA or DA? Decoding syllables to show the limits of artificial intelligence
By recording brain activity during a simple task, neuroscientists from UNIGE and ENS show that the brain does not necessarily use the regions of the brain identified by machine learning to perform a task.
Most of last 11,000 years cooler than past decade in North America, Europe
Natural fluctuations in climate have occurred over past millennia, which would have naturally led to climatic cooling today in the absence of human activity.
0.5 percent of the population suffer from severe psychological trauma
Trauma-related disorders were previously classified under one single diagnosis -- post-traumatic stress disorder.
Dishonest individuals perceived as less capable
If you saw someone steal an expensive item from a department store, would you think he is less capable at his job?
Pandemic risk: How large are the expected losses?
Greater investment is needed to prepare against pandemics -- the worldwide spread of an infectious disease.
Landmark international study: CAR T-cell therapy safe and effective in youth with leukemia
Results of the global, multicenter, pivotal phase 2 study that led to the first FDA approval of a gene therapy/cell therapy approach known as CAR T-cell therapy, were published today in the New England Journal of Medicine.
In the pipeline: A solution to a 130-year old problem
A twist on a textbook physics experiment sheds light on a complex phenomenon in fluid dynamics.

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