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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 23, 2018


New link between gut bacteria and obesity
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a new link between gut bacteria and obesity.
Transforming patient health care and well-being through lighting
The world of health care is changing rapidly and there is increased interest in the role that light and lighting can play in improving health outcomes for patients and providing healthy work environments for staff, according to many researchers.
Fear and hoping: Adding hope to health messages may motivate better behaviors
While fear about health concerns may grip people, adding a little hope to a message might make people more willing to take preventative actions, according to researchers.
Scientists take step toward safer batteries by trimming lithium branches
A collaborative team of researchers from Shinshu University in Japan have found a new way to curb some of the potential dangers posed by lithium ion batteries.
Stem cell study may result in stronger muscles in old age
As we grow older, our muscular function declines. A new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows how an unexpectedly high number of mutations in the stem cells of muscles impair cell regeneration.
Attosecond physics: A keen sense for molecules
Munich based Laser physicists have developed an extremely powerful broadband infrared light source.
Researchers combine metalens with an artificial muscle
Inspired by the human eye, researchers at the Harvard John A.
Evaluation of I-TOPP examines outcomes of transdisciplinary doctoral training program
Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has doubled in 2- to 5-year-olds and tripled in children aged 6 to 11 years.
China's two-child policy may exacerbate gender inequality
Since China ended its one-child policy allowing all families to have up to two children, an additional 90 million women have become eligible to have a second child.
Combating sulphuric acid corrosion at wastewater plants
Writing in Water Research, Austrian researchers from TU Graz and the University of Graz discuss new materials that prevent damage from microbial induced concrete corrosion.
Looking for an off switch for celiac disease
New research published in the Feb. 23 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry identifies an enzyme that turns off transglutaminase 2, potentially paving the way for new treatments for celiac disease.
NASA's SDO Reveals How Magnetic Cage on the Sun Stopped Solar Eruption
A dramatic magnetic power struggle at the Sun's surface lies at the heart of solar eruptions, new research using NASA data shows.
On second thought, the Moon's water may be widespread and immobile
A new analysis of data from two lunar missions finds evidence that the Moon's water is widely distributed across the surface and is not confined to a particular region or type of terrain.
Model based on hydrothermal sources evaluate possibility of life Jupiter's icy moon
Brazilian scientists compare primitive Earth scenario with satellite Europa's conditions; the jupiterian moon could host microorganisms at the bottom of a huge warm ocean located underneath its frozen crust.
Domestic goat dating back to the Neolithic Corded Ware period identified in Finland
Goat hairs have been found in a grave structure that was discovered in the 1930s in Kauhava, western Finland.
Study: Police use of force is rare, as are significant injuries to suspects
Police officers rarely use force in apprehending suspects, and when they do they seldom cause significant injuries to those arrested, according to a multi-site study published in the March issue of the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.
Complex inhalers prevent patients from taking medicine
Respiratory disease patients with arthritis could struggle to manage their conditions because their inhalers are too fiddly for them to use, University of Bath research has found.
Ice chips only? Study questions restrictions on oral intake for women in labor
At most US maternity units, women in labor are put on nil per os (NPO) status -- they're not allowed to eat or drink anything, except ice chips.
PSU study: Pro-diversity policies make companies more innovative and profitable
PSU business school professor's research shows that companies that hire a more diverse set of employees are rewarded with a richer pipeline of innovative products and a stronger financial position.
Playing both ends: Amphibian adapted to varied evolutionary pressures
Caecilian, Siphonops annulatus, a limbless amphibian found throughout Brazil, has a concentration of enlarged mucous glands in its head region and a concentration of enlarged poison glands in its posterior region.
Impact of misunderstanding genetic tests for heart conditions
Patients who undergo genetic testing for inherited heart disease need to be better informed to know how to interpret the results and understand the impact the results will have on their life, a University of Sydney study has found.
Genetics makes Asians and Europeans susceptible to severe dengue
As globalization and climate change spread tropical infectious diseases around the globe, not all populations have the same degree of susceptibility.
Scientists examine link between surface-water salinity, climate change
A Syracuse University researcher explores the impact of de-icing salt from roads and highways on a local watershed.
Study explores emerging role of NAD+ in innate and adaptive immune responses
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have discovered a new cellular and molecular pathway that regulates CD4+ T cell response -- a finding that may lead to new ways to treat diseases that result from alterations in these cells.
Nanomushroom sensors: One material, many applications
The Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit at OIST has developed new innovative biosensing material for counting dividing cells and detecting biomolecules.
Deep learning reconstructs holograms
Deep learning is one of the most exciting forms of machine learning that is behind several recent leapfrog advances in technology including for example real-time speech recognition and translation as well image/video labeling and captioning, among many others.
Crop-saving soil tests now at farmers' fingertips
Soil pathogen testing -- critical to farming, but painstakingly slow and expensive -- will soon be done accurately, quickly, inexpensively and onsite, thanks to research that Washington State University scientists plant pathologists are sharing.
SwRI scientist helps characterize water on lunar surface
A Southwest Research Institute scientist with expertise in how water reacts with lunar soil contributed to a new study that indicates water and/or hydroxyl may be more prevalent on the Moon's surface than previously thought.
Dementia increases the risk of 30-day readmission to the hospital after discharge
Until now, little was known about the effects of dementia on early hospital readmission.
Study tracks evolutionary transition to destructive cancer
In a new study, researchers at ASU's Biodesign Institute led an international team to explore how evolutionary processes guide the pathways of cells.
Charging ahead to higher energy batteries
Researchers have developed a new way to improve lithium ion battery efficiency.
Insights into familial middle-age dementia suggest new avenues for treatment
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a common cause of hereditary dementia, but the molecular events driving the disease are poorly understood.
Children's learning is not affected by repeated sick days with fever and infections
Whereas severe infections with long-term hospitalisations can make it more difficult for a child to pass the 9th grade exam, recurring less serious severe infections do not affect children's learning.
Why are there so many types of lizards?
Researchers from Arizona State University School of Life Sciences and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute have sequenced the complete genetic code -- the genome -- of several vertebrate species from Panama.
Young children use physics, not previous rewards, to learn about tools
Children as young as seven apply basic laws of physics to problem-solving, rather than learning from what has previously been rewarded, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
Giant intrinsic chirality from planar dielectric nanostructures
Harvard researchers have developed a metasurface, comprised of a single planar layer of nanostructures, which exhibits strong optical chirality in transmission.
Kids from low-income areas fare worse after heart surgery, finds study
A national study found that children with congenital heart disease from low-income neighborhoods had a higher mortality rate and higher hospital costs after heart surgery compared with similar kids from higher-income neighborhoods.
New approach to improve nitrogen use, enhance yield, and promote flowering in rice
Using nitrogen fertilizer increases crop yields, but excess runoff causes environmental pollution.
New device for low-cost single-cell analysis identifies fibroblast subtypes in RA patients
As described in a study published today in Nature Communications, researchers at the New York Genome Center (NYGC) and New York University (NYU) have taken steps to facilitate broad access to single-cell sequencing by developing a 3-D-printed, portable and low-cost microfluidic controller.
Emergency CT for head trauma may be overused, study shows
Emergency patients are too often given head CT to check for skull fractures and brain hemorrhage, leading to unnecessary heath care costs and patient exposure to radiation, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2018 Annual Meeting, set for April 22-27 in Washington, DC.
The 'loudness' of our thoughts affects how we judge external sounds
The 'loudness' of our thoughts -- or how we imagine saying something -- influences how we judge the loudness of real, external sounds, a team of researchers from NYU Shanghai and NYU has found.
Short-term use of IV devices is common -- and risky -- study shows
Many hospital patients get medicine or nutrition delivered straight into their bloodstream through a tiny device called a PICC.
Almost all adolescents in an economically disadvantaged urban population exposed to tobacco smoke
Ninety-four percent of adolescents ages 13 to 19 in an economically disadvantaged, largely minority population in San Francisco had measurable levels of a biomarker specific for exposure to tobacco smoke (NNAL).
Being raised in greener neighborhoods may have beneficial effects on brain development
A study by ISGlobal, a center supported by the 'la Caixa' Banking Foundation, in collaboration with Hospital del Mar and UCLA's Fielding School of Public Health, shows for the first time that exposure to green space during childhood is associated with beneficial structural changes in the developing brain.
German nights get brighter -- but not everywhere
The nights in the German federal states („Bundesländer
Screening for fracture risk in postmenopausal women is cost-effective
A recent Journal of Bone and Mineral Research analysis indicates that screening for fracture risk in older postmenopausal women is a good use of healthcare resources--in other words, it's cost-effective.
Prevention is better than cure: Targeted vaccination to halt epidemics
Scientists at the Joint Research centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, simulated real-world social networks to assess the best strategies for halting epidemics.
Private browsing gets more private
A new MIT system uses JavaScript decryption algorithms embedded in web pages and code obfuscation to patch security holes left open by web browsers' private-browsing functions.
How cities heat up
New study from MIT and CNRS shows a way to dial down the urban heat island effects that can pump up city temperatures, through different city planning based on classical physics formulas.
A specific new ELISA method for analyzing cetuximab
Cetuximab (CET) is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) used for immunotherapy of different types of cancer.
Inspired by nature: Design for new electrode could boost supercapacitors' performance
Mechanical engineers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science and four other institutions have designed a super-efficient and long-lasting electrode for supercapacitors.
How does GEOS-5-based planetary boundary layer height and humidity vary across China?
Model-simulated factors of importance can fill the gaps in surface observation-based estimates of fine-particulate-matter concentrations, providing a data basis for the long-term analysis of meteorological parameters [e.g., planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and relative humidity (RH)] at the national scale.
Proxima Centauri's no good, very bad day
A team of astronomers led by Carnegie's Meredith MacGregor and Alycia Weinberger detected a massive stellar flare -- an energetic explosion of radiation -- from the closest star to our own Sun, Proxima Centauri, which occurred last March.

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