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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | March 27, 2018


New technique sheds light on body language in job interviews, sales calls, team projects
New system using infrared light tags to monitor interactions could lead to a more precise understanding of how individuals interact in social settings and can increase the effectiveness of communications coaching.
Study reveals lack of self-awareness among doctors when prescribing opioids
As health providers struggle to curb the epidemic of opioid abuse, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that 65 percent of emergency department (ED) physicians surveyed underestimated how often they prescribed the highly addictive pain killers to patients.
Tattoo electrodes from an ink-jet printer
Electrodes for longterm monitoring of electrical impulses of heart or muscles in the form of temporary tattoos produced using an ink-jet printer.
Abnormal brain connections seen in preschoolers with autism
Preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder, or ASD, have abnormal connections between certain networks of their brains that can be seen using a special MRI technique, according to a new study.
Childhood friendships may have some health benefits in adulthood
Time spent with friends in childhood is associated with physical health in adulthood, according to data from a multi-decade study of men.
Mental health issues linked to risky driving in newly licensed teens
Mental health symptoms related to attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder are associated with increased errors in a driving simulator and self-reported risky driving behaviors in adolescents, according to study in Nursing Research, published by Wolters Kluwer.
Multidisciplinary care likely cost-effective for chronic kidney disease patients
Medicare-funded multidisciplinary care programs in the US are likely to be cost-effective in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Eugene Lin from Stanford University, California, USA, and colleagues.
Satellite finds southerly wind shear affecting Tropical Depression Jelawat
Satellite imagery showed that Tropical Depression Jelawat was still dealing with southerly vertical wind shear that was pushing the bulk of its clouds north of its center.
How do snakes eat live crabs? By being finicky diners
University of Cincinnati biologist Bruce Jayne found that three species of Asian water snake use different strategies to prey on similar food resources.
3-DIY: Printing your own bioprinter
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a low-cost 3-D bioprinter by modifying a standard desktop 3-D printer, and they have released the breakthrough designs as open source so that anyone can build their own system.
On cryptocurrency exchanges, it's better to be a miner than a speculator, study finds
Someone who starts mining a crypto-currency shortly after it is listed on exchanges can potentially earn higher returns than average.
Hepatitis C virus screening rates remain low among baby boomers
Despite the steady increase of liver cancer incidence in the United States in recent decades, data from 2015 indicates that less than 13 percent of individuals born between 1945 and 1965 are estimated to have undergone screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Unresolved puzzles in exotic nuclei
In a new review published in EPJ A, Terry Fortune from the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, USA, discusses the structure of unstable and unbound forms of Helium, Lithium, and Beryllium nuclei that have unusually large neutron to proton ratios -- dubbed 'exotic' light nuclei.
New study shows what interstellar visitor 'Oumuamua can teach us
The first interstellar object ever seen in our solar system, named 'Oumuamua, is giving scientists a fresh perspective on how planets, asteroids and comets form.
New technology reveals secrets of famous Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 1
An international team of researchers, led by Dr. Asier Gomez-Olivencia of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and including Binghamton University anthropologist Rolf Quam, has provided new insights on one of the most famous Neandertal skeletons, discovered over 100 years ago: La Ferrassie 1.
Newfound 'organ' had been missed by standard method for visualizing anatomy
Researchers have identified a previously unknown feature of human anatomy with implications for the function of all organs, most tissues and the mechanisms of most major diseases.
UCLA-designed program helps former HIV-positive inmates maintain health after release from jail
Researchers have developed an experimental program to help HIV-positive people maintain their health care regimens after their release from jail.
Detecting diminished dopamine-firing cells inside the brain could reveal earliest signs of Alzheimer
Detecting diminished dopamine-firing cells inside the brain could reveal earliest signs of Alzheimer's disease.
Up to 38 percent of all annual childhood asthma cases in Bradford may be caused by air pollution
New research highlights the impact of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma.
The connection between diet, obesity, and cancer: Nutrition experts explore the evidence
About one third of cancer cases are estimated to be linked to dietary and other modifiable risk factors, especially for obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, ovarian, endometrial, kidney, gallbladder, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers.
Detection of transcranial direct current stimulation deep in the living human brain
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces electric fields (EFs) at subcortical levels of the human brain, report investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina in the March 2018 issue of Brain Stimulation.
Mass extinction with prior warning
Mass extinctions throughout the history of the Earth have been well documented.
A combination of cancer immunotherapies could save more lives
Scientists at the University of Southampton have discovered a new combination of cancer immunotherapy treatment that could improve patients' survival rates.
Survey finds reducing stigma attributed to Alzheimer's is vital to prevention research
Stigma associated with Alzheimer's disease may be an obstacle for individuals to seek information about their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and to participate in clinical studies that discover potential therapies.
Compared to nomadic communities, Silk Road cities were urban food deserts
Like passionate foodies who know the best places to eat in every town, Silk Road nomads may have been the gastronomic elites of the Medieval Ages, enjoying diets much more diverse than their sedentary urban counterparts, suggests a new study in the Nature journal Scientific Reports.
Study examines usability of electronic health records, safety events
The usability of electronic health records may be associated with some safety events where patients were possibly harmed.
New scheduling model puts airlines on equal plane while easing congestion
New study demonstrates how air traffic congestion can be reduced through flight schedules without favoring certain airlines over others.
Exploring the thermoelectric properties of tin selenide nanostructures
Single crystal tin selenide is a semiconductor and an ideal thermoelectric material; it can directly convert waste heat to electrical energy or be used for cooling.
Kansas State University researcher studies risk of African swine fever in feed
A Kansas State University researcher is studying the risk of African swine fever virus in feed and developing ways to prevent the spread of the disease to the US.
Cardiovascular disease and multimorbidity: More from the special issue of PLOS Medicine
This week, publication of a Special Issue on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and multimorbidity continues in PLOS Medicine, advised by guest editors Carolyn S.
Understanding the strange behavior of water
The properties of water have fascinated scientists for centuries, but yet its unique behavior remains a mystery.
The clouds of spaghetti that keep DNA data safe
Cells can avoid 'data breaches' when letting signaling proteins into their nuclei thanks to a quirky biophysical mechanism involving a blur of spaghetti-like proteins, researchers from the Rockefeller University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine have shown.
New 'nanotweezers' open door to innovations in medicine, mobile tech
It's difficult to conceptualize a world where humans could casually manipulate nanoscale objects at will or even control their own biological matter at a cellular level with light.
NASA finds Tropical Cyclone Iris sheared
Tropical Cyclone Iris is being battered by wind shear so strong that it doesn't even look like a circular storm.
Malaria Cell Atlas launched: Parasite development mapped in unprecedented detail
New single-cell technology has allowed scientists to study malaria parasites at the highest resolution to date.
Research shows why we struggle to get good night's sleep as we get older
New research has identified the way age impairs the ability of the circadian clock in mammals to re-set itself when exposed to light, resulting in disruption to sleeping patterns and consequent threats to wellbeing.
Femtosecond laser fabrication: Realizing dynamics control of electrons
Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics.
Newly-discovered planet is hot, metallic and dense as Mercury
A hot, metallic, Earth-sized planet with a density similar to Mercury -- situated 260 million light years away -- has been detected and characterized by a global team of astronomers, including the University of Warwick.
NASA measures Tropical Cyclone Nora's flooding rains in Queensland
NASA used satellite data to calculate the heavy rainfall created by Tropical Cyclone Nora as it came ashore in northwestern Queensland on March 24, 2018.
New device uses biochemistry techniques to detect rare radioactive decays
UTA researchers are now taking advantage of a biochemistry technique that uses fluorescence to detect ions to identify the product of a radioactive decay called neutrinoless double-beta decay that would demonstrate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle.
Hunting turns bear cubs into mama's boys (and girls)
Human hunting changes brown bear reproductive strategies, so that the cubs stay with their mother longer.
Norfolk's iconic swallowtail butterfly at risk from climate change
New research reveals that Norfolk's butterflies, bees, bugs, birds, trees and mammals are at major risk from climate change as temperatures rise.
Preclinical testing suggests some antioxidants may be effective in treating mitochondrial disease
A systematic study of seven antioxidants commonly taken by children and adults affected with mitochondrial disease provides intriguing clues that at least two compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials.
UMN Medical School study uncovers new findings on antimicrobial drug synergy
New data from a study led by researchers from the University of Minnesota Medical School could change how future antimicrobial drug combinations are discovered and developed.
Evaluation and treatment of depression may reverse memory and cognitive difficulties
Individuals with worse depression and mood symptoms are more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to progress from MCI to dementia.
Some e-cigarette ingredients are surprisingly more toxic than others
A new study by UNC School of Medicine researchers shows that e-liquids are far from harmless and contain ingredients that can vary wildly from one type of e-cigarette to another.
CERN experiment sees hints of rare kaon decay: University of Birmingham physicists play leading role
What if the odds of an event occurring were about one in 10 billion?
BIABooster: A more sensitive device for characterizing DNA in blood circulation
Developed and patented in 2012 and 2014 in the Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS-CNRS) and implemented industrially by Picometrics-Technologies, BIABooster technology can characterize DNA with new precision and sensitivity.
Repurposing inhibitors may provide new treatment approach for ovarian cancer
Wistar researchers have found rationale for repurposing a class of antitumor compounds called HDAC inhibitors as a new therapeutic option for ovarian cancer with mutations in the ARID1A gene.
Gene responsible for electric fish 'spark' found in South American ghost knifefish
Unique genetic re-wiring of a sodium channel explains how a family of electric fish can generate the highest frequency of electrical discharge seen in any animal.
What the first American astronauts taught us about living in space
Project Mercury proved that humans could live and work in space, paving the way for all future human exploration.
Prosthetic memory system successful in humans, study finds
Scientists at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the University of Southern California have demonstrated the successful implementation of a prosthetic system that uses a person's own memory patterns to facilitate the brain's ability to encode and recall memory.
Researchers charge ahead to develop better batteries
They die at the most inconvenient times. Cellphones go dark during important conversations because a battery hasn't been recharged.
Humans risked limb ischemia in exchange for bipedal walking
The micro X-ray CT was established through joint engineering and medical research, and allows for the visualization of tiny structures in three dimensions.
How to deal with embarrassing situations
Feelings of embarrassment can be overcome through mental training. This is the finding of a study published in Springer's journal Motivation and Emotion.
Parts of the Amazon thought uninhabited were actually home to up to a million people
Parts of the Amazon previously thought to have been almost uninhabited were really home to thriving populations of up to a million people, new research shows.
Montana State researchers find that beetle odor could help tackle tamarisk
The Montana State University team found that a synthetic version of a pheromone produced by northern tamarisk beetles could be used to double the effectiveness of the beetles in controlling the invasive shrub.
Estrogen levels do not rise for transgender men treated with testosterone therapy
Testosterone therapy is not associated with a rise in estrogen levels among transgender men, according to a new study led by Boston Medical Center (BMC).
Study highlights need for better treatment of heart failure patients
Research highlights the most predominant symptoms of heart failure comorbidities.
What else can molecular perovskite do?
Combining good detonation performance, high stability and low cost is the major hindrance on high-performance explosives.
From lullabies to live concerts: How music and rhythm shape our social brains
A universal sign of motherhood is the lullaby. The world over, mothers sing to their babies, whether Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, their favorite song from the radio, or even random notes.
Heather Whitson, leader in multimorbidity care, to deliver #AGS18 Yoshikawa Lecture
The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and the AGS Health in Aging Foundation today announced that Heather E.
NREL discovers enzyme domains that dramatically improve performance
It was more than 10 years in the making, but when it came to uncovering the secrets of the molecular structure of enzymes, perseverance paid off.
Foul ball! Time to abolish rule protecting MLB from liability when fans are injured
In advance of Major League Baseball's opening day on Thursday, new research from Indiana University's Kelley School of Business suggests that the risk of fans being hit by a foul ball or errant bat at games has increased in recent years.
Vagus nerve stimulation boosts post-stroke motor skill recovery
Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas have demonstrated a method to accelerate motor skill recovery after a stroke by helping the brain reorganize itself more quickly.
New research shows how submarine groundwater affects coral reef growth
Although submarine groundwater is natural, it can act as a conduit for highly polluted water to shorelines.
Honeybees may unlock the secrets of how the human brain works
Sheffield academics have discovered honeybee colonies adhere to the same laws as the brain when making collective decisions.
Kent physiotherapist contributes to guidelines for knee cartilage treatment
A Kent physiotherapist contributes to international guidelines for knee cartilage treatment.
Antibiotic use increases risk of severe viral disease in mice
Doctors recommend against taking antibiotics for viral infections because they don't work -- antibiotics don't kill viruses -- and do promote antibiotic resistance.
Patients more likely to accept robotic dentistry for non-invasive procedures
In an online survey of 502 individuals (260 female), participants were 'significantly less willing to undergo more invasive procedures, such as gum surgery and a root canal, and significantly more willing to undergo procedures such as tooth cleaning or whitening performed by a robot,' Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University researchers said.
Gene therapy may help brain heal from stroke, other injuries
Scientists have found a genetic trigger that may improve the brain's ability to heal from a range of debilitating conditions, from strokes to concussions and spinal cord injuries.
Decline in deaths from most infectious diseases in US, large differences among counties
Deaths due to most infectious diseases decreased in the United States from 1980 to 2014, although there were large differences among counties.
Research hints at double the driving range for electric vehicles
When it comes to the special sauce of batteries, researchers at PNNL have discovered it's all about the salt concentration.
Coding at birth: Nuffield Council on Bioethics publishes briefing note on whole genome sequencing of babies
The Nuffield Council on Bioethics has today published a briefing note that examines the ethical issues raised by whole genome sequencing of babies.
New report recommends a nationwide effort to better estimate methane emissions
The US should take bold steps to improve measurement, monitoring, and inventories of methane emissions caused by human activities, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
The future of photonics using quantum dots
Fiber-optic cables package everything from financial data to cat videos into light, but when the signal arrives at your local data center, it runs into a silicon bottleneck.
Marijuana may lead non-smokers to cigarettes
While cigarette smoking is declining, marijuana use is rising and, disproportionately, marijuana users also smoke cigarettes.
Moving light-dark exposure could reduce disruption faced by night shift workers
New research published in The Journal of Physiology shows that our brain clock can be shifted by light exposure, potentially to align it with night shift patterns.
Teaching machines to spot the essential
Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics.
High doses of antiviral drug may be effective against Ebola
High doses of favipiravir extended survival in non-human primates infected with Ebola virus, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Jeremie Guedj of INSERM, France, and colleagues.
Genome does not like to excessively change in male germ cells
Osaka University researchers report the function of GTSF1 in germ cells.
A new non-destructive technique to detect single quantum level phonons
The precision measurement of phonons, the smallest energy quanta of mechanics, has always been the main constraint to the development of various quantum application technologies.
Research Brief: Older adults often prescribed meds linked to higher side effect risks
Drugs with high-risk anticholinergic properties can lead to risks of developing serious adverse events, such as cognitive impairment, falls, dementia, and even mortality in older adults.
'AGameOfClones': Identification of transgenic organisms
Researchers at Goethe University Frankfurt have developed a concept called 'AGameOfClones,' which allows to distinguish easily whether transgenic organisms carry an inserted foreign gene on one or on both chromosomes.
Sediment core from sluice pond contains evidence for 1755 New England earthquake
Signs of a 1755 earthquake that was strong enough to topple steeples and chimneys in Boston can be seen in a sediment core drawn from eastern Massachusetts' Sluice Pond, according to a new report published in Seismological Research Letters.
Johns Hopkins investigators unravel biological roots of pulmonary hypertension
Working with cells that line the innermost layer of the blood vessels, Johns Hopkins investigators say they have made a leap forward in understanding the underlying biology behind pulmonary hypertension, a dangerous type of high blood pressure in lungs that ultimately leads to right heart failure and death.
MSU-based bioinformaticians studied the evolution of broken genes in a fruit fly
Pseudogenes lose their ability to encode proteins and natural selection stops to notice them, as no mutations in such genes can be harmful.
Treating menopause symptoms reduces abdominal fat tissue
Women who undergo hormone therapy to relieve menopausal symptoms tend to have less fat tissue, particularly in the abdomen, than other menopausal women, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Tackling adherence to treatment on several fronts
Learning to become self-sufficient and responsible is part of life's journey through the teen and young adult years.
Untangling the role of climate on sediment and reef evolution over millennial timescales
Climatic variability like precipitation changes or increase in extreme events such as storms and tropical cyclones is known to significantly modify the Earth's surface.
Some e-cigarette ingredients are more toxic than others
A new study shows that e-liquids in e-cigarettes are potentially far from harmless and contain ingredients that can vary wildly from one type of e-cigarette to another.
Despite reductions in infectious disease mortality in US, diarrheal disease deaths on the rise
Deaths from infectious diseases have declined overall in the United States over the past three decades.
Putting quantum scientists in the driver's seat
An interdisciplinary, interdepartmental group of scientists at ORNL conducted fundamental physics studies at the nanoscale to support development of experimental platforms that will control dissipation in quantum systems and materials.
Surgeons transform static 'Mona Lisa' smiles to joyous ones
By modifying a muscle transplant operation, Johns Hopkins surgeons report they are able to restore authentic facial expressions of joy -- wide and even smiles -- to selected patients with one-sided facial muscle paralysis due to birth defects, stroke, tumors or Bell's palsy.
Screening high-risk individuals can reduce multiple myeloma mortality
Multiple myeloma is a rare incurable disease that is diagnosed in more than 30,000 people each year in the United States.
Molecular prison forces diatomic inmates to cell floor
A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it.
Detecting diminished dopamine-firing cells inside brain could reveal earliest signs of Alzheimer's
A new link between diminished input from dopamine-firing cells deep inside the brain and the ability to form new memories could be crucial in detecting the earliest signs of Alzheimer's disease.
New study on nicotinic receptors & LT memory paves way for targeted dementia therapy
A new University of Bristol study, which identifies how acetylcholine impacts learning and memory by acting at different receptors, could prove significant in the drive to develop more targeted and effective therapies for dementia.
A football coach's overconfidence has a positive impact on the team's result
Experts of the Higher School of Economics have determined that the overconfidence of head football coaches is positively connected with the results of the team.
Salvage logging is often a pretext for harvesting wood
An increasing proportion of the world's protected forests are subject to extensive logging activities.
AI improves touchscreen interfaces for users with impairments
A new AI method adapts touchscreen interfaces to make more out of the capabilities of aging users and users with disabilities.
Paper-folding art inspires better bandages
Cutting kirigami-style slits in stretchy films could make for stickier bandages, heat pads, wearable electronics, according to a new study by MIT engineers.
Narcissists don't hunt for partners who are already taken -- but it doesn't stop them
Narcissists aren't necessarily on the hunt for partners who are already in a relationship - but that doesn't appear to stand in their way, either, new research suggests.
Strategic expression
Psychology professor's new research reveals facial expressions as tools for social influence.
Genes in songbirds hold clues about human speech disorders, UCLA biologists report
New insights about how songbirds learn to sing provide promising clues about human speech disorders and may lead to new ways of treating them.

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