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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | April 13, 2018


Scientists find positive workplace experiences among Americans with disabilities
A multidisciplinary team of researchers at Kessler Foundation and the University of New Hampshire, Institute on Disability (UNH-IOD), have authored a new article that identifies how Americans with disabilities are striving to work and overcoming barriers to employment.
A novel precision cancer model opens doors to personalized cancer treatment
Researchers from the Seve Ballesteros Foundation-CNIO Brain Tumour Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have developed an extremely powerful and versatile mouse model that will improve cancer research and accelerate preclinical testing of novel targeted therapies.
A Web-based lifestyle intervention supports weight loss in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
A remote lifestyle modification intervention shown to be as effective as a face-to-face group program for weight loss and improved liver health.
Phase 2 studies of two novel treatments for primary biliary cholangitis report encouraging results
Ongoing Phase 2 studies of tropifexor and seladelpar report promising preliminary efficacy, safety and tolerability results, paving the way for longer-term studies in patients with primary biliary cholangitis
Evidence mounts for Alzheimer's, suicide risks among youth in polluted cities
A University of Montana researcher and her collaborators have published a new study that reveals increased risks for Alzheimer's and suicide among children and young adults living in polluted megacities.
NGM282 -- an engineered analogue of FGF19 -- shows promise in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis
A Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study reports significant improvements in markers of disease activity and fibrosis with subcutaneous NGM282 in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.
To starve pancreatic tumors, researchers seek to block 'self-eating,' other fuel sources
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers and their collaborators are reporting preclinical findings for a potential two-treatment strategy to block multiple mechanisms of cancer cell metabolism in pancreatic cancer at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting in Chicago.
Breakthrough brings gene-editing medicine one step closer to patient applications
Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a way to greatly improve the accuracy of gene-editing technology by replacing the natural guide molecule it uses with a synthetic one called a bridged nucleic acid, or BNA.
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) fails to extend survival in the SORAMIC study palliative cohort
ILC 2018: The addition of SIRT to sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with no overall survival benefits compared with sorafenib alone, but may offer benefits in some subgroups of patients
Polymer synthesis gets a jolt of caffeine
Using caffeine as a catalyst, MIT researchers have devised a way to create gummy, biocompatible gels that could be used for drug delivery and other medical applications.
Measuring the risks of extreme temperatures on public health
Heat and cold waves affect people with certain health conditions differently, highlighting the need for tailored public service risk communication.
Artificial intelligence accelerates discovery of metallic glass
Combining artificial intelligence with experimentation sped up the discovery of metallic glass by 200 times.
HCV-related liver transplantation and post-transplant survival rates in Europe have improved rapidly in the era of direct-acting antiviral drugs
HCV-related liver transplantation and post-transplant survival rates in Europe have improved rapidly in the era of direct-acting antiviral drugs.
Brief exposure to tiny air pollution particles triggers childhood lung infections
New study, 'Short-Term Elevation of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infection,' is the largest to date on this health concern, involving more than 100,000 patients.
For racial minority adolescents, cigarette and alcohol use linked to suicidality
Examining more than 20 years of national data for US adolescents, a research team led by Andrew Subica at the University of California, Riverside reports that adolescents have high prevalence of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, and concerning rates of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors.
Lack of sleep may be linked to risk factor for Alzheimer's disease
Losing just one night of sleep led to an immediate increase in beta-amyloid, a protein in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease, according to a small, new study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
Family support networks in Peruvian barrios help to prevent child labor
A survey carried out among parents in high-risk contexts shows that schools in barrios on the outskirts of Lima are a central part of life of the community, as they allow families from the district to start and develop relationships with each other; and they serve as points of access for valuable resources from outside the barrio.
US study reports dramatic reduction in likelihood of liver transplantation in patients with hepatoce
ILC 2018: Although hepatocellular carcinoma is now the leading indication for liver transplantation in the USA, the probability of patients receiving a transplant has declined significantly in recent years.
'Gayborhoods' still home to subtle discrimination
Despite claiming to support gay rights, many straight people who live in traditionally gay neighborhoods still practice subtle forms of discrimination when interacting with their gay and lesbian neighbors.
Quantum physicists achieve entanglement record
Entanglement is of central importance for the new quantum technologies of the 21st century.
Transfer learning meets livestock genomics
Researchers at Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) have developed a new computational method that predicts harmful mutations in mammalian species.
Long-term obeticholic acid treatment leads to reversal or stabilization of fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with PBC
After three years of treatment with obeticholic acid, 85 percent of patients with PBC and an incomplete response to UDCA experienced stabilization or regression of fibrosis/cirrhosis in the POISE biopsy sub-study.
The memory part of the brain may also hold clues for anxiety and depression
New research finds that the hippocampus may yield important clues for a range of mental health illnesses including addition, anxiety and depression.
Omega-3s from fish oil supplements no better than placebo for dry eye
Omega-3 fatty acid supplements taken orally proved no better than placebo at relieving symptoms or signs of dry eye, according to the findings of a well-controlled trial funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Extreme climate variability destabilizing West Coast ecosystems
Extreme climate variability over the last century in western North America may be destabilizing both marine and terrestrial ecosystems.
Budesonide add-on therapy improves markers of disease activity but fails to improve histology in patients with primary biliary cholangitis
A randomized, placebo-controlled study reports that budesonide add-on therapy improves biochemical markers of disease activity but not histology in high-risk patients with primary biliary cholangitis with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid.
Hepatitis C virus elimination programmes report encouraging results: Is elimination within reach?
ILC 2018: National programmes in Georgia and Iceland report high levels of engagement, treatment initiation, and cure, suggesting HCV elimination targets are achievable.
Sustained virological response to oral hepatitis C virus treatment associated with reduced mortality in an Italian cohort
A large-scale, real-world data on the course of liver disease after clearance of HCV with direct-acting antiviral agents show reduced risk of death at all stages of disease.
Crowded urban areas have fewer songbirds per person
People in crowded urban areas -- especially poor areas -- see fewer songbirds such as tits and finches, and more potential 'nuisance' birds, such as pigeons, magpies and gulls, new research shows.
Psst! A whispering gallery for light boosts solar cells
Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices.
Tiny structures -- huge impact
Materials scientists at Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany) are researching how they can tailor the surfaces of different materials using laser technology.
Engineers propose coordinated control to assist drivers
Engineers have proposed a coordinated control architecture for motion management in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to increase safety and comfort across all vehicles, regardless of ADAS specifics.
Demonstration of world record: 159 Tb/s transmission over 1,045 km with 3-mode fiber
NICT and Fujikura developed a 3-mode optical fiber, capable of wide-band wavelength multiplexing transmission with standard outer diameter and have successfully demonstrated a transmission experiment over 1,045 km with a data-rate of 159 Tb/s.
Observing biological nanotransporters
A research team of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) was able to describe with atomic detail how molecules are transported through biological membranes.
Automated analysis of biopsy samples enables rapid and reproducible quantification of NASH disease activity
Automated analysis of biopsy samples enables rapid and reproducible quantification of NASH disease activity ILC 2018: New deep-learning approach to pattern recognition in liver biopsy samples enables automated scoring of ballooning and inflammation in a pre-clinical model of NASH.
Cytoplasmic streaming is involved in the transmission of signals within giant cells in Chara algae
Chara algae are ancient plant organisms that are commonly found in freshwater reservoirs and occur, though more rarely, in water bodies with salt water.
A heavyweight solution for lighter-weight combat vehicles
Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed and successfully tested a novel process -- called Friction Stir Dovetailing -- that joins thick plates of aluminum to steel.
Scientists use machine learning to speed discovery of metallic glass
Blend two or three metals together and you get an alloy that usually looks and acts like a metal, with its atoms arranged in rigid geometric patterns.
Blocking matrix-forming protein might prevent heart failure
Scientists used an experimental targeted molecular therapy to block a matrix-forming protein in heart cells damaged by heart attack, reducing levels of scarred muscle tissue and saving mouse models from heart failure.
Individual impurity atoms detectable in graphene
A team including physicists from the University of Basel has succeeded in using atomic force microscopy to clearly obtain images of individual impurity atoms in graphene ribbons.
Army researchers conduct first-ever combustion experiment with X-rays
The US Army Research Laboratory's Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Propulsion made an historic first with its experiment in a gas turbine combustor using X-rays.
The secret behind a choice cuppa or a perfect pint -- a mathematician
Professor William Lee shows how the science of math can aid the profits of industry.
Germany: compensated cirrhosis substantially increases comorbidities and healthcare costs for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Compensated cirrhosis substantially increases comorbidities and healthcare costs for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Mount Sinai research on omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for dry eye
Results show the supplement is no better than placebo in relieving signs and symptoms of disease.
Hubble catches a colossal cluster
This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a massive galaxy cluster glowing brightly in the darkness.
When superconductivity disappears in the core of a quantum tube
Predicting the behaviour of electrons in a material is not easily done.
Sensor strategy a boon for synthetic biology
Rice University synthetic biologists have invented a technology to dial up or down the sensitivity of bacterial biosensors.
Tungsten 'too brittle' for nuclear fusion reactors
Researchers find tungsten -- a favored choice of metal within the reactor -- is liable to become brittle, leading to failure.
New study finds omega-3 fatty acid supplements ineffective in treating dry eye disease
Findings from a new randomized clinical trial, now show that contrary to long-held beliefs, omega-3 supplements are no more effective than placebo at alleviating dry eye symptoms.
New qubit now works without breaks
An international group of scientists from Russia, the United Kingdom, and Germany have presented an alternative qubit design which can be used to build a quantum computer.
Newly identified bacteria may help bees nourish their young
A team of researchers at the University of California, Riverside have isolated three previously unknown bacterial species from wild bees and flowers.
Scholars: In #MeToo movement, lessons of restorative and transitional justice important
A new paper from a team of University of Illinois legal scholars argues that reformers of the burgeoning #MeToo movement ought to heed the core principles of restorative and transitional justice and take into account the needs of both victims and offenders, as well as the larger community.
Self-inflicted gunshot wound survivors may deny suicide attempt, face barriers to care
Researchers have found that more than one-third of patients who denied that their self-inflicted gunshot wound resulted from a suicide attempt most likely had indeed tried to kill themselves, and commonly were sent home from the hospital without further mental health treatment.
Similar charges are attracted to each other
NUST MISIS scientists have finally found out why a material that could potentially become the basis for ultra-fast memory in new computers is formed.
Alzheimer plaque affects different brain cells differently
Amyloid beta, a protein linked with Alzheimer's disease, has different properties in different cell types in the brains of fruit flies.
Temperature affects insecticide efficacy against malaria vectors
Ambient temperature has a marked effect on the toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides for malaria control, according to a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal).
Flaxseed-like particles can now grow bone, cartilage tissues for humans
Human stem cells have shown potential in medicine as they can transform into various specialized cell types such as bone and cartilage cells.
First global carbon dioxide maps produced by Chinese observation satellite
An Earth observation satellite, called TanSat, has produced its first global carbon dioxide maps.

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