Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 23, 2018
NASA's GPM sees Tropical Cyclone Fakir forming near Madagascar
The southwest Indian Ocean cyclone season started on November 15, 2017 and will officially end on April 30, 2018.

Odd one out: Protein goes against the family to prevent cancer donate
Melbourne researchers have made the surprise discovery that the 'odd one out' in a family of proteins known to drive cancer development is instead critical for preventing stomach cancers.

Translating elephant seal data into a symphony provides surprising insights
Sonification of 10 years of oceanic migration of these seals reveals coordinated swimming.

People with false-positive cancer screening results may be more likely to receive future screening
An analysis of electronic medical records indicates that patients who previously had a false-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test are more likely to obtain future recommended cancer screenings.

New cell therapy aids heart recovery -- without implanting cells
A team led by Columbia University Biomedical Engineering Professor Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic has designed a creative new approach to help injured hearts regenerate by applying extracellular vesicles secreted by cardiomyocytes rather than implanting the cells.

Did last ice age affect breastfeeding in Native Americans?
Biologists have been puzzled by the evolutionary adaptation behind a common tooth trait of northern Asians and Native Americans: shovel-shaped incisors.

Asthma and hay fever linked to increased risk of psychiatric disorders
A new study is the first to find a significant link between asthma, hay fever and a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders.

What the oldest peace treaty in the world teaches us
Today's peace symbols go back to antiquity -- According to archaeologists, peace images were widespread, especially during wars, despite glorification of war -- Oldest peace treaty attests to long negotiations instead of triumphant victory -- Bronze-colored statue of Eirene shown for the first time -- International Peace Conference of the Cluster of Excellence

New research modernizes rammed earth construction
A building method as old as dirt is being re-examined as a 'new' and viable modern construction material.

Measles vaccination gaps in teenagers and young adults highlighted in ECDC's report
ECDC data show that up to 80 percent of teenagers and young adults who contracted measles in 2017 had not been vaccinated.

Evaluation of induced membrane vesicles fusion specificity with target cells
Extracellular vesicles (EV) represent a promising vector system for biomolecules and drug delivery due to their natural origin and participation in intercellular communication.

Hippo pathway found essential to orchestrate the development of the heart
A team of researchers has discovered that during development, when progenitor heart cells progressively differentiate into various cell types, the Hippo pathway is essential to coordinate the progress of these cell types into a working heart

How to hijack degrading complexes to put cancer cells asleep
Palbociclib is a drug used for the treatment of advanced estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer.

Bias keeps women with higher body weights away from the doctor -- Drexel study
The stigma of weight and internalized feelings relating to it were found in a Drexel University study to be associated with healthcare avoidance in women with higher body weights.

Dementia trend shows later onset with fewer years of the disease
People may be deteriorating into dementia later in life and living with it for a shorter period of time, a new study suggests.

Why have all Western-owned digital firms failed in China?
Cass Business School publishes new study examining the failures of Western-owned digital firms in China and why this phenomenon is singularly prevalent in this region.

Depressed, inactive and out of work -- study reveals lives of lonely young adults
New research from King's College London shows that lonely young adults are more likely to experience mental health problems and more likely to be out of work than their peers.

Size, structure help poziotinib pose threat to deadly exon 20 lung cancer
A drug that failed to effectively strike larger targets in lung cancer hits a bulls-eye on the smaller target presented by a previously untreatable form of the disease, researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report in Nature Medicine.

Hacking human 'drug trafficking' network could make diabetes treatments more effective
Making tiny changes to existing diabetes treatments can alter how they interact with cells, and potentially make the medicines more effective.

Could eating moss be good for your gut?
An international team of scientists including the University of Adelaide has discovered a new complex carbohydrate in moss that could possibly be exploited for health or other uses.

Five new blanket-hermit crab species described 130 years later from the Pacific
Unlike most hermit crabs, the blanket-hermit crab does not use empty shells for protection, and instead lives symbiotically with a sea anemone.

Found: A new form of DNA in our cells
In a world first, Australian researchers have identified a new DNA structure -- called the i-motif -- inside cells.

Young athletes interested in healthy protein, not French fries
The greasy food being served at hockey rinks isn't really what young hockey players want, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.

Trees with grassy areas soften summer heat
Trees cool their environment and 'heat islands' like Munich benefit from it.

New UTSA study shows wearable technology also contributes to distracted driving
A new study by Murtuza Jadliwala, assistant professor of computer science at The University of Texas at San Antonio, examines wearable technology and whether it affects drivers' concentration.

How your brain learns to expect mud puddles in the park (and other things)
Whenever there's a mismatch between what you expect to experience and what you actually experience, the brain has to register the error and update your expectation.

Eating more fish could prevent Parkinson's disease
Parvalbumin, a protein found in great quantities in several different fish species, has been shown to help prevent the formation of certain protein structures closely associated with Parkinson's disease.

Audit finds biodiversity data aggregators 'lose and confuse' data
Both online repositories the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) were found to 'lose and confuse' portions of the data provided to them, according to an independent audit of ca.

Attosecond physics: Molecules brilliantly illuminated
A new high-power laser system generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum.

Hungry birds as climate change drives food 'mismatch'
Warmer springs create a 'mismatch' where hungry chicks hatch too late to feast on abundant caterpillars, new research shows.

Vitamin A derivative selectively kills liver cancer stem cells
Acyclic retinoid, an artificial compound derived from vitamin A, has been found to prevent the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer.

Acute aortic dissection should be suspected with pulse or neurologic deficit and hypotension
In the appropriate clinical setting, suspicion for acute aortic dissection should be raised when patients present with findings that have a high specificity and high positive likelihood ratio (hypotension, pulse deficit, or neurologic deficit).

Swirling liquids work similarly to bitcoin
The physics involved with stirring a liquid operate the same way as the mathematical functions that secure digital information.

New guideline: Start taking MS drugs early on
For most people, it's better to start taking drugs for multiple sclerosis (MS) early on rather than letting the disease run its course, according to a new guideline for treating MS from the American Academy of Neurology.

Scientists create innovative new 'green' concrete using graphene
A new greener, stronger and more durable concrete that is made using the wonder-material graphene could revolutionise the construction industry.

Study: Health benefits will offset cost of China's climate policy
China's climate policy should pay for itself: A new MIT study finds that a four percent reduction per year in carbon emissions should net the country $339 billion in health savings.

What effect do new guidelines have on prevalence of high blood pressure in children?
More US children are considered to have elevated blood pressure under new guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Face recognition for galaxies: Artificial intelligence brings new tools to astronomy
A machine learning method called 'deep learning,' which has been widely used in face recognition and other image- and speech-recognition applications, has shown promise in helping astronomers analyze images of galaxies and understand how they form and evolve.

Six in 7 women at high risk of breast cancer shun tamoxifen as a preventative measure
Six in seven women with a family history of breast cancer opt out of taking tamoxifen as a preventative measure, according to a study funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment today.

Middle East energy subsidy reform updates 'patronage-based autocratic governance'
A series of converging trends provided political cover for the reforms of long-standing energy subsidies launched by oil-exporting states in the Middle East and North Africa, according to a new paper by an expert in the Center for Energy Studies at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

How do you get teens to stop cellphone use while driving? Survey says, show them the money
Teens who admit to texting while driving may be convinced to reduce risky cellphone use behind the wheel when presented with financial incentives such as auto-insurance apps that monitor driving behavior, according to a new survey.

Galaxies grow bigger and puffier as they age: New study
A new international study involving the Australian National University and the University of Sydney has found that galaxies grow bigger and puffier as they age.

Special series examines the use of pasteurized donor human milk for vulnerable infants
If the use of mother's own milk is contraindicated (such as with a HIV positive mothers) or if a mother is unable to produce enough milk to meet her infant's needs, pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) is the recommended alternative.

Vigorous physical activity may be linked to heightened risk of motor neurone disease
Vigorous physical activity, either in leisure time or in work, may be linked to a heightened risk of developing motor neurone disease, also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS for short, suggests research published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

Study highlights need for strength training in older women to ward off effects of aging
Study looked at 46 women across two different age ranges, 60-74 and 75-90, to learn how physical activity affects frailty differently in the two groups.

Market failure, fake news and the First Amendment
The rise of social media and fake news challenge long-held assumptions about the First Amendment and are undermining the functioning of the 'the marketplace of ideas,' a Duke professor argues in a new article.

New study shows prenatal cannabis use associated with low birth weights
With marijuana use during pregnancy on the rise, a new study led by the Colorado School of Public Health shows that prenatal cannabis use was associated with a 50 percent increased likelihood of low birth weight, setting the stage for serious future health problems including infection and time spent in neonatal intensive care units.

Organic solar cells reach record efficiency, benchmark for commercialization
In an advance that makes a more flexible, inexpensive type of solar cell commercially viable, University of Michigan researchers have demonstrated organic solar cells that can achieve 15 percent efficiency.

Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy makes a window into the nanoscale
From energy materials to disease diagnostics, new microscopy techniques can provide more nuanced insight.

Carbon capture could be a financial opportunity for US biofuels
With recent tax credits and other policies, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it underground is not only possible but profitable for US biofuel refineries.

Johns Hopkins performs first total penis and scrotum transplant in the world
Many soldiers returning from combat bear visible scars, or even lost limbs, caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices, or IEDs.

BU: Guns used in cross-border crimes originate from states with more lax laws
Opponents of gun control have frequently pointed to high rates of gun violence in cities such as Chicago to argue that strong state gun control laws are not effective.

A blood test when it is safe to return to play after a sports-related concussion
A high-sensitive blood test can aid concussed hockey players when it might be safe to return to play.

New control strategy helps reap maximum power from wind farms
Researchers from the University of Texas at Dallas developed a way to extract more power from the wind.

Telling job seekers how many other people have applied could boost diversity
Telling job applicants how many people applied for a job on LinkedIn - regardless of whether the number of applicants was high or low - increased the number of applications, a finding that could help companies that are seeking more diverse applicant pools, according to new research from Tufts University economist Laura Gee.

Sense of control and meaning helps protect women from anxiety
People who feel in control of their lives and who find purpose and meaning in life are less likely to have anxiety disorders even when going through the toughest times, according to a study led by the University of Cambridge.

Why freeloader baby-eating ants are welcomed to the colony
It might seem surprising that a colony of ants would tolerate the type of guests that gobble both their grub and their babies.

Animal cyborg: Behavioral control by 'toy' craving circuit
Children love to get toys from parents for their birthday present.

Scientists identify genetic catalysts that speed up evolution of antibiotic resistance
Researchers at Oxford University have shown that it is possible to identify genetic catalysts that accelerate the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria -- and that this knowledge could be used to design treatments to stifle the development of resistance.

ASU team discovers a new take on early evolution of photosynthesis
A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences has begun re-thinking the evolutionary history of photochemical reaction centers (RCs).

Earth BioGenome Project aims to sequence genomes of 1.5 million species
An international consortium of scientists is proposing a massive project to sequence, catalog and analyze the genomes of all eukaryotic species on the planet, an undertaking the researchers say will take 10 years, cost $4.7 billion and require more than 200 petabytes of digital storage capacity.

Let it go: Mental breaks after work improve sleep
If you've had a bad day at work thanks to rude colleagues, doing something fun and relaxing after you punch out could net you a better night's sleep.

Nanomedicine: Drugs can be made 'smarter'
A new method has been developed to make drugs 'smarter' using nanotechnology so pharmacologists can tailor their drugs to more accurately target an area on the body, such as a cancer tumour.

Prolonged acetaminophen use during pregnancy linked to increased ASD and ADHD risk
Acetaminophen is one of the most common medications used for treatment of pain and fever reduction during pregnancy and is considered safe in humans.

Study finds differences in immune cells in pediatric asthma patients based on socioeconomic status
There are considerable socioeconomic disparities in asthma control among children, but the molecular origins of these disparities are not well understood.

Where you live is more influential than where you worship in shaping racial attitudes
Whites in multiracial congregations have more diverse friendship networks and are more comfortable with minorities -- but that is more because of the impact of neighbors and friends of other races than due to congregations' influence, a Baylor University study has found.

Climate change intensifies droughts in Europe
Global warming will exacerbate soil droughts in Europe - droughts will last longer, affect greater areas, and have an impact on more people.

MSU scientists rolled 2-D cadmium telluride up into nanoscrolls
A team of scientists from the Faculty of Chemistry and the Faculty of Materials Science, MSU together with foreign colleagues discovered that two-dimensional sheets of cadmium telluride can spontaneously fold into nanoscrolls.

First genetic evidence of ongoing mating between 2 distinct species of guenon monkeys
A new study of guenon monkeys in Gombe National Park is the first to provide genetic evidence of ongoing mating between two distinct species.

Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have succeeded in observing the behavior of epidermal cells for the regeneration of smooth skin without remaining scar tissue using their model animal, the zebrafish.

Physicists gain control over transitions between different states of matter
An international group of physicists managed for the first time to experimentally observe the transition between two different states of matter: propagating polariton-solitons and a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Saving a penalty: How science helps predict the score
Ever since the first penalty kicks were introduced to soccer in 1891, experts, coaches and supporters have puzzled over the question of why some goalkeepers are better at stopping penalties than others.

Study: Girls more likely than boys to struggle with social, behavioral, academic needs
The more failing grades students have during eighth grade, the more likely they are to experience social-emotional learning problems, academic difficulties and behavioral problems during their freshman year in high school, University of Illinois social work professor Kevin Tan found in a new study.

Parkinson's disease among patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease appeared more likely than patients without the disorder to develop Parkinson's disease, while anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy for inflammatory bowel disease was associated with reduced incidence of Parkinson's in a new study that analyzed administrative claims data for more than 170 million patients.

Researchers use 'environmental DNA' to identify killer whales in Puget Sound
When endangered killer whales swim through the sheltered waters of Puget Sound, they leave behind traces of 'environmental DNA' that researchers can detect as much as two hours later has found.

Paint job transforms walls into sensors, interactive surfaces
Walls are what they are -- big, dull dividers. With a few applications of conductive paint and some electronics, however, walls can become smart infrastructure that sense human touch, and detect things like gestures and when appliances are used.

Earth BioGenome Project aims to sequence DNA from all complex life on Earth
An international consortium of scientists is proposing what is arguably the most ambitious project in the history of biology: sequencing the DNA of all known eukaryotic species on Earth.

What do Uranus's cloud tops have in common with rotten eggs?
Hydrogen sulfide, the gas that gives rotten eggs their distinctive odor, permeates the upper atmosphere of the planet Uranus -- as has been long debated, but never definitively proven.

Spider venom to treat paralysis
A team of Russian scientists together with foreign colleagues found out that the venom of crab spider Heriaeus melloteei may be used as a basis for developing treatment against hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

Detecting Alzheimer's disease before it's too late
The rate at which the protein beta-amyloid accumulates into the sticky plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is already slowing by the time a patient would be considered to have preclinical AD, according to a longitudinal study of healthy adults published in JNeurosci.

Fetal exposure to moderate/high caffeine levels linked to excess childhood weight gain
Exposure to moderate to high caffeine levels while in the womb is linked to excess weight gain in early childhood, suggests a large observational study published in the online journal BMJ Open.

IBS patients obtain robust, enduring relief from home-based treatment program
In the largest federally funded non-drug clinical trial for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), patients with the most severe and persistent symptoms achieved robust and sustained relief by learning to control symptoms with minimal clinician contact.

Opioid use linked to increased risk of falls, death in older adults
Opioid use linked to increased risk of falls, death in older adults.

Upswings in older-age cognitive ability may not be universal
A study of a majority-black cohort, led by a Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researcher, finds no clear upward trend in cognitive abilities among older adults.

Potential gender bias against female researchers in peer review of research grants
Is peer review biased? Female health researchers who applied for grants from Canada's major health research funder were funded less often than male counterparts because of potential bias, and characteristics of peer reviewers can also affect the result, found a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Antibiotic resistance can be caused by small amounts of antibiotics
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a global and growing problem in health care.

A neurobiological link between PTSD and addiction
Recalling traumatic memories enhances the rewarding effects of morphine in male rats, finds new research published in JNeurosci.

UNC scientists create better laboratory tools to study cancer's spread
In the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center's Andrew Wang, MD, and colleagues report they have developed tissue-engineered models for cancer metastases that reflect the microenvironment around tumors that promotes their growth.

Neutrons provide insights into increased performance for hybrid perovskite solar cells
Neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has revealed, in real time, the fundamental mechanisms behind the conversion of sunlight into energy in hybrid perovskite materials.

Doctors prescribe opioids at high rates to those at increased overdose risk
The number of first-time prescriptions for opioid drugs has not risen since about 2010.

Black parents can help bridge cultural divide between students and white teachers
Bringing black parents into school settings can work toward shifting and closing the cultural disconnects between black families and predominantly white school personnel, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Cigarillo packaging can influence product perception, study finds
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers surveyed 2,664 young adults who were current users, never users, or past users of little cigars and cigarillos, finding cigarillo packs with colors and containing a flavor descriptor were rated more positively for taste and smell, and health warnings didn't fully mitigate the draw of the packaging.

Just one more ash dieback spore could push European ash trees to the brink
Europe's ash dieback epidemic could well have been caused by just one or two mushroom-like fruiting bodies of a fungal pathogen from Asia, according to a comprehensive genome sequencing effort published in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Fear of losing status, not economic hardship, drove voters in 2016 presidential election
Data gathered in 2012 and 2016 from a nationally representative panel found that many American voters -- especially whites, males, and Christians -- felt their status threatened by growing diversity and perceived loss of US global dominance.

Application of mesenchymal stem cells stimulates nervous tissue regeneration
The research team used model spinal cord injuries in rats for their purposes.

Scientists use rocket scanner to learn how whales hear
Researchers have used a scanner designed for rockets to collect the first-ever computed tomography (CT) scan of an entire minke whale.

Virulence switch in 'Iraqibacter': potential Achilles heel?
Microbiologists have identified a component of a genetic switch, which they call a potential 'Achilles' heel,' for a type of bacteria often associated with wounded warriors.

Fight against Zika, dengue get boost from reliable spread of bacteria
How a bacteria hijacked insect fertility remained a mystery for five decades, until Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Seth Bordenstein and his team helped solve it.

Landmark paper finds light at end of the tunnel for world's wildlife and wild places
A new WCS paper published in the journal BioScience finds that the enormous trends toward population stabilization, poverty alleviation, and urbanization are rewriting the future of biodiversity conservation in the 21st century, offering new hope for the world's wildlife and wild places.

A common anti-inflammatory therapy may help reduce risk of developing Parkinson's disease
The recent study, published in JAMA Neurology, shows that individuals with IBD are at a 28 percent higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease than those without IBD.

Yale plays quantum catch in new research
In a new study published April 23 in the journal Nature Physics, Yale researchers 'pitch' a qubit -- a tiny bit of quantum data -- from one physical point in a microwave cavity to a separate point in a different cavity.

Suicide and homicide rates show large racial disparities across US states
Southern and Western states have the highest rates of white firearm suicide, while Midwestern states have highest rates of black firearm homicide, according to new research from McGill University.

Caregivers can help assess whether older adults are dealing with delirium
In a new study, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, researchers identified six tools that caregivers could use to detect delirium in the older adults they provide care for.

What learning looks like in the brain
Using advanced imaging technology, researchers observe new patterns of molecular organization as connections between neurons strengthen during learning.

Nanoparticle breakthrough could capture unseen light for solar energy conversion
An international team, led by Berkeley Lab scientists, has demonstrated a breakthrough in the design and function of nanoparticles that could make solar panels more efficient by converting light usually missed by solar cells into usable energy.

Alcohol intake may be linked to premenstrual syndrome
Drinking alcohol may be linked to premenstrual syndrome, or PMS for short, suggests a pooled analysis of published study data in the online journal BMJ Open.

A better fake leather, inspired by plants
Nature has inspired a coating for synthetic leather that repels oil and water--and keeps the material from getting sticky in the heat.

Is sickle cell trait genetic risk factor for increased stroke risk?
Sickle cell trait may not be associated with the occurrence of ischemic stroke (when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain) in African-Americans, according to a meta-analysis that combined the results of four studies with 19,464 African-American participants.

Promising cell study provides hope of effective treatment of Parkinson's disease
There is a significant decrease in the level of calcium when nerve cells are affected by Parkinson's disease.

Special Eurobarometer: How fair do Europeans think life in the EU is?
A new poll shows most Europeans think life is generally fair, but have concerns over justice, political decisions and income inequality.

Scientists generate an atlas of the human genome using stem cells
Scientists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have generated an atlas of the human genome that illuminates the roles our genes play in health and disease.

Pediatric obesity, depression connected in the brain, Stanford study finds
Early-life obesity and depression may be driven by shared abnormalities in brain regions that process rewards, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Researchers identify brain mechanism linking PTSD and opioid addiction
Researchers at Western University have shown that the recall of traumatic memories enhances the rewarding effects of morphine, shedding light on the neurobiological link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid addiction.

The role of 'extra' DNA in cancer evolution and therapy resistance
Researchers tracked genomic alterations detected in patient samples during tumor cell evolution in culture, in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models from the cultures, as well as before and after treatment in patients.

Liquid nicotine used in e-cigarettes still a danger to children despite recent decline in exposures
The study found that there were more than 8,200 calls to US poison centers regarding exposures to liquid nicotine and e-cigarettes among children younger than 6 years of age from January 2012 through April 2017, averaging 129 calls each month or more than four a day.

Study reveals large differences in drug prescriptions for newborns between NICUs
Little is known concerning how extensively drugs are prescribed to newborns in different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

Watch your step: How vision leads locomotion
Using new technologies to track how vision guides foot placement, researchers at the University of Texas at Austin come one step closer in determining what is going on in the brain while we walk, paving the way for better treatment for mobility impairments -- strokes, aging and Parkinson's -- and technology development -- prosthetics and robots.

Meditation and aerobic exercise helps women recover after sexual assault
Women who are sexually assaulted and suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can learn to decrease negative thoughts and enhance self-worth by a combination of meditation and aerobic exercise.

CRISPR used to genetically edit coral, Stanford researchers report
Coral reefs on the precipice of collapse may get a conservation boost from the gene-editing tool known as CRISPR, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators.

Applying network analysis to natural history
By using network analysis to search for communities of marine life in the fossil records of the Paleobiology Database, the team, including researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, was able to quantify the ecological impacts of major events like mass extinctions and may help us anticipate the consequences of a 'sixth mass extinction.'

Even a single mindfulness meditation session can reduce anxiety
Mindfulness meditation programs have shown promise for the treatment of anxiety, one of the most common mental health disorders in the US.

Removing the enablers: Reducing number of tumor-supporting cells to fight neuroblastoma
Investigators at the Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases at Children's Hospital Los Angeles provide preclinical evidence that the presence of tumor-associated macrophages -- a type of immune cell -- can negatively affect the response to chemotherapy against neuroblastoma. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to