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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | May 01, 2018


For patients with esophageal cancer, status of lymph nodes after preoperative therapy determines survival
The status of lymph nodes rather than the status of the primary tumor following preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy is the most important factor that determines whether patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer will survive.
Novel cancer vaccine strategy blocks death of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells
A novel cancer vaccine strategy blocks death of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells.
Poll finds 4 in 5 Americans favor increase in mental health support for children
A new poll finds that 87 percent of Americans agree that there needs to be more mental health support available to kids which is why Nationwide Children's Hospital is now working to increase access to mental health services.
Study: Wearable fitness monitors useful in cancer treatment
Wearable fitness trackers, such as Fitbits, that measure steps taken per day may be a useful tool to evaluate and help treat cancer patients, researchers at UT Southwestern's Simmons Cancer Center have shown.
Cognitive scientists define critical period for learning language
An MIT study suggests children remain skilled at learning language much longer than expected -- up to the age of 17 or 18.
For high school baseball pitchers, extra throws on game day add up but go uncounted
For high school baseball pitchers, limiting throws during a game helps to prevent fatigue and injuries.
Novel theranostic approach for treating pancreatic cancer patients shows promise
German researchers have developed a novel diagnostic and therapeutic (theranostic) procedure for patients with ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a deadly cancer with an extremely poor prognosis (five-year survival rate of less than 5 percent) and limited treatment options.
A reimagined future for sustainable nanomaterials
Engineered nanomaterials hold great promise for medicine, electronics, water treatment, and other fields.
Brain's window for language learning open until adulthood
It has long been known that children learn language more easily than adults, but determining exactly when that ability declines has been something of a mystery.
Mercury Rising: New evidence that volcanism triggered the late Devonian extinction
The late Devonian extinction, about 370 million years ago, is one of the 'Big Five.' It killed up to 80 percent of species, obliterating the lavish Devonian coral reef ecosystem.
Siamab Therapeutics announces publication of new data on its ST1 lead program in the journal Oncotarget
Siamab Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing novel glycan-targeted cancer therapeutics, today announced the publication of new preclinical data.
Analysis links US government global health R&D funding to jobs, economic benefits across states
The Trump Administration's proposal to slash funding to fight global health threats like malaria, Ebola, and HIV/AIDS could cost states thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in economic investment and put the health of residents at risk, according to a new state-by-state analysis released today by the Global Health Technologies Coalition.
Fracking the immune system
Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center are the first to report links between early life exposure to chemicals in ground water near fracking sites and immune system imbalances in mice.
Acupuncture possible treatment for dental anxiety
Researchers have found evidence that acupuncture could help people who experience dental anxiety.
New lab study reveals how breast cancer drug can accelerate cancer cell growth
The breast cancer drug lapatinib which is designed to shrink tumors can sometimes cause them to grow in the lab, according to a new study.
Vitamin D improves weight gain and brain development in malnourished children
High dose vitamin D supplements improve weight gain and the development of language and motor skills in malnourished children, according to a study led by University of the Punjab, Pakistan, and Queen Mary University of London.
American pikas tolerate climate change better than expected
The American pika, a relative of rabbits, occupies rocky environments in the mountains of western Northern America.
To improve future relationship with your kids, turn up the music
Children who grow up listening to music with their parents report having better quality relationships with their moms and dads when they reach young adulthood, researchers found.
Scientists identify two hormones that burn fat faster, prevent and reverse diabetes in mice
UCLA geneticists have created a new technique to hunt for hormones that influence how organs and tissues communicate with each other.
Dielectric metamaterial is dynamically tuned by light
Researchers at Duke University have built the first metal-free, dynamically tunable metamaterial for controlling electromagnetic waves.
A rose is a rose is a rose: Mathematical model explains how two brains agree on smells
Columbia scientists have discovered why the brain's olfactory system is so remarkably consistent between individuals, even though the wiring of brain cells in this region differs greatly from person to person.
Historical records help uncover new mechanism in deadly 1906 Taiwan quake
Researchers reexamining historical seismograms from the 1906 Meishan earthquake have uncovered a new mechanism for the quake, one of the deadliest to ever strike Taiwan.
Tobacco company's understanding of addiction revealed by internal documents
After decades denying the role of nicotine dependence in smoking addiction, tobacco company Philip Morris (PM) publicly embraced nicotine as the main driver of smoking behavior in 2000.
Scientists discover balance of thermal energy and low climate stress drive coral species diversity
Marine scientists from WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society), University of Warwick, and University of Queensland have identified two key factors that create the ideal conditions needed for high species diversity in coral reefs: thermal energy in the form of warm water and low climate stress.
Study shows sea turtle nesting beaches threatened by microplastic pollution
Tiny pieces of plastic could be jeopardizing sensitive sea turtle nesting beaches.
Researchers call for tougher standards for studies on obesity policies
When a new park is built, a tax is instituted on fast food or a ban put in place against soft drinks in a school, public health researchers must often rely on 'after the fact' observational studies to evaluate the impact of such efforts on rates of obesity in a particular population and try to clearly identify and measure the factors that worked or didn't.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May 2018
ORNL studies how some trees respond and recover after heat waves; sensors collect data to uniquely identify vehicles; catalysis data calculations assist in overcoming limiting factor to break down olefins; ORNL tested NASA space probe instruments' ability to withstand sun's extreme heat; using neutrons, ORNL observed enzyme behavior to determine certain antibiotics' ineffectiveness.
Physicists find properties of magnetic soliton of interest for brain-inspired computing
A team of physicists has uncovered properties of a category of magnetic waves relevant to the development of neuromorphic computing--an artificial intelligence system that seeks to mimic human-brain function.
High prevalence of atherosclerosis found in lower risk patients
Researchers using whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have found a surprisingly high prevalence of atherosclerosis in people considered to be at low to intermediate risk for cardiovascular disease, according to a new study.
New insights into the origins of mutations in cancer
Using worm experiments, scientists were able to study the processes generating cancer-causing DNA mutations in detail.
Organ-chips model and predict thrombotic side effect caused by anti-CD154 antibody hu5c8
Emulate published study co-authored with scientists at Janssen that demonstrates its Blood Vessel-Chip accurately modeled and predicted thrombosis induced by certain monoclonal antibody drugs.
Valleytronics discovery could extend limits of Moore's Law
Research appearing today in Nature Communications finds useful new information-handling potential in samples of tin(II) sulfide (SnS), a candidate 'valleytronics' transistor material that might one day enable chipmakers to pack more computing power onto microchips. 
Study links 'good' brown fat and exercise
The power of exercise to boost metabolism could arise from a fat molecule with an unexpected source.
Hormone from fat boosts metabolism in both exercise and cold
Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have uncovered a new kind of clue to an individual's variable response to exercise -- a hormone whose levels in the bloodstream rise sharply in exercise as well as in cold.
Soccer coaches are an untapped resource in assessing and developing player psychology
Soccer coaches should be empowered to make reliable assessments of player psychological characteristics, propose sports researchers.
Food for thought: Ketogenic diets reduce athletes' anaerobic performance
The Saint Louis University research team found that after following a ketogenic diet, study participants did not perform as well at anaerobic exercise tasks.
Patients get faster life-saving treatment in states with policies allowing direct transport to specialized heart attack care hospitals
People having heart attacks get faster life-saving treatment if they live in states that allow EMS to bypass closer hospitals that don't offer the specialized treatment, taking patients directly to those that do.
Vegan and traditional kimchi have same microbes, study finds
Brown University researchers have found that kimchi made without seafood products has the same 'probiotic' bacteria as more traditional kimchi.
New evidence pertaining to expansion of the kingdom of David and Solomon uncovered
Over the last 25 years many scholars have questioned the existence of the kingdom of David and Solomon, which was supposed to have existed in the 10th century BCE.
Traffic-related pollution linked to risk of asthma in children
New research led by scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the Harvard T.H.
GPM satellite views Tropical Cyclone Flamboyan's rainfall
Tropical Cyclone Flamboyan was being battered by vertical wind shear when the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed overhead and analyzed its rainfall rates.
Deer fawns more likely to survive in agricultural landscapes than forest
The cruel truth is that throughout the white-tailed deer's range only about half of all fawns live to see their first birthday -- most are killed by predators.
'Institution shocks' spotlight effects of changing economic institutions
Researchers analyzed new data on the Chilean elections of the 1970s to understand how economies react to institutional change.
EEG signals accurately predict autism as early as 3 months of age
Autism is challenging to diagnose, especially early in life. A new study in the journal Scientific Reports shows that inexpensive EEGs, which measure brain electrical activity, accurately predict or rule out autism spectrum disorder in infants, even in some as young as three months.
Research team engineers a better plastic-degrading enzyme
A breakthrough in enzyme research led by the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the United Kingdom's University of Portsmouth has led to an improved variant of an enzyme that can break down ubiquitous plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate, or PET.
The macabre world of mind-controlling parasites
Many parasites can control the behavior of their hosts -- sometimes in very gruesome ways.
Environmental impact of electric vehicles in China? It depends on how they are charged
Electric vehicles play a key role in China's plan to improve air quality and reduce CO2 emissions but, with the majority of China's electricity still coming from coal-fired power plants, many question just how effective this strategy will be.
Use of ibuprofen and similar NSAIDs may shorten life of patients
Ibuprofen, aspirin, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications are among the most commonly utilized medications in the United States.
Distress in men following prostate cancer can be reduced
A new web-based support program will help reduce the psychological stress that impacts men who are recovering from prostate cancer.
New diagnostic technique picks up the S in vision
A new technique that could help improve diagnosis of vision disorders has been successfully tested at the University of Bradford, UK.
Persistence pays off in discovery that could lead to improved treatment and survivability of patient
Gliomas are the most common type of central nervous system cancer but how these tumors develop is not fully understood.
Posting, commenting and customizing on Facebook help involve, empower older adults
Social networking sites, such as Facebook, offer tools and activities that may help older adults feel more empowered and less isolated, according to researchers.
'Smart' dresser prototype guides people with dementia in getting dressed
A new study published in JMIR Medical Informatics describes how a 'smart home' prototype may help people with dementia dress themselves through automated assistance, enabling them to maintain independence and dignity and providing their caregivers with a much-needed respite.
Mainstream media coverage of humanitarian crises falls short, new survey finds
Mainstream media coverage of humanitarian crises is 'selective, sporadic, simplistic and partial', according to a new consumer survey.
Ultra-safe cells resistant to natural viruses announced as first GP-write major project
The Leadership Group and Scientific Executive Committee of Genome Project-write announced its first community-wide project, to develop 'ultra-safe cells' that resist natural viruses and potentially radiation, freezing, aging and cancer.
Making individualized choices about breast cancer screening
The authors note, that despite the fact that the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) changed its recommendation in 2009 to mammograms every two years for women aged 50-74 instead of annual mammograms beginning at age 40, there has been little change in US screening practices.
Strategy prevents blindness in mice with retinal degeneration
New research published in Nature Communications outlines a strategy that in mouse models significantly delayed the onset of blindness from inherited retinal degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa.
CAR-T immunotherapy eliminates metastatic colorectal cancer in mice
A CAR-T-based immunotherapy successfully kills tumors and prevents metastatic growth, in final preclinical tests before human trials.
Single injection treats hemophilia B for life, in proof-of-concept study
Salk researchers have demonstrated in mice that hemophilia B can be treated for life with one single injection containing disease-free liver cells that can produce their missing clotting factor.
Acute and chronic changes in myelin following mild traumatic brain injury
Preliminary research using mcDESPOT magnetic resonance imaging shows changes in the myelin content of white matter in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury.
Communication difficulties linked to increased risk of self-harm and suicidal behavior
Children who have difficulties with social communication have a higher risk of self-harm with suicidal intent by the age of 16 years compared to those without, reports a new study published in the May 2018 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP).
Post-mortem CT angiography illuminates causes of death
CT angiography is a useful adjunct to autopsy that is likely to increase the quality of post-mortem diagnosis, according to a new study.
Researchers study how to improve southern sea otter survival
Analysis of 13 years of demographic and genetic data from 1,006 sea otters to assess multiple effective population size estimators, as well as temporal trends in genetic diversity and population genetic structure, show a need for development of new delisting criteria for the southern sea otter.
Breakthrough for SF State kinesiologists studying metabolic protein
Researchers in San Francisco State University's Muscle Physiology Laboratory discover a new method for analyzing an important metabolic protein in muscles.
Frozen embryo transfer versus fresh embryo transfer: What's riskier?
Large for gestational age babies and congenital heart defects (CHD) are just two of several risks needing further examination in the emerging field of assisted reproductive technology, according to the editors of a special issue on in-vitro fertilization in Birth Defects Research.
Most academic institutions unprepared to meet new HHS clinical trial reporting regulations
Academic institutions have been slow to adhere to new, stricter requirements by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and National Institutes of Health for clinical trial registration and reporting, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Extreme mobility of mantis shrimp eyes
New research, led by biologists from the University of Bristol, has uncovered fresh findings about the most mobile eyes in the animal kingdom -- the eyes of the mantis shrimp.
Monash study exposes key tactic used by deadly fungus
Associate Professor Ana Traven, in collaboration with the Naderer lab, has found that a lethal fungus destroys the immune cell that would ordinarily kill it, by stealing its source of nutrients.
Stanford scientist develops protein mimic to help injured lungs breathe
A Stanford University researcher has bioengineered an effective protein mimic that restored breathing capacity to the injured lungs of rats, according to a new study.
Mosquitoes bite when thirsty, too
Biologists with the University of Cincinnati found that dry conditions prompted house mosquitoes to seek a blood meal.
How airbags work (video)
Normally, something blowing up in your face is bad. But in the event of a vehicle accident, and in conjunction with a seatbelt, one particular explosion could very well save your life.
New study improves monitoring of treatments for multiple sclerosis patients
New study improves monitoring of treatments for multiple sclerosis patients.
Blueprint for the skull
Once upon a time in Europe, pregnant women avoided rabbits to prevent their babies from being born with a 'harelip.' But, that isn't the only misconception about the condition now known as cleft lip.
Gentrification draws more whites to minority neighborhoods
A new national study indicates that the percentage of whites tends to increase among neighborhoods on the rise, indicating that minority neighborhoods experience racial change during gentrification.
Opioids over-prescribed after hiatal hernia surgery
The increase in opioid deaths in the last 20 years led a medical student at the University of Michigan Medical School and colleagues to look at excessive opioids prescribed to treat acute surgical pain following various procedures.
Formate prevents most folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in mice
A multi-institutional research team has developed a novel folic acid-resistant neural tube defect mouse model of the human condition by silencing the Slc25a32 gene, and, in most of the mutant mice, neural tube defects can be prevented by formate supplementation.
Ames Lab takes the guesswork out of discovering new high-entropy alloys
The US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has developed a method of computational analysis that can help predict the composition and properties of as-yet unmade high performance alloys.
Blood type O patients may have higher risk of death from severe trauma
Blood type O is associated with high death rates in severe trauma patients, according to a study published in the open-access journal Critical Care that involved 901 Japanese emergency care patients.
Blacks, whites equally as likely to be prescribed opioids for pain
Racial disparities in pain management have been well-documented, with doctors historically more willing to prescribe opiates to whites than to other racial and ethnic groups.
Gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency yields promising results
During the first 18 months after treatment with alipogene tiparvovec, a gene therapy recently approved in Europe to treat lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD), the first patient to receive the treatment had no abdominal pain or episodes of pancreatitis, following a history of 37 pancreatitis attacks.
Internal control helps corals resist acidification
Scientists from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (Coral CoE) at The University of Western Australia (UWA) have found that some corals are able to combat the effects of ocean acidification by controlling their own chemistry.
Gap in financial literacy widens for couples the longer the relationship lasts, study suggests
As couples mature together, they often grow apart in their level of interest and skill in handling their finances.
NIST/NASA study shows one detector doesn't 'fit all' for smoke in spacecraft
In a new paper, a team of NASA and NIST researchers describe how they looked at the smoke particles produced by five materials commonly used aboard crewed spacecraft, defined their characteristics and evaluated how well they could be detected by two traditional smoke detection systems.
Virus inhibits immune response of caterpillars and plants
It is well known that certain wasps suppress the immune systems of their caterpillar hosts so they can successfully raise their young within those hosts.
One-dimensional material packs a powerful punch for next generation electronics
Engineers at the University of California, Riverside, have demonstrated prototype devices made of an exotic material that can conduct a current density 50 times greater than conventional copper interconnect technology.
Shivering and exercise both trigger same fat-burning effect
Researchers have identified a fat molecule that circulates in the blood after exercise.
Lightning carries potential danger to people with deep brain stimulators
Patients receiving deep brain stimulation are warned that their neurostimulators may dysfunction when confronted by electromagnetic fields generated by particular electrical devices found at work, home, and in the hospital.
Disparities found in lung cancer care, survival in US versus England
Despite steady declines in death rates in recent years, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in wealthy countries.
UCI participates in NIH's landmark precision medicine research
The University of California, Irvine and nationwide partners are launching a landmark $1.5 billion National Institutes of Health-led precisions medicine initiative to gather genetic, biological, environmental, health and lifestyle data from 1 million or more volunteer participants living in the United States.
Rapid increase of synthetic opioids involved in drug overdose deaths
Synthetic opioids (such as illicit fentanyl) overtook prescription opioids in 2016 as the most common drug class involved in overdose deaths in the United States.
Sweating the small stuff
When people sweat, they unknowingly release a wide range of chemicals that can noninvasively inform clinicians on anything from stress hormone levels to glucose.
Small earthquakes caused by migrating gasses in the underground
The metropolitan area of Istanbul with around 15 million inhabitants is considered to be particularly earthquake-prone.
Curves or angles? Shapes in businesses affect customer response
When you're waiting in a busy restaurant or doctor's office, it may matter whether the tables, light fixtures and other objects are round or square.
A surprising new superconductor
A powerful new plated metal combination that superconducts at easily attained temperatures could pave the road for the next critical steps in the development of cutting-edge supercomputers.
Where brain cells get their information may determine their roles in diseases
Salk scientists find differences in communication pathways to two cell types implicated in psychiatric and movement disorders
Real-time coverage of inside of the brain made possible
Nagoya University-centered researchers developed a new system for in vivo real-time monitoring of metabolites in a living mouse brain.
Army's new find lowers accidental stockpile detonation
Scientists at two major national laboratories have demonstrated a new method for testing explosives stored in weapons stockpiles, a step they say will help reduce accidental detonation and ensure the weapons perform as expected.
New research ranks the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatments for knee osteoarthritis
An estimated 45 percent of people are at risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) in their lifetime.
Teen tanning addiction afflicts minorities in Los Angeles
Tanning addiction plagues teenage minorities in Los Angeles, and that dependency is associated with marijuana abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other mental health issues.
Study challenges 'shock and kill' approach to eliminating HIV
Researchers have provided new insight into the cellular processes behind the 'shock and kill' approach to curing HIV, which they say challenges the effectiveness of the treatment.
New study finds pureed pork supports infant growth
Meat, like pork, can be an important source of much-needed protein in an infant's diet during the transition to solid foods, according to new research in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Stem cells show long-term success in treating severe peripheral arterial disease
A long-term study of patients who received stem cells to treat angiitis-induced critical limb ischemia (AICLI) shows the cells to be both safe and effective.
Apps for children should emphasize parent and child choice, researchers say
Parents don't need to fear their children playing with iPads and other devices, researchers say.
Survey: Medical marijuana could reduce opioid use in older adults
A study shows up to 65 percent of older adults who use medical marijuana significantly reduced their chronic pain and dependence on opioid painkillers.
Nurse-led task shifting an effective strategy to control hypertension in Ghana, new study finds
The addition of a nurse-led intervention for hypertension management to health insurance coverage was more effective in lowering blood pressure (HPB) than the provision of health insurance alone in the Sub-Saharan country of Ghana, a region of Africa where HPB is rampant, according to a study publishing online on May 1 in the journal PLOS Medicine.
New offices make us more image-conscious
Employees subconsciously act and dress differently in modern open-plan office environments, according to a new study published in the journal Gender, Work and Organization.
Marmosets as the canary in the coal mine for Zika
New research shows small, New World monkeys called marmosets may be an important animal model for emerging viruses with the potential for harmful effects on fetuses.
Palliative care improves hospital care for seriously ill patients
Palliative care provided by specialist medical and nursing teams to patients with complex health needs significantly improves their experience of care, new research shows.
As consumers, how do we decide what's 'best' when it's not clear?
Imagine you are choosing between two resorts for your island vacation.
Lymphatic endothelial cells promote melanoma to spread
The lymph vessel endothelial cells play an active role in the spread of melanoma, according to the new study conducted at the University of Helsinki.
Scientists discover the secret behind the stability of carbon isotopes
An international research collaboration led by Osaka University has provided experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of the magic number of six in carbon isotopes.
Can stress testing and biomarker studies predict cardiovascular event risk in older women?
Mayo Clinic researchers, reporting results of the SMART study, have shown that abnormal results on a stress electrocardiogram are an independent predictor of cardiovascular events such as heart attack, heart failure, hospitalization for chest pain, and death in perimenopausal or menopausal women.
Study explores the down side of being dubbed 'class clown'
Being dubbed the class clown by teachers and peers has negative social repercussions for third-grade boys that may portend developmental and academic consequences for them, University of Illinois recreation, sport and tourism professor Lynn A.
Scientists map key brain-to-spinal cord nerve connections for voluntary movement
Researchers trying to help people suffering from paralysis after a spinal cord injury or stroke mapped critical brain-to-spinal cord nerve connections that drive voluntary movement in forelimbs, a development that scientists say allows them to start looking for specific repair strategies.
How do cells sense glutamine and control their autophagy and activation?
Scientists at Osaka University clarified that the Pib2 complex directly bound to glutamine in yeast cells, which activated a signaling pathway for cell growth by suspending autophagy.
Orange county teen dating violence is twice the national average
Orange County teens are facing varied and more frequent types of dating violence than any generation before them.

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