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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | May 02, 2018


Risk factors involved in the early onset and severity of childhood obesity
A family history of obesity, high blood pressure and lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease should all be considered high risk factors for the severity and early onset of childhood obesity, reveals a new study.
Plant breeders balance shared innovation, revenue
Crop breeding research and innovation requires funding. But funding--and revenue from the crops developed--is increasingly hard to obtain.
Having two jobs is great for employers, but family life suffers
People who hold two jobs demonstrate as much engagement and performance in the workplace as their colleagues who have one job.
Weight loss surgery may cause significant skeletal health problems
A new JBMR Plus review examines the negative impacts of weight loss surgery on bone health.
Let's get physical: Breast cancer survivors on the move
Physical activity is an effective way to help improve the many mental and physical side effects of breast cancer treatment.
Tip sheet for the Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment May 2018 Issue
Highlights from the May issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, including: The Earth's environment across generations: we forget the past, pardon the present...and condemn the future?
Mixed progress on drug resistance in A. baumannii infections in children
Researchers examined antibiotic resistance trends in clinical specimens from children with Acinetobacter baumannii infections, over 13 years.
Why Antarctic snow melts even in winter
Even though the sun does not shine in Antarctica in winter, in some places snow on the glaciers can melt.
Longevity Industry Landscape Overview Volume II: 'The Business of Longevity'
The Global Longevity Consortium, consisting of the Biogerontology Research Foundation, Deep Knowledge Life Sciences, Aging Analytics Agency and Longevity.International platform, announce the publication of a new 650-page analytical report entitled Longevity Industry Landscape Overview Volume II: The Business of Longevity.
Society for Academic Emergency Medicine announces Annual Meeting plenary speakers
Emergency medicine academicians in six plenary presentations will explore a variety of subjects related to the practice of emergency medicine during a special plenary session to be held on the opening day of SAEM18--the annual meeting for the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the largest forum for the presentation of original education and research in academic emergency medicine.
Climate change to cause dramatic drop in Persian Gulf biodiversity and fisheries potential
The Persian Gulf, also known as the Arabian Gulf, may lose up to 12 per cent of its marine biodiversity in some areas before the end of the century if countries in the region do not take measures to address climate change.
Cryo-EM structures of the nicotine receptor may lead to new therapies for addiction
UT Southwestern researchers today published in Nature atomic-scale blueprints of the most abundant class of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Yale physicists find signs of a time crystal
Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal -- a form of matter that 'ticks' when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse -- in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy.
Findings of game-changing EMS airway study to be presented at SAEM18
Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is the most common advanced airway technique used in the resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but Supraglottic airway devices such as the King Laryngeal Tube (LT) offer simpler airway management alternatives.
Organic printing inks may restore sight to blind people
A simple retinal prosthesis is being developed in collaboration between Tel Aviv University in Israel and Linköping University in Sweden.
Study sheds light on how 'dopamine neurons' contribute to memory formation in humans
Research from Cedars-Sinai sheds light on how the human brain rapidly forms new memories, providing insights into potential new treatments for memory disorders.
Precise targeting technique could regulate gut bacteria, curtailing disease
Emerging evidence suggests that microbes in the digestive system have a big influence on human health and may play a role in the onset of disease throughout the body.
Wintering warblers choose agriculture over forest
Effective conservation for long-distance migrants requires knowing what's going on with them year-round -- not just when they're in North America during the breeding season.
Microbes living in a toxic volcanic lake could hold clues to life on Mars
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder have discovered microbes living in one of the harshest environments on Earth.
Infants exposed to hepatitis C increasing, yet not adequately screened, MWRI study finds
Among the 1,025 HCV-exposed infants, 31 percent received well-child services in the same health system, and among these, only 30 percent were screened for HCV.
Flares in the universe can now be studied on Earth
Solar flares, cosmic radiation, and the northern lights are well known phenomena.
Bloomberg era's emphasis on 'health in all policies' improved New Yorkers' heart health
From 2002 to 2013, New York City implemented a series of policies prioritizing the public's health in areas beyond traditional healthcare policies and illustrated the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
Research finds 'Achilles heel' for aggressive prostate cancer
UCSF researchers have discovered a promising new line of attack against lethal, treatment-resistant prostate cancer.
Harsher drug laws won't stop violence, argues former police chief
Harsher drug prohibition won't stop violence, argue Paul Whitehouse, former Chief Constable of Sussex Police, and Jason Reed at Law Enforcement Action Partnership (LEAP UK) which supports drug policy reform, in The BMJ today.
Research identifies unconventional immune cell capable of fighting viral infections
Research led by the University of Birmingham has identified a novel unconventional type of immune cell capable of fighting viral infections.
French bulldogs at risk of various health problems
French bulldogs, predicted soon to become the most popular dog breed in the UK, are vulnerable to a number of health conditions, according to a new study published in the open-access journal Canine Genetics and Epidemiology.
Flaw found in water treatment method
Some potentially toxic chemicals in water may be created, ironically, during the water treatment process itself.
Can an algorithm detect signs of a serious eye disease in premature infants like human experts?
An algorithm could detect signs of a serious eye disease in images from premature infants with accuracy comparable to or better than human experts.
Taming the multiverse: Stephen Hawking's final theory about the big bang
Professor Stephen Hawking's final theory on the origin of the universe, which he worked on in collaboration with Professor Thomas Hertog from KU Leuven, has been published today in the Journal of High Energy Physics.
Helium detected in exoplanet atmosphere for the first time
Astronomers have detected helium in the atmosphere of a planet that orbits a star far beyond our solar system for the very first time.
Scientists make major breakthrough on omega-3 production
A major discovery that could 'revolutionize' the understanding of omega-3 production in the ocean has been made by an international team of scientists.
It all comes down to roughness
Lucio Isa and his team of researchers have explained how the surface characteristics of microspheres affect rapid increases in the viscosity of suspensions, thus laying the groundwork for applications such as smoothly flowing cement.
Frequent sauna bathing reduces risk of stroke
Frequent sauna bathing is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, according to a new international study.
Toy-inspired experiment on behavior of quantum systems
By placing the most magnetic element of the periodic table into a quantum version of a popular desktop toy, Stanford scientists explore the emergence of quantum chaos and thermal equilibrium.
Are emperor penguins eating enough?
For emperor penguins waddling around a warming Antarctic, diminishing sea ice means less fish to eat.
Nanodiamond turns into controllable light source
A research group from ITMO University first time in the world developed a controlled light source based on nanodiamond.
Using Google Street View to estimate travel patterns in cities
A study published today in PLOS ONE indicates that Google Street View has the potential to estimate how common cycling is in cities, and potentially other travel patterns too.
Vasopressin a possible biomarker for social deficits in autism
A new study from UC Davis and Stanford researchers shows that rhesus macaques with low sociability also had low levels of the peptide vasopressin in cerebrospinal fluid, as did children with autism spectrum disorder.
No evidence of 'gaming' after death rates for bowel surgeons published
There is no evidence that publishing patient death rates for individual bowel surgeons in England has led to risk averse behavior or 'gaming' of data, finds a study published by The BMJ.
Hawking's last paper co-authored with ERC grantee posits new cosmology
Professor Stephen Hawking's final theory on the origin of the universe, which he worked on in collaboration with Professor Thomas Hertog from KU Leuven, has been published this week in the Journal of High-Energy Physics.
New research shows that children with autism are able to create imaginary friends
The research could eventually help to develop new therapies.
NASA's GPM examines developing US severe weather
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite has been busy analyzing severe weather in the US.
PD-L1 expression in medulloblastoma: An evaluation by subgroup
This study evaluated the expression of PD-L1 and markers of immune mediated resistance in human medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor.
How small molecule halts spread of toxic protein associated with Alzheimer's progression
Researchers at the UCLA School of Nursing and the department of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA have reported a promising drug strategy that blocks tau transmission.
Why plants are so sensitive to gravity: The lowdown
Plants can detect the slightest angle of inclination. Yet the mechanism by which they sense gravity relies on microscopic grains.
Heart disease symptoms improved by blocking immune cell migration
New research led by investigators at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center suggests that the location of immune cells in the body determines whether they help or harm the development of heart disease.
A simple catalyst helps to assemble complex molecular frameworks of antifungal agents
A team of Russian chemists led by Professor Dmitry Perekalin from Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds have recently developed a new rhodium catalyst for organic synthesis.
Improving 3-D printing of plastic parts
Robots that can build homes, marathoners' running shoes and NASA's upcoming spacecraft all have one thing in common: 3-D printed parts.
App allows for crowdsourced exercise plans, which rival trainers in effectiveness
Researchers at the University of Washington and Seattle University have created CrowdFit, a platform for exercise planning that relies on crowdsourcing from nonexperts to create workout regimens guided by national exercise recommendations and tailored around user schedules and interests.
Discovery could lead to personalized medical therapies for emerging food allergy disorder
Scientists at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have uncovered three distinct subtypes of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an emerging food allergic disease.
Trial finds no benefit of bath emollients beyond standard eczema care for children
Emollient bath additives provide no meaningful benefit when used in addition to standard eczema care in children, finds a trial published by The BMJ today.
Breast cancer places greater financial burden on black women
Having breast cancer placed a significantly greater financial strain on black women than white women, according to study at the University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.
Rethinking the umbrella species concept
According to the 'umbrella species' concept, preserving and managing habitat for a single high-profile species also benefits a whole suite of other species that share its habitat -- but how well does this really work?
Climate change will boost global lake evaporation -- with 'extreme' consequences
Global lake evaporation will increase 16 percent by the end of the century, triggering, among other outcomes, stronger precipitation events, according to a new Yale-led study.
Liver fix thyself
By studying a rare liver disease called Alagille syndrome, scientists discovered the mechanism behind a form of tissue regeneration that may someday reduce the need for organ transplants.
Engraved Crimean stone artifact may demonstrate Neanderthal symbolism
A flint flake from the Middle Paleolithic of Crimea was likely engraved symbolically by a skilled Neanderthal hand, according to a study published May 2, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Ana Majkic from the University of Bordeaux, France and colleagues.
Cracking open the formation of fossil concretions
Researchers developed a unified model of the formation mechanism of spherical carbonate concretions, which often contain exceptionally well-preserved fossils.
New species in the North Sea
Experts from the Alfred Wegener Institute and the universities of Oldenburg and Potsdam, Germany have confirmed the existence of a new cryptic amphipod species in the North Sea.
Math sheds light on how living cells 'think'
How does the 'brain' of a living cell work, allowing an organism to function and thrive in changing and unfavorable environments?
New leads on treating dementia and Alzheimer's
A new research study by scientists in Australia and the US provides an explanation for why clinical trials of drugs reducing proteins in the brain that were thought to cause dementia and Alzheimer's have failed.
In southern Mozambique, 1 out of 3 persons diagnosed with HIV do not disclose their status
Almost 40 percent of people previously diagnosed with HIV do not disclose their HIV status during diagnosis campaigns, leading to unnecessary retesting.
Plants can use underground communication to find out when neighbors are stressed
Corn seedlings that grow close together give off underground signals that impact the growth of nearby plants, reports a study published May 2, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Velemir Ninkovic from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, and colleagues.
Pilot study validates artificial intelligence to help predict school violence
A pilot study indicates that artificial intelligence may be useful in predicting which students are at higher risk of perpetrating school violence.
Understanding fear of guilt key in better treating OCD
Advances in our understanding of the development and persistence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have the potential to improve treatment according to a new study by the University of Waterloo.
Paramedics find better drug to tame violent patients
Australian paramedics are using a new drug to quickly calm violent patients and they have the data to prove it works.
River dolphins are declining steeply in the Amazon basin
Populations of freshwater dolphins in the Amazon basin are in steep decline, dropping by half about every decade at current rates, according to a study published May 2, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Vera da Silva from Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, and colleagues.
A novel voltage peak in the metal nanowire-superconductor hybrid structure
A novel voltage peak was detected when cooling the system across the proximity induced superconducting transition temperature in a crystalline gold nanowire contacted by a superconducting electrode.
Rare sharks are no longer in the 'dark,' thanks to new species survey method
Previously unobserved shark species swim in areas impacted by humans, reports a new study.
Protecting campus free speech, even when it challenges beliefs
Two Cornell University researchers say psychological science's extensive study of bias offers an important lens to view conflicts between free speech and hate speech.
New report details experiences of graduates with student loan debt during the Great Recession
Most non-borrowers (81 percent) reported that their undergraduate education was worth the cost, compared with 69 percent of graduates who took out student loans.
Weather forecast model predicts complex patterns of volcanic ash dispersal
New research, led by the University of Bristol, has provided fresh insight into how huge volcanic ash plumes, which can critically disrupt aviation and cause major impact on the ground, are transported in the atmosphere.
Morris Animal Foundation study shows drug comes up short in osteoarthritis pain relief
Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers from the University of Georgia, have found that tramadol was ineffective in alleviating signs of pain associated with osteoarthritis in dogs.
Scientists find the first bird beak, right under their noses
Researchers have pieced together the three-dimensional skull of an iconic, toothed bird that represents a pivotal moment in the transition from dinosaurs to modern-day birds.
Harvesting health information from an unusual place: The wastewater treatment plant
Every day, people all over the world unwittingly release a flood of data on what drugs they are taking and what illnesses they are battling, simply by going to the bathroom and flushing.
A new giant virus found in the waters of Oahu, Hawaii
Researchers at the Daniel K. Inouye Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa have characterized a new, unusually large virus that infects common marine algae.
An ironic health care twist for undocumented immigrants
A new analysis highlights an ironic development in the intertwined issues of immigration and health care - two areas where current and previous administrations differ greatly.
Blood pressure-regulating hormone may be a key marker of sociality in monkeys
Scientists have discovered that monkeys with low levels of social behavior harbor low amounts of a hormone found in brain and spinal cord fluid.
NASA finds Tropical Cyclone Flamboyan in a southeastern stretch
Strong vertical wind shear had taken its toll on Tropical Cyclone Flamboyan when NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean.
Study links parental support and career success of children
A recent study finds that young people who get financial support from their parents have greater professional success, highlighting one way social inequality is transmitted from one generation to the next.
The case for hope: Educating as if survival matters
The world is facing ever-more-dire warnings from scientists about the faltering health of the environment and the negative consequences for humans, habitats, and the creatures with whom we share the Earth.
Substance in Chinese medicine can cause cardiac arrhythmia
A medicinal plant frequently used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) -- Evodia rutaecarpa -- contains substances that can cause cardiac arrhythmia.
Changing cities' food systems to help reduce carbon emissions
Many US cities and states are looking for ways to slash greenhouse gas emissions, including cap-and-trade programs, building-efficiency regulations, and boosting public transit and renewable energy sources.
ISIS online propaganda makes people feel nauseous but also provokes curiosity
Research shows that ISIS atrocity videos provoke a morbid curiosity among viewers, as well as disgust, discomfort and fear.
Stanford scientists find possible autism biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid
Autism diagnosis is slow and cumbersome, but new findings linking a hormone called vasopressin to social behavior in monkeys and autism in people may change that.
Bats go quiet during fall mating season
Giving someone the 'silent treatment' during courtship might not be the best strategy for romance.
Medical aid-in-dying laws are increasing, but substantial barriers to access remain
Medical aid-in-dying is now legal in eight U.S. jurisdictions, but patients still face substantial barriers to access, according to a new analysis by Dr.
Stanford scientists find fear, courage switches in brain
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have identified two adjacent clusters of nerve cells in the brains of mice whose activation levels upon sighting a visual threat spell the difference between a timid response and a bold or even fierce one.
AI better than most human experts at detecting cause of preemie blindness
An algorithm that uses artificial intelligence can automatically and more accurately diagnose a potentially devastating cause of childhood blindness than most expert physicians, a paper in JAMA Ophthalmology suggests.
Researchers find gut microbiome plays an important role in atherosclerosis
Researchers at Western University and Lawson Health Research Institute have shown a novel relationship between the intestinal microbiome and atherosclerosis, one of the major causes of heart attack and stroke.
Newly improved glass slide turns microscopes into thermometers
A study published today in Nature Communications describes how an updated version of the microscope slide can enable scientists to see tiny objects while also measuring their temperature.
Hubble detects helium in the atmosphere of an exoplanet for the first time
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have detected helium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet WASP-107b.
More than relaxation? Saunas may be linked to lower stroke risk
Taking frequent saunas may be linked to a lower risk of stroke, according to a study published in the May 2, 2018, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Energy recovery of urban waste
Researchers from the University of Seville have proposed a system which is capable of converting waste in a more controlled manner, and, basically, in two stages: first, the solid is converted to gas in reducing conditions (that is, with the presence of little oxygen), and then the generated gas is burnt very efficiently in specifically optimized equipment.
Ultrafast laser pulse created by golden nanoparticles
The creation of a fast, tunable and stable nanoparticle-array laser is a stepping stone to affordable and efficient sensing and switching.
Whooping cough more widespread than previously known
New research from Public Health Ontario and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences suggests that whooping cough cases in Ontario are nearly eight times the number actually reported, reinforcing the importance of up-to-date vaccinations to protect against illness and the spread of disease.
Novel reaction could spark alternate approach to ammonia production
The search for a more energy efficient and environmentally friendly method of ammonia production for fertilizer has led to the discovery of a new type of catalytic reaction.
Seeking the truth on female genital cutting
A new study by anthropologists at the University of Bristol will help campaigners to closely target their work in eradicating female genital cutting (FGC).
Brick by brick: Assembly of the measles virus
Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, using state of the art cryo-electron tomography techniques.
The DES saga: Death risk high for young women exposed in utero
A letter in the May 3, 2018, NEJM updates reports on the risks of exposure during pregnancy to a supplement, diethylstilbestrol (DES), that is linked to a rare cancer.
Survival and restoration of China's native forests imperiled by proliferating tree plantations
China's reforestation efforts have led to an increase in tree cover by 32 percent but the increase mostly comes from people turning former croplands into tree plantations with only one type of tree, which is of little value to wildlife.
Researchers discover connection between circadian rhythm and aggression
A research team including a researcher from the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences has discovered a circuit in the brains of mice connecting circadian rhythm to aggressive behaviour.
Global warming of 1.5°C or 2°C: The lower limit would reduce flood hazards
A research group led by Goethe University Frankfurt has simulated the scenarios of limiting global warming to 2°C versus 1.5°C with global hydrological models.
Pioneering paper shows infection control and prevention in clinics is in everyone's hands
When it comes to the examination room at your health care clinic, you might think that avoiding catching the flu or other more deadly viruses is out of your hands, so to speak.

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