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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | May 21, 2018


Bladder cancer model could pave the way for better drug efficacy studies
In the journal Cancer Research, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers report they have developed a model of luminal bladder cancer, one of the two subtypes of advanced bladder cancer.
Mayo study identifies new potential treatment option for triple negative breast cancer
In a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Mayo Clinic researchers identified that an FDA drug approved for myelodysplastic syndrome may be useful to treat triple-negative breast cancer, which is one of the most aggressive and lethal types of breast cancer.
Interview with CAR T cell expert Dr. Michel Sadelain in Human Gene Therapy
Michel Sadelain, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Center for Cell Engineering, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, offers a fascinating perspective on the re-markable progress being made in the field of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T-cell therapies to treat cancer.
Lightning in the eyewall of a hurricane beamed antimatter toward the ground
Hurricane Patricia, which battered the west coast of Mexico in 2015, was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere.
US poison control centers receive 29 calls per day about children exposed to ADHD medications
The study found that there were more than 156,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers regarding exposures to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications among children and adolescents 19 years of age and younger from January 2000 through December 2014, averaging 200 calls each week or 29 calls per day.
Chemists synthesize millions of proteins not found in nature
MIT chemists have devised a way to rapidly synthesize and screen millions of novel proteins that could be used as drugs against Ebola and other viruses.
Advanced biofuels can be produced extremely efficiently, confirms industrial demonstration
Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed new technologies that can be used to convert industrial plants to produce fossil-free heat, electricity, fuel, chemicals and materials.
Pregnancy drug DES might have triggered ADHD in the grandchildren of women who used it
A new study reported elevated odds for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the grandchildren of users of diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen commonly known as DES prescribed between 1938 and 1971 to prevent pregnancy complications.
New technique reveals 3-D shape of nanostructure's polariton interaction
Researchers from Lehigh University have found a way to reveal the 3-D shape of the polariton interaction around a nanostructure.
Discovery for grouping atoms invokes Pasteur
Scientists have found a new way of joining groups of atoms together into shape-changing molecules -- opening up the possibility of a new area of chemistry and the development of countless new drugs, microelectronics and materials.
Rice U. researchers enhance boron nitride nanotubes for next-gen composites
Rice University researchers discover a way to 'decorate' electrically insulating boron nitride nanotubes with functional groups.
World's biggest fisheries supported by seagrass meadows
Scientific research, led by Dr Richard Unsworth at Swansea University, has provided the first quantitative global evidence of the significant role that seagrass meadows play in supporting world fisheries productivity.
Novel bioactive steroid biosynthetic pathway in symbiotic fungi
Furanosteroids, represented by wortmannin and viridin, are a special group of highly-oxygenated steroids featured by a furan ring.
Far from special: Humanity's tiny DNA differences are 'average' in animal kingdom
Researchers report important new insights into evolution following a study of mitochondrial DNA from about five million specimens covering about 100,000 animal species.
Preventing murder by addressing domestic violence
Victims of domestic violence are at a high risk to be murdered -- or a victim of attempted murder -- according to a Cuyahoga County task force of criminal-justice professionals, victim advocates and researchers working to prevent domestic violence and homicides.
International anaesthesia standards updated with WHO in global effort to improve surgical care
This month the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) launched an update of the International Standards For A Safe Practice of Anaesthesia, co-published with World Health Organization (WHO) for the first time as an official WHO guideline.
Study finds snap-lock mechanism in bacterial riboswitch
In a discovery that points to potential new antibiotic medicines, scientists from Rice University and the University of Michigan have deciphered the workings of a common but little-understood bacterial switch that cuts off protein production.
Fewer men are being screened, diagnosed, and treated for prostate cancer
A new study reveals declines in prostate cancer screening and diagnoses in the United States in recent years, as well as decreases in the use of definitive treatments in men who have been diagnosed.
Vocal neurons encode evolution of frog calls
A study of two closely related frog species reveals a population of neurons that give rise to the unique mating calls of each species.
Self-healing material a breakthrough for bio-inspired robotics
Many natural organisms have the ability to repair themselves. Now, manufactured machines will be able to mimic this property.
UCI researchers discover novel mode of neurotransmitter-based communication
This is the first example of a novel mode of neurotransmitter-based communication and challenges current dogma about mechanisms of signaling in the brain.
Deep space radiation treatment reboots brain's immune system
NASA and private company SpaceX plan to send humans to Mars within the next 15 years--but need to figure out how to protect astronauts from the dangerous cosmic radiation of deep space.
Daily egg consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease
People who consume an egg a day could significantly reduce their risk of cardiovascular diseases compared with eating no eggs, suggests a study carried out in China, published in the journal Heart.
Clues found to early lung transplant failure
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Northwestern University have uncovered cells that flow into and harm the lung soon after transplant.
Synchrotron radiations shed light on formation mechanism of aromatic polyimide precursor
A mechanism for an industrially used catalysis of an aromatic polyimide precursor is now revealed by use of synchrotron radiations.
Cell types underlying schizophrenia identified
Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and University of North Carolina, USA, have identified the cell types underlying schizophrenia in a new study published in Nature Genetics.
Another potential mechanism links androgen deprivation therapy to cardiovascular mortality
The mechanisms by which ADT may lead to an increased risk of sudden death were unclear.
Major fossil study sheds new light on emergence of early animal life 540 million years ago
All the major groups of animals appear in the fossil record for the first time around 540-500 million years ago -- an event known as the Cambrian Explosion -- but new research from the University of Oxford in collaboration with the University of Lausanne suggests that for most animals this 'explosion' was in fact a more gradual process.
Leading UK scientist reveals likely cause of childhood leukaemia
A major new analysis reveals the likely cause of most cases of childhood leukaemia, following more than a century of controversy about its origins.
Research suggests sweet potatoes didn't originate in the Americas as previously thought
Sweet potatoes may seem as American as Thanksgiving, but scientists have long debated whether their plant family originated in the Old or New World.
New study reveals prevalence of anti-gay verbal and physical bullying in Florida schools
Anti-gay verbal and physical harassment are pervasive public health problems found in schools, which are correlated with negative mental health and educational outcomes for students.
Turning entanglement upside down
A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles.
Mice regrow brain tissue after stroke with bioengineered gel
In a first-of-its-kind finding, a new stroke-healing gel helped regrow neurons and blood vessels in mice with stroke-damaged brains, UCLA researchers report in the May 21 issue of Nature Materials.
The chestnut gall wasp -- The threat of an invasive species with clonal reproduction
A molecular study carried out on the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, has revealed the absence of genetic variability in this invasive species, a chestnut-tree parasite, in Europe.
Age-related racial disparity in suicide rates among US youth
Researchers investigated race-related differences in suicide rates in US youth.
Are humans causing cancer in wild animals?
As humans, we know that some of our activities can cause cancer to develop in our bodies.
One in 10 parents say their child has gotten sick from spoiled or contaminated food
Few parents are using some simple strategies to protect kids from food poisoning outside the home, such as at a potluck or restaurant, according to a new report from C.S.
UNM scientists find widespread ocean anoxia as cause for past mass extinction
For decades, scientists have conducted research centered around the five major mass extinctions that have shaped the world we live in.
To establish a timescale for more than ten million years ago
The timescale is the base to reconstruct the history of the Earth and the biological evolution.
Many Americans say infectious and emerging diseases in other countries will threaten the US
An overwhelming majority of Americans (95%) think infectious and emerging diseases facing other countries will pose a 'major' or 'minor' threat to the U.S. in the next few years, but more than half (61%) say they are confident the federal government can prevent a major infectious disease outbreak in the US, according to a new national public opinion survey commissioned by Research!America and the American Society for Microbiology.
The vessel not taken: Understanding disproportionate blood flow
Each time a blood vessel splits into smaller vessels, red blood cells (RBCs) are presented with the same decision: Take the left capillary or the right.
High-nicotine dependent smokers 'less likely' to quit after lung cancer screening
A new study in the May edition of the journal CHEST® investigated the relationship between the degree of nicotine dependence and the likelihood to quit smoking and clinical cancer and mortality outcomes in a cohort of screened patients.
Compound in citrus oil could reduce dry mouth in head, neck cancer patients
A compound found in citrus oils could help alleviate dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
New hope for women with fistula injuries
The health care systems in the United States and other industrialized countries have outgrown many of the childbirth-related injuries that are still very problematic in poor countries.
Vascular risk interacts with amyloid levels to increase age-related cognitive decline
Risk factors for heart disease and stroke appear to hasten the risk of cognitive decline in normal older individuals with evidence of very early Alzheimer's-disease-associated changes in the brain.
Mediterranean diet may blunt air pollution's ill health effects
Eating a Mediterranean diet may protect people from some of the harm of long-term exposure to air pollution, and reduce their risk of dying from heart attacks, stroke and other causes of death, according to new research presented at the ATS 2018 International Conference.
Women with pregnancy-related diabetes may be at risk for chronic kidney disease
Gestational diabetes may predispose women to early-stage kidney damage, a precursor to chronic kidney disease, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions.
How to ethically conduct clinical research during public health emergencies
Carnegie Mellon University's Alex John London, a prominent bioethicist, has co-authored a viewpoint article in PLOS: Neglected Tropical Diseases on the ethics of clinical research during public health emergencies, like Ebola outbreaks.
Flavonoids may slow lung function decline due to aging
A type of flavonoid found in dark-pigmented fruits like red grapes and blueberries may slow the lung function decline that occurs with aging, according to new research presented at the ATS 2018 International Conference.
Helping preterm infants grow bigger kidneys would prevent kidney disease later in life
A study from Cincinnati Children's reveals a mechanism regulating nephron formation in kidneys during prenatal development.
Ice cream funds research showing new strategy against thyroid cancer
University of Colorado Cancer Center study shows that stereotactic body radiation (SBRT) may be better against anaplastic thyroid cancer, and with fewer side effects.
Age-related racial disparity in childhood suicide
Age-related racial disparity exists in suicide rates among US youths.
Smog laid bare: Precise analysis of the composition of particulate matter
Smog is a problem. But the knowledge about its constituents -- no longer.
Scientists have deciphered the chemical reaction mechanism critical for cleaner combustion
Scientists have deciphered the mechanism of a chemical reaction critical for the development of environmentally friendly combustion technologies
A single-injection vaccine for the polio virus
A nanoparticle vaccine developed by MIT researchers could help eradicate polio worldwide.
Innovative risk score tool effectively predicts future risk of hospitalization for COPD patients
Researchers have developed a new tool that utilizes basic laboratory tests to effectively identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are at high risk of being hospitalized due to a flare up of the condition.
Reading the minds of pilots on the fly
Wearable brain monitoring sensors allowed researchers to measure cognitive workload while aircraft pilots completed memory tasks.
New data changes the way scientists explain how cancer tumors develop
A collaborative research team has uncovered new information that more accurately explains how cancerous tumors grow within the body.
Children understand plant-animal interdependence by the age of eight
When do children start to become aware of the relationship between animal and plant life?
Feel the burn: Biochemical pathway that spurs beige fat cells to burn energy is discovered
Researchers have identified a brain receptor and signaling pathway that spurs beige fat cells to burn energy, revealing a possible target for obesity therapies in humans.
A better way to control crystal vibrations
The vibrational motion of an atom in a crystal propagates to neighboring atoms, which leads to wavelike propagation of the vibrations throughout the crystal.
Fetal MRI can reliably spot holoprosencephaly as early as 18 gestational weeks
Fetal magnetic resonance imaging can reliably spot holoprosencephaly as early as 18 gestational weeks, providing an opportunity to counsel families earlier in their pregnancy, according to Children's-led research featured on the cover of the American Journal of Medical Genetics.
Montana State laser technology could help Yellowstone battle invasive trout
A laser-based sensor developed by electrical engineering professor Joe Shaw has been shown to be effective at locating non-native lake trout, which Yellowstone National Park managers remove in an attempt to reverse the decline of native cutthroat trout.
Genome structure of dinosaurs discovered by bird-turtle comparisons
Genome structure of dinosaurs discovered by bird-turtle comparisons A discovery by scientists at the University of Kent has provided significant insight into the overall genome structure of dinosaurs.
Single 'clock' syncs action and perception
A difficult task that requires participants to determine which of two stimuli appears first demonstrates how varying rhythms of brain activity may be synchronized to achieve a stable sense of time.
Eating at night, sleeping by day swiftly alters key blood proteins
The first human study to look at how blood proteins vary over a 24-hour-period identified 30 with distinct time-of-day patterns and more than 100 that are disrupted by simulated night shift work
One year's losses for child sexual abuse in US top $9 billion, new study suggests
A new study at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that the annual economic impact of child sexual abuse in the US is far-reaching and costly: In 2015, the total economic burden was approximately $9.3 billion and includes costs associated with health care, child welfare, special education, violence and crime, suicide and survivor productivity losses.
An unexpected chemosensor pathway for innate fear behavior against predator odor
Innate behaviors are genetically encoded, but their underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown.
Hotter bodies fight infections and tumors better -- researchers show how
The hotter our body temperature, the more our bodies speed up a key defence system that fights against tumours, wounds or infections, new research by a multidisciplinary team of mathematicians and biologists from the Universities of Warwick and Manchester has found.
Soft machines
In the world of robotics, soft robots are the new kids on the block.
First interstellar immigrant discovered in the solar system
A new study has discovered the first known permanent immigrant to our solar system.
Observing cellular activity, one molecule at a time
Using a new mode of atomic force microscopy, researchers at EPFL have found a way to see and measure protein assembly in real time and with unprecedented detail.
How animals holler
While humans can only broadcast about one percent of their vocal power through their speech, some animals and mammals are able to broadcast 100 percent.
Eczema drug effective against severe asthma
Two new studies of patients with difficult-to-control asthma show that the eczema drug dupilumab alleviates asthma symptoms and improves patients' ability to breathe better than standard therapies.
Scientists find link between increases in local temperature and antibiotic resistance
Bacteria have long been thought to develop antibiotic resistance largely due to repeated exposure through over-prescribing.
New NIST roadmap charts path to reduced fire hazards from materials
Don't use flammable materials and you won't have fires. Good idea but not very practical or realistic.
Extrasolar asteroid has been orbiting the sun for 4.5 billion years
The object is revolving around the sun in the vicinity of Jupiter but in the opposite direction from most other celestial bodies, according to a study featuring a Brazilian scientist as co-author.
Don't wait for a unicorn: Investing in low-carbon tech now will save money
Waiting for a 'unicorn technology' that provides green energy at low cost could be more expensive than adopting low-carbon energy technologies now.
Sleep better, parent better: Study shows link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting
A new study from Kelly Tu, a human development and family studies researcher at the University of Illinois, and colleagues, looks at the link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.
Avoiding the car for travel could significantly lower risk of illness and death
People who are more active when commuting to work by walking or cycling could be cutting their relative risk of developing ischaemic heart disease or stroke by 11 percent and their relative risk of dying from these diseases by 30 percent, suggests a study published in the journal Heart.
Link between IBD and Parkinson's might allow doctors to slow down condition
Doctors may be able to modify or slow down the progress of the neurological condition Parkinson's disease in the future by spotting signs of it in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), suggest a study published in the journal Gut.
How bacteria behave differently in humans compared to the lab
Most of what we know today about deadly bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained from studies done in laboratory settings.
Profiling the genome hundreds of variations at a time
Using baker's yeast, a team at Harvard's Wyss Institute developed a CRISPR-Cas9-based high-throughput approach that allows researchers to precisely alter hundreds of different genes or features of a single gene at once in individual yeast cells with 80 to 100% efficiency, select cells from the population that show specific behaviors, and identify the gene alterations that either trigger or prevent them.
Patients with high lipoprotein(a) levels may benefit from taking PCSK9 inhibitors
In the latest analysis from the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk) trial, researchers found that PCSK9 inhibitors reduced lipoprotein(a) levels and that patients starting with higher Lp(a) levels appeared to derive greater absolute benefit from taking PSCK9 inhibitors.
Birds from different species recognize each other and cooperate
Scientists from the University of Chicago and University of Nebraska show how two different species of Australian fairy-wrens not only recognize individual birds from other species, but also form long-term partnerships that help them forage and defend their shared space as a group.
Perceived trustworthiness helps women entrepreneurs with crowdfunding backers
Female entrepreneurs have been at a disadvantage when seeking financial backing from traditional sources, but new research shows that crowdfunding investors view them as more trustworthy, making female-led projects more likely to secure support through crowdfunding platforms.
What can snakes teach us about engineering friction?
If you want to know how to make a sneaker with better traction, just ask a snake.
New PSU study shows higher formaldehyde risk in e-cigarettes than previously thought
Portland State University researchers who published an article three years ago in the New England Journal of Medicine about the presence of previously undiscovered forms of formaldehyde in e-cigarette vapor revisited their research and found that formaldehyde risks were even higher than they originally thought.
Studying insight
The research team at Toyohashi University of Technology has measured the human pupil upon gaining insight into an object.
New form of local anesthetic does not reduce opioid use or complications after knee surgery
Contrary to what some studies may suggest, the local anesthetic drug, liposomal bupivacaine, did not reduce in-hospital opioid prescriptions or opioid-related complications in patients who received the drug during total knee replacement surgery as part of a multimodal approach to manage postsurgical pain, finds a new study published in the Online First edition of Anesthesiology, the peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA).
Giant Chinese salamander is at least five distinct species, all heading toward extinction
With individuals weighing in at more than 140 pounds, the critically endangered Chinese giant salamander is well known as the world's largest amphibian.
Graphene paves the way to faster high-speed optical communications
Graphene Flagship researchers created a technology that could lead to new devices for faster, more reliable ultra-broad bandwidth transfers.
Insufficient sleep, even without extended wakefulness, leads to performance impairments
A team of researchers from BWH have isolated the impacts of short sleep and extended wakefulness on vigilant performance decline and their results are published in PNAS.
Hurricanes: Stronger, slower, wetter in the future?
Find related stories on NSF's geosciences risk and resilience interest area.

Framework diversity of carbon nitrides offers rich platform for single atom catalysis
In a recent study, an international research team led by the group of Advanced Catalysis Engineering at ETH Zurich demonstrated that carbon nitrides of distinct framework types can serve as efficient hosts for metal atoms.
Computer redesigns enzyme
University of Groningen biotechnologists used a computational method to redesign aspartase and convert it to a catalyst for asymmetric hydroamination reactions.
Autism is not linked to eating fish in pregnacy
A major study examining the fish-eating habits of pregnant women has found that they are not linked to autism or autistic traits in their children.
Quantum effects observed in photosynthesis
Molecules that are involved in photosynthesis exhibit the same quantum effects as non-living matter, concludes an international team of scientists including University of Groningen theoretical physicist Thomas la Cour Jansen.
Personalizing therapeutic brain stimulation
A study of epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes provides an unprecedented view of the changes in brain activity created by electrical stimulation.
Why are the elderly increasingly more inclined to live alone?
For decades, the elderly in Spain have shown a preference for living at home, either alone or with their partners, instead of sharing a home with relatives of other generations.
Deadly malaria's evolution revealed
The evolutionary path of the deadliest human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has been revealed for the first time.
SUTD researchers develop reprocessable thermosets for sustainable 3D printing
SUTD researchers have developed 3D printing reprocessable thermosets that allows 3D printed structures to be reshapeable, repairable and recyclable leading to more sustainable 3D printing processes.
Receptor proteins that respond to nicotine may help fat cells burn energy
The same proteins that moderate nicotine dependence in the brain may be involved in regulating metabolism by acting directly on certain types of fat cells, new research from the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute shows.
Researchers identify genetic variants that may predict glaucoma risk
A study led by scientists from King's College London, University College London, Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School has identified 133 genetic variants that could help predict the risk of developing glaucoma, the world's leading cause of incurable blindness.
Immune cells hold promise in slowing down ALS
Recent research from Houston Methodist Hospital showed that a new immunotherapy was safe for patients with ALS and also revealed surprising results that could bring hope to patients who have this relentlessly progressive and fatal disease.
Flexible, highly efficient multimodal energy harvesting
A 10-fold increase in the ability to harvest mechanical and thermal energy over standard piezoelectric composites may be possible using a piezoelectric ceramic foam supported by a flexible polymer support, according to Penn State researchers.
Hurricanes: A bit stronger, a bit slower, and a lot wetter in a warmer climate
Scientists have published a detailed analysis of how 22 recent hurricanes would change if they instead formed near the end of this century.
Age-related racial disparities in suicide rates among youth ages 5 to 17 years
The study shows racial disparities in suicide rates are age-related.
NIH-funded researchers identify target for chikungunya treatment
Scientists have identified a molecule found on human cells and some animal cells that could be a target for drugs against chikungunya virus infection and related diseases, according to new research published in the journal Nature.
NASA sees tropical cyclone Sagar's landfall
The final bulletin on Tropical Cyclone Sagar was issued at 11 a.m.
Schizophrenics' blood has more genetic material from microbes
The blood of schizophrenia patients features genetic material from more types of microorganisms than that of people without the debilitating mental illness.

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