Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 25, 2018
Faster genome evolution methods to transform yeast for industrial biotechnology
A research team led by Prof. DAI Junbiao at the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with Prof.

Study finds that weight loss after obesity surgery can rapidly restore testosterone production and sex drive in morbidly obese men
New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Vienna, Austria (May 23-26) shows that weight reduction following a sleeve gastrectomy (obesity surgery), which reduces the size of the stomach, can rapidly reverse obesity-related hypogonadism in morbidly obese men, restoring normal levels of testosterone and sex drive.

mHealth as effective as clinic-based intervention for people with serious mental illness
A mobile health (mHealth) intervention was found to be as effective as a clinic-based group intervention for people with serious mental illness in a new study published online today in Psychiatric Services.

NIH summit delivers recommendations to speed therapy development for Alzheimer's disease
The National Institute on Aging today released recommendations providing a roadmap for an integrated, multidisciplinary research agenda to inform priorities for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

OSU biologist advocates ecological approach to improving human health
Chronic diseases like cancer, autoimmune disorders and obesity may ultimately vanquish the efforts of medical intervention unless people change their diet, a biologist argues in a paper published this week.

Study reveals gaps in follow-up care after concussion
Being discharged from a hospital trauma center after receiving treatment for a traumatic brain injury (TBI) does not necessarily mean that a patient has fully recovered.

UMD food scientist guides students towards revelatory findings in women's health
In an effort to sustain and educate the next generation of food safety experts in the United States, Dr.

Phosphorus nutrition can hasten plant and microbe growth in arid, high elevation sites
Glacial retreat in cold, high-altitude ecosystems exposes environments that are extremely sensitive to phosphorus input, new University of Colorado Boulder-led research shows.

New chromosome study can lead to personalised counselling of pregnant women
Foetuses with a specific, rare chromosomal aberration have a 20 per cent risk of a developmental disorder or another brain disorder, a new study conducted at the University of Copenhagen reveals.

Study shows star-shaped bread popular with children and could encourage more healthy eating
New research on different colors and shapes of bread, presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity in Vienna, Austria (May 23-26), shows that star-shaped bread is particularly popular with young children and could help them make healthy food choices.

Google search data shows weight loss searches have increased over time while those on obesity have decreased
New research on Google trends data presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity in Vienna, Austria (May 23-26) shows that over time, searches using the terms weight loss have increased, while those using the word obesity have decreased, potentially suggesting a normalization of obesity in society.

Currents propel the spreading of invasive jellyfish
Twelve years ago, the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi, originating from the North American East Coast, appeared in northern European waters.

Turning up the heat on thermoelectrics
Thermoelectric materials, heated under high magnetic fields, could produce record levels of energy, suggests a new study by MIT researchers.

A genetic algorithm predicts the vertical growth of cities
The increase of skyscrapers in a city resembles the development of some living systems.

Biosensor technologies to offer more effective approaches to disease treatment
Every cell in our bodies is shaped by its outer coating, or biomembrane, which wraps the cell in a supportive and protective blanket, allowing the cell to carry out its normal function while also defending it against attack.

UEA research could help fine-tune cancer treatment
Cancer therapies that cut off blood supply to a tumour could be more effective in combination with existing chemotherapeutic drugs -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

By 2035 over 4 million adults will be morbidly obese across England, Wales, and Scotland
Across England, Wales, and Scotland, morbid obesity (BMI of 40kg/m² or over) rates in adults are expected to soar over the next 17 years, with the number of morbidly obese adults likely to exceed 4 million by 2035 -- more than double the 1.9 million in 2015, according to new research being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) .

Why bioelectrodes for energy conversion are not stable
Researchers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have discovered why bioelectrodes containing the photosynthesis protein complex photosystem I are not stable in the long term.

If solubility is the problem -- Mechanochemistry is the solution
Chemists from TU Dresden synthesize supersized nanographenes with ball milling.

Shine bright like a nanoaggregate
Chinese scientists have turned copper-iodine cluster molecules into aggregated, highly luminescent nanostructures for use in light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

What is impact of permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement?
The need for a patient to have a permanent pacemaker implanted while hospitalized after undergoing a transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a complication associated with worse survival and increased risk of more time spent in the hospital then and in the future.

A new guide for explorers of the submicroscopic world inside us
The new guidelines will benefit the battle against diseases such as cancer, assist in the development of new drugs and ensure scientific results are accurate and can be reproduced.

Infantilism as a norm
Views on human age need to be revisited. The value of adulthood as a period of certainty has declined for many, which means that this period is being delayed.

NYU professor replicates famous marshmallow test, makes new observations
A new replication study of the well-known 'marshmallow test' -- a famous psychological experiment designed to measure children's self-control -- suggests that being able to delay gratification at a young age may not be as predictive of later life outcomes as was previously thought.

OLEDs become brighter and more durable
Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Technische Universität Dresden demonstrate the possibility of using ultrastable film formation to improve the performance of state-of-the-art OLEDs.

Bumblebees confused by iridescent colors
A new study published today by the University of Bristol shows for the first time that dazzling iridescent colors in animals can act as camouflage.

New link found between alcohol, genes and heart failure
Scientists have revealed a new link between alcohol, heart health and our genes.

Doctors fail to flag concussion patients for critical follow-up
As evidence builds of more long-term effects linked to concussion, a nationwide study led by scientists at UCSF and the University of Southern California has found that more than half of the patients seen at top-level trauma centers may fall off the radar shortly after diagnosis, placing in jeopardy treatments for these long-term effects.

MSU-based molecular biologists compared human and yeast FACT
Today, scientists extensively study FACT -- a protein complex that plays a role in DNA packing within a nucleus, as well as in oncogenesis.

Do patients with TBI receive follow-up care after ED discharge?
Many patients treated in the emergency department for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) don't receive educational materials at discharge or see clinicians for follow-up care.

An elastic fiber filled with electrodes set to revolutionize smart clothes
EPFL scientists have found a fast and simple way to make super-elastic, multi-material, high-performance fibers.

Potent new mechanism of action for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease revealed
Through research on the small molecule analogue of E6007 which is under clinical development as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease, a novel mechanism of action was revealed in which this analogue inhibited the adhesion and infiltration of various leukocytes through the blockade of the interaction between calreticulin and the leukocyte adhesion molecule integrin α by associating with calreticulin.

Majority of premature infants still exposed to early antibiotics
Most premature infants, who are at risk for sepsis but who may not have a culture confirmation of infection, continue to receive early antibiotics in the first few days of life, a finding that suggests neonatal antibiotic stewardship efforts are needed to help clinicians identify infants at lowest risk for infection to avoid unnecessary antibiotic exposure.

Scientific 'dream team' shed light on motor neuron death
A group of clinical neurologists, molecular biologists and computer scientists have worked together to solve the mystery of why motor neurons die in patients with motor neuron disease, published in Nature Communications this week.

89% of the Moscow University Herbarium have been digitised in the last three years
A senior researcher of the Moscow University Herbarium published in Taxon journal the results of his work on the Moscow University Digital Herbarium.

Mars rocks may harbor signs of life from four billion years ago
Iron-rich rocks near ancient lake sites on Mars could hold vital clues that show life once existed there, research suggests.

Organic light-emitting diodes become brighter and more durable: layers made as ultrastable glasses improve device performance
Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Technische Universität Dresden have demonstrated the possibility of using ultrastable film formation to improve the performance of state-of-the-art OLEDs.

Indigenous communities moving away from government utilities
Indigenous communities are rejecting non-indigenous energy projects in favour of community-led sustainable energy infrastructure.

USTC reveals the mechanism how moderate sunlight exposure improves learning and memory
USTC researchers have shed new lights on the correlation between sunlight exposure and related neurobehaviors.

Lung-on-a-chip simulates pulmonary fibrosis
New biotechnology reported in the journal Nature Communications could make testing potential medicine for pulmonary fibrosis, one of the most common and serious forms of lung disease, quicker and less expensive.

A study shows that electoral outcomes affect the way we treat other people
After the unexpected results of the 2016 US Presidential election, the way Americans treat each other changed as a function of their party affiliation, a new study by Celia Moore (Bocconi University) and colleagues, published in PLOS ONE, documents.

Goal conflict linked to psychological distress
Being torn about which personal goals to pursue is associated with symptoms of psychological distress, new research shows.

Study finds that chewing gum while walking affects both physical and physiological functions, especially in middle-aged and elderly men
New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Vienna, Austria (May 23-26) shows chewing gum while walking increases heart rate and energy expenditure.

Failures in power grids: Dynamically induced cascades
The paper publication: 'Dynamically induced cascading failures in power grids.'

Regulatory mutations missed in standard genetic screening lead to congenital diseases
Researchers have identified a type of genetic aberration to be the cause of certain neurodevelopmental disorders and congenital diseases, such as autism and congenital heart disease, which are undetectable by conventional genetic testing.

How scientists analyse cell membranes
In an interdisciplinary collaboration, researchers at the University of Münster (Germany) have developed a method of visualizing an important component of the cell membrane in living cells.

Aggression neurons identified
High activity in a relatively poorly studied group of brain cells can be linked to aggressive behaviour in mice, a new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows.

Group of Brazilian researchers achieves almost instant magnetization of matter by light
In an experiment described in Physical Review Letters, a single photon aligned the spins of 6,000 electrons in only 50 picoseconds.

Top nitrogen researchers imagine world beyond fossil fuels
At the invitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, 17 top experts in nitrogen research gathered to discuss nitrogen activation chemistry and the field's future.

Which role does the brain play in prosocial behavior?
This study suggests that our tactile cortices, primarily evolved to perceive touch and pain on our body, have an important social function.

SwRI scientists introduce cosmochemical model for Pluto formation
Southwest Research Institute scientists integrated NASA's New Horizons discoveries with data from ESA's Rosetta mission to develop a new theory about how Pluto may have formed at the edge of our solar system.

Implications of targeted observation for ENSO prediction
Scientists from the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) studied targeted observation with respect to ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) events using an intermediate coupled model developed by IOCAS.

Most concussion patients fall under the radar after ER visit
Research supported by the NIH and led by 65 scientists across the United States reveals a lack of follow-up with patients who have suffered a mild traumatic brain injury, even among patients who experience persistent, long-term symptoms after they leave the hospital.

Scientists discover new magnetic element
A new experimental discovery, led by researchers at the University of Minnesota, demonstrates that the chemical element ruthenium (Ru) is the fourth single element to have unique magnetic properties at room temperature.

'Deforestation-free' palm oil not as simple as it sounds
Genuinely 'deforestation-free' palm oil products are problematic to guarantee, according to a new study.

NASA satellites spot first Atlantic sub-tropical storm
The tropical low pressure area known as System 90L that has been lingering in the western Caribbean Sea for a couple of days has consolidated and strengthened into the Atlantic Ocean basin's first tropical storm.

Landscape evolution intrinsic to ancient mountain settings
New research helps explain why the structure of some mountains continues to evolve long after the tectonic forces that formed them cease.

NASA eyes extremely severe cyclonic mekunu approaching landfall
The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in New Delhi (RSMC), India noted on May 25 that Mekunu has now been classified as an Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm.

Responding to 'deaths of despair' -- call for a national resilience strategy
Startling increases in nationwide deaths from drug overdoses, alcohol, and suicides constitute a public health crisis -- spurring an urgent call for a National Resilience Strategy to stem these 'deaths of despair.' The proposal is outlined in a special commentary in the Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Checking the global pulse for electric vehicles
A team of Argonne researchers has reviewed 40 automotive market diffusion models from 16 countries to help determine how many plug-in electric vehicles consumers will buy over the next few decades.

New map shows many old-growth forests remain In Europe
A first-of-its-kind map identifies more than 3.4 million acres of old-growth forests in 34 European countries -- considerably more than previously understood.

Answering a medical mystery: Why are vaccines less effective in the developing world?
It's a question that has challenged scientists and physicians for years: why do vaccines work better in some parts of the world than in others?

Zinc oxide-graphene solar cells could provide new opportunities
The researchers report on the fabrication and characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide-graphene (ZnO-G) composites via a simple chemical route-polyol process, using zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ethylene glycol and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the precursors.

Researchers see role of 'imaginativeness' in new business success
Visionary entrepreneurs fare best with not one but three types of imagination: creative, social and practical.

Smartphone app effective for serious mental illness treatment
A smartphone program was just as effective in treating people with serious mental illnesses as a clinical intervention -- and it had a significantly better rate of treatment engagement, according to a study published today in the journal Psychiatric Services.
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