Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 28, 2018
Man against machine: AI is better than dermatologists at diagnosing skin cancer
Researchers have shown for the first time that a form of artificial intelligence or machine learning known as a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) is better than experienced dermatologists at detecting skin cancer.

Rise and fall of the Great Barrier Reef
Study is first of its kind to reconstruct evolution of reef over 30,000 years in response to abrupt environmental change.

Limiting global warming could avoid millions of dengue fever cases
Limiting global warming to 1.5°C could avoid around 3.3 million cases of dengue fever per year in Latin America and the Caribbean alone -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

China floods to hit US economy: Climate effects through trade chains
Fluvial floods will increase due to human-made climate change, in particular in China.

Virus genes from city pond rescue bacteria
A key question in evolutionary biology is how new functions arise.

Deciphering the language of cells using observation chambers
EPFL researchers have developed an innovative label-free method for studying the behavior of single cells continuously and in real time.

The stick insects that survive being eaten by birds
It's commonly assumed that when insects are eaten by birds, they and their unborn young have no chance of survival.

Most vitamin, mineral supplements not shown to lower heart disease risk
Current research does not show enough evidence that vitamin or mineral supplements are beneficial for preventing or treating heart disease, with the exception of folic acid for reducing stroke risk, according to a review article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Most popular vitamin and mineral supplements provide no health benefit, study finds
The most commonly consumed vitamin and mineral supplements provide no consistent health benefit or harm, suggests a new study led by researchers at St.

Cell chat: Attacking disease by learning the language of cells
Breakthrough miniature biosensor offers unprecedented insights into how individual cells behave, allowing scientists to isolate single cells, analyze them in real time and observe their complex signalling behavior without disturbing their environment.

Genome's dark matter offers clues to major challenge in prostate cancer
Researchers at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center identified a novel gene they named ARLNC1 that controls signals from the androgen receptor, a key player in prostate cancer.

Homeless populations at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease
Among homeless individuals cardiovascular disease remains one of the major causes of death due to challenges in predicting initial risk, limited access to health care and difficulties in long-term management, according to a review published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Is it ethical to use genealogy data to solve crimes?
Despite the popularity of online genealogy services, it is unclear whether users understand that their genetic information is available for forensic purposes.

No link between HPV vaccination and risk of autoimmune disorders: Study in CMAJ
A new study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) found no increased risk of autoimmune disorders in girls who received quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccination, adding to the body of evidence for the safety of the vaccine.

Paramedic-run health sessions in low-income apartments reduced number of 911 calls, improved health
A community-based health promotion program developed by McMaster University that was offered by paramedics in low-income apartment buildings significantly reduced the number of 911 calls and improved quality of life for seniors, found a randomized controlled trial published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Genes, environment and schizophrenia: new study finds the placenta is the missing link
New research shines a spotlight on the placenta's critical role in the nature versus nurture debate and how it confers risk for schizophrenia and likely other neurodevelopmental disorders including ADHD, autism, and Tourette syndrome.

NIST study shows face recognition experts perform better with AI as partner
Scientists from NIST and three universities have tested the accuracy of professional face identifiers, experts who often play a crucial role in criminal cases.

Multisensory experiences enhance sales and feeling of comfort in shops and restaurants
The preliminary results show that sounds of nature that were played in the fruit and vegetable section of a grocery shop had a clear impact on the shop's sales.

Research enhances enzyme that degrades plastic
Brazilians participate in international project to boost capacity of PETase of breaking down polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used in bottles and responsible for producing millions of tons of waste.

So that Ronaldo and Co. can perform their magic
The official ball for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia has received Empa's 'stamp of approval' after numerous rigorous tests.

Mongooses remember and reward helpful friends
Dwarf mongooses remember previous cooperative acts by their groupmates and reward them later, according to new work by University of Bristol researchers, published today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Novel method to fabricate nanoribbons from speeding nano droplets
An international team of researchers, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has discovered a novel method for the synthesis of ultrathin semiconductors.

Graphene layered with magnetic materials could drive ultrathin spintronics
Researchers working at Berkeley Lab coupled graphene, a monolayer form of carbon, with thin layers of magnetic materials like cobalt and nickel to produce exotic behavior in electrons that could be useful for next-generation computing applications.

Prehistoric teeth dating back 2 million years reveal details on ancient Africa's climate
New research out of South Africa's Wonderwerk Cave led by anthropologists at the University of Toronto shows that the climate of the interior of southern Africa almost two million years ago was much wetter than the modern environment.

Exposure of European children to electromagnetic fields is well below the maximum levels
Measurements from more than 500 children in five countries include different sources such as mobile phones, mobile phone antennas and WiFi.

What do animals want?
Researchers apply machine learning to understand how potential food rewards guide the movements of nematodes, finding that the subjects combine multiple sensations into strategic behaviors that uses the minimal amount of energy.

Black holes from an exacomputer
What happens when two black holes merge, or when stars collide with a black hole?

Minimising the impacts of palm oil plantations
With palm oil production exploding around the world, a new study of a leading producer has found ways to make the process easier on the environment.

Researchers identify the electrophysiological sign of cerebral infarction
Researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have analyzed the underlying electrophysiological indicators of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the second most common type of brain hemorrhage that can lead to ischemic stroke within a matter of days.

To scan or not to scan: research shows how to personalize lung cancer screening decisions
A new study shows how to personalize lung cancer CT screening decisions, so doctors can fine-tune their advice to patients based not just on individual lung cancer risk and the potential benefits and harms of screening, but also a likely range of patient attitudes about looking for problems and dealing with the consequences.

The logic of modesty -- why it pays to be humble
Why do people make anonymous donations, and why does the public perceive this as admirable?

ACP calls for policies that better support women's health
A new position paper from the American College of Physicians (ACP) examines the unique challenges women face within the US health care system and calls for policies to better support them.

New research finds tall and older Amazonian forests more resistant to droughts
A new Columbia Engineering study shows that photosynthesis in tall Amazonian forests--forests above 30m--is 3x less sensitive to precipitation variability than in shorter forests of less than 20m.

Novel NUS-developed hydrogel invented harnesses air moisture for practical applications
A team of researchers from the National University of Singapore has invented a novel gel-like material that not only effectively dehumidifies ambient air to improve thermal comfort, but it also harnesses the moisture in the air for a wide range of practical applications, such as functioning as a sun or privacy screen, conductive ink and even a battery.

New insights into the inner clock of the fruit fly
Biologists around Professor Ralf Stanewsky (University of Münster, Germany) have now presented new findings on the inner workings of circadian clocks in the fruit fly.

Sex hormone levels may affect heart disease risk in post-menopausal women
In post-menopausal women, having a higher blood level of a male hormone (testosterone) and a higher ratio of the male-type to-female type (estrogen) of hormones is associated with a higher risk of heart disease later in life, according to research published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Scientists discover why heart function is reduced at high altitude
For over a century, we have known that high altitude reduces the amount of blood the heart pumps around the body with each beat.

Time crystals may hold secret to coherence in quantum computing
Time crystals may hold secret to coherence in quantum computing.

The mystery of masculinization in Daphnia magna unraveled
Researchers at Osaka University discovered lncRNAs to activate the male-determining gene doublesex1 (Dsx1) necessary for sex determination in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

Positive feedback between East Asian mid-latitude circulation and land surface temperature
A new study shows that a better description of the summer surface condition in the Russian Far East may benefit seasonal forecasts of the East Asian upper-tropospheric westerly jet and, subsequently, East Asian summer climate.

Communication in the cell: important step of signal transmission elucidated
The effectiveness of new drugs depends crucially on a fundamental understanding of the complex processes within the cells of the body.

'Will this be on the test?' Even if it isn't, students might remember it
A new study by the University of British Columbia shows that teachers don't have to test everything they want their students to remember -- as long as the knowledge they want to convey fits together well, and the test questions are well-chosen.

Study identifies processes in the gut that drive fat build-up around the waist
Research by scientists at King's College London into the role the gut plays in processing and distributing fat could pave the way for the development of personalized treatments for obesity and other chronic diseases within the next decade.

Simultaneous monitoring of surfaces and protein distribution in cells
In a first proof-of-concept study, researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have combined two microscopy methods that render both a cell's surface and the distribution of a protein in the cell visible, at a resolution in the nanometer range.

AI software assists design of new material for solar cells
Researchers from Osaka University used machine learning to design new polymers for organic photovoltaics (solar cells).

Out in the cold or one of the gang: Initial contacts set the scene
Ostracism within a group is not always a disciplining tool.

Switched on: a breakthrough for spintronics
Researchers at Tohoku University in Japan have discovered a switch to control the spin current, a mechanism needed for information processing with full spin-based devices. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to