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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 01, 2018


Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center experts present data at 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting
At the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting in Chicago, researchers from Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center will present data from several new studies, including a prospective clinical trial examining non-small cell lung cancer cells' response to immunotherapy; research on germline testing for melanoma; and interim results from a study testing a vaccine for glioblastoma.
New technology for enzyme design
Scientists at the University of Würzburg have chemically modified the enzyme levansucrase using a new method.
Novel insulators with conducting edges
Physicists at UZH are researching a new class of materials: Higher-order topological insulators.
Polymer researchers discover path to sustainable and biodegradable polyesters
Researchers at Virginia Tech have synthesized a biodegradable alternative to polyolefins using a new catalyst and the polyester polymer, and this breakthrough could eventually have a profound impact on sustainability efforts.
Mobile app for autism screening yields useful data
A Duke study of an iPhone app to screen young children for signs of autism has found the app easy to use, welcomed by caregivers and good at producing reliable scientific data.
Weight changes associated with reduced bone strength
Researchers from Hebrew SeniorLife's Institute for Aging Research, Boston University, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and University of Calgary have found evidence that weight loss can result in worsening bone density, bone architecture and bone strength.
UA study links sleep loss with nighttime snacking, junk food cravings, obesity, diabetes
Nighttime snacking and junk food cravings may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors and represent a potential link between poor sleep and obesity, according to a study by University of Arizona Health Sciences sleep researchers.
'Multiomics' and the newborn mouse heart
The heart of a neonatal mouse is capable of self-repair after tissue damage.
Irradiating chest lymph nodes in patients with early stage breast cancer improves survival without increasing side effects
Giving radiation therapy to the lymph nodes located behind the breast bone and above the collar bone to patients with early stage breast cancer improves overall survival without increasing side effects, and this effect continues for 15 years, researchers have found.
Reconstructing longest American water level, instrumented flood record, in Boston Harbor
Using newly-discovered archival measurements to construct an instrumental record of water levels and storm tides in Boston since 1825, researchers at UMass Amherst and elsewhere report today that local averaged relative sea level rose by nearly a foot (0.28 meters) over the past 200 years, with the greatest increase occurring since 1920.
Analysis: Survival benefit for African-Americans with advanced prostate cancer
Contrary to current perceptions, certain African-American men with advanced prostate cancer have as good a chance of survival as white men and might actually have a small advantage, according to a new analysis of more than 8,000 patients who participated in clinical trials.
Research brief: New approach boosts effort to scale up biodiversity monitoring
The value of ecological biodiversity for maintaining ecosystem stability and function is well established, but a recent study points to a novel way to fine-tune our ability to measure it at larger scales.
Novel microscopy technique developed to analyze cellular focal adhesion dynamics
Researchers at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and the Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory at the University of Illinois have developed a new form of microscopy that allows them to observe the formation and evolution of cell membrane focal adhesions.
New machine learning approach could accelerate bioengineering
Scientists from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a way to use machine learning to dramatically accelerate the design of microbes that produce biofuel.
Dieting associated with risky behaviours in teenage girls
Teenage girls who diet are more likely to engage in other health-compromising behaviours, including smoking, binge drinking, and skipping breakfast, a University of Waterloo study recently found.
Link between bacteria metabolism and communication could pave way for new drugs
New research, which appears in the journal Science Advances, shows that LsrK forms a complex with HPr, a protein involved in glucose utilization in E. coli.
One in every 5 deaths in young adults is opioid-related in the United States: Study
One out of every five deaths among young adults in the United States is related to opioids, suggests a study led by researchers in Canada.
Black patients show stronger response to hormone therapy for prostate cancer
African-American men with advanced prostate cancer might be more responsive than white men to an anti-androgen drug and steroids, according to a study led by Duke Cancer Institute researchers.
Cautious prawns win battle for food
Prawns have personalities -- and cautious crustaceans do better in the battle for food, new research shows.
Direct visualization of dynamic structures of protein disaggregation molecular machines
ClpB, an ATP-fueled protein molecular machine, disentangles and reactivates aggregated proteins.
Study offers new hope for the fight against genetically determined obesity
A large group of people with obesity have a genetic mutation that is causing their obesity.
Study explores how emotions in facial expressions are understood
New research by academics at the University of East Anglia (UEA) reveals how well fearful facial expressions are perceived in peripheral vision.
Scientists develop material that could regenerate dental enamel
Researchers at Queen Mary University of London have developed a new way to grow mineralised materials which could regenerate hard tissues such as dental enamel and bone.
When doctors assume, patients lose
Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity, or 'SO/GI,' data has valuable public health benefits and potential clinical benefits for an individual patient, but medical providers must continue to collect information about patient experiences and behaviors, where clinically appropriate, and avoid making assumptions based on SO/GI data alone, according to a study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania published today in the journal General Internal Medicine.
Finances are a major motivating factor in patient avoidance of diagnostic testing
Patient preferences for diagnostic testing differed significantly across levels of risk, benefit, and cost of diagnostic testing, but cost was the strongest and most consistent factor associated with decreased desire for testing.
Pilot study examines the effects of virtual reality on reducing anxiety and improving pregnancy rate of women having fertility treatment
New research presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia congress in Copenhagen, Denmark, shows that giving women different types of virtual reality (VR) sessions prior to sedation for IVF treatment (to become pregnant) reduces their anxiety and could improve successful pregnancy rate.
Immunocompromised patients with sepsis may face higher mortality at hospitals treating small numbers
Immunosuppressed patients with sepsis appear more likely to die if they are treated in a hospital caring for a relatively small number of these patients, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
In nearly zero energy buildings special attention must be paid to window design
For the last two years TTÜ Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Research Group led by Professor Hendrik Voll (currently holding the position of TTÜ Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs), with support from personal research funding (PUT, i.e. funding for high level research projects), has been seeking solutions for daylight and solar shading for nearly zero energy buildings in cold climates.
When push comes to shove: Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs
Kanazawa University-led Japanese researchers identified a crucial role for air sac-based scavenger blood cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs), in driving hepatocellular cancer metastasis in the lungs.
Most hospitals now require workers to get flu shots -- except those that treat veterans
A new study shows a rapid rise in the percentage of hospitals that require their workers to be vaccinated against influenza -- except among hospitals that focus on treating the nation's military veterans.
Despite fewer looking for work, gains continue for Americans with disabilities
Job gains continued for Americans with disabilities in May, although fewer were looking for work, according to today's National Trends in Disability Employment - Monthly Update (nTIDE).
Timing resuscitation compressions using the song 'La Macarena' or using a smartphone app improve compression quality
New research presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia congress in Copenhagen, Denmark shows that the quality of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be improved by using either a smartphone app or by using the song 'La Macarena' as a mental memory aid.
The Lancet: A warning and an opportunity: The WHO Independent
The World Health Organisation (WHO) Independent High-Level Commission has proposed six bold recommendations to accelerate action and tackle the growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
Earliest European evidence of lead pollution uncovered in the Balkans
New research from Northumbria University has revealed that metal-related pollution began in the Balkans more than 500 years before it appeared in western Europe, and persisted throughout the Dark Ages and Medieval Period, meaning the region played a far bigger role in mineral exploitation than previously believed.
New surgery for groin pain found to be more effective than physiotherapy
As the FIFA World Cup approaches researchers have found that keyhole surgery could help get injured footballers back on the pitch faster than physiotherapy-led treatments.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, June 2018
A direct brain-to-computer interface may be on the horizon. New insights into how quickly microorganisms break down organic matter in warming Arctic soil.
New in the Hastings Center Report, May-June 2018
Genetic privacy, questions about medical artificial intelligence, and more in the May-June 2018 issue.
Zn-InsP6 complex can enhance excretion of radioactive strontium from the body
Researchers at Kanazawa University have found a new phenomenon that a complex of myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP6) with zinc enhances excretion of radioactive strontium from the body.
Study reveals brain activity patterns underlying fluent speech
When we speak, we engage nearly 100 muscles, continuously moving our lips, jaw, tongue, and throat to shape our breath into the fluent sequences of sounds that form our words and sentences.
Stem cell-based phase I trial to repair spinal cord injuries produces encouraging results
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that a first-in-human phase I clinical trial in which neural stem cells were transplanted into participants with chronic spinal cord injuries produced measurable improvement in three of four subjects, with no serious adverse effects.
Atomically thin nanowires convert heat to electricity more efficiently
Waste heat can be converted to electricity more efficiently using one-dimensional nanoscale materials as thin as an atom -- ushering a new way of generating sustainable energy -- thanks to new research by the University of Warwick.
Walking faster could make you live longer: research
Researchers call for walking pace to be emphasized in public health messages, as analysis of over 50,000 walkers finds a faster pace is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.
New study finds pitcher injuries increase as pitch count rises
More than half of high school baseball pitchers report experiencing pain in their throwing arm during the season.
Yale study tracks Title IX use across US colleges and universities
Title IX -- the US civil rights law passed in 1972 that prohibits sex discrimination in federally funded education programs -- has been widely recognized as a crucial step toward gender equality in America.
Wait for it: Serotonin and confidence at the root of patience in new study
Serotonin keeps mice hanging on if they are sure of getting rewards, but not sure when.
Study shows nail treatments do not affect readings of patients' oxygen levels, despite widespread concern
New research at this year's Euroanaesthesia congress in Copenhagen, Denmark, suggests that nail treatments such as acrylic nails or nail polishes do not, as previously thought, affect readings from digital pulse oximetry (DPO) devices used to monitor patients' blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels in hospital.
Psychiatric disorders shouldn't disqualify youth with severe obesity from weight loss surgery
Psychiatric disorders, a common comorbidity of severe obesity, especially for youth, should not disqualify an adolescent with severe obesity from bariatric surgery.
UAV aircrafts provide new insights into the formation of the smallest particles in Arctic
Investigations of the atmosphere by means of unmanned mini-airplanes can contribute significantly to the investigation of the causes of Arctic climate change, as they provide an insight into ground-level air layers that are not monitored by other measuring stations.
Researchers: A power failure in your fat cells could short-circuit your health
The energy metabolism of the body's so-called brown fat cells is controlled by the fat molecule cardiolipin, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered in a new study.
How to achieve a peaceful coexistence between wolves and humans
The persecution of wolves in order to remove them from human settlements has culminated in their near-disappearance in numerous European countries, like Spain and Sweden.
Structure of protein pair provides blueprint for future drugs
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have visualized for the first time how the protein SOCS1 'switches off' cell signalling to dampen immune responses and block cancer growth.
Phase I trial finds experimental drug safe in treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Reporting results from a first-in-human phase I clinical trial, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have found that treatment with cirmtuzumab, an experimental monoclonal antibody-based drug, measurably inhibited the 'stemness' of chronic leukemia cancer (CLL) cells -- their ability to self-renew and resist terminal differentiation and senescence.
Ticks on migratory birds carriers of newly discovered hemorrhagic fever virus
In a new study, researchers at Uppsala University and other institutions have identified genetic material from the recently identified Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in the tick species Hyalomma rufipes.
AI for nanoparticles
MIT researchers have used a computational neural network, a form of artificial intelligence, to 'learn' how a nanoparticle's structure affects the way it scatters light, based on thousands of examples.
Breakthrough in controlling DNA-based robots
Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand -- and much faster than recently possible.
New perspectives on African migration
Scientists at the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, analyze past and present migration patterns from and within Africa, and the drivers behind them.
How just drops of viper venom pack a deadly punch
Researchers at Brazil's largest producer of antivenoms report a structural analysis of glycans modifying venom proteins in several species of lancehead viper.
Transformative technology
UC Davis neuroscientists have developed fluorescence sensors that are opening a new era for the optical recording of dopamine activity in the living brain.
Family Medicine and Community Health Journal volume 6, issue number two publishes
Family Medicine and Community Health Journal volume 6, issue number two publishes.
Impacts from implementation of novel clinical pharmacist training program Changsha, China
In the current issue of Family Medicine and Community Health (Volume 6, Number 2, 2018, pp.
Geographic and health system correlates of interprofessional oral health practice
In the current issue of Family Medicine and Community Health (Volume 6, Number 2, 2018, pp.

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