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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 05, 2018


African-Americans still disproportionately affected by HIV
African-Americans are still much more likely to be diagnosed with HIV than white Americans.
Using envy as a marketing tool can backfire
For decades, marketers have used envy to sell, attempting to cash in on consumers' desire to want what others have.
Sleep health and yoga intervention delivered in low-income communities improves sleep
Pilot study results indicate that a sleep and yoga intervention has promising effects on improving sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and sleep health behaviors.
Microbiome differences between urban and rural populations start soon after birth
An analysis comparing the intestinal microbiomes of both infants and adults living in rural and urban areas of Nigeria has revealed that not only are there many differences in adults living in subsistence environments versus urban ones but also that these variations begin at a very young age.
Maternal depressive emotion associated with children's sleep problems
Maternal depressive mood during the prenatal and postnatal periods is related to child sleep disturbances, according to recent pilot data from a longitudinal cohort study in kindergarten children.
Maternal fatty acid balance affects offspring obesity thorough gut microbial population
A Massachusetts General Hospital study finds that the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the tissues of female mammals, which previous research has suggested can impact the incidence of obesity in their offspring, may to do so through its effect on the microbial population of the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
Thousands of turtles netted off South America
Tens of thousands of sea turtles are caught each year by small-scale fishers off South America's Pacific coast, new research shows.
Computer simulations identify chemical key to diabetes drug alternatives
Jeremy Smith, Governor's Chair for Molecular Biophysics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and director of the Center for Molecular Biophysics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has worked with a research team from the UT Health Science Center to discover a chemical compound that could lower sugar levels as effectively as the diabetes drug metformin but with a lower dose.
Psychedelic drug use associated with reduced partner violence in men
In a new study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, researchers from UBC's Okanagan campus have discovered that men who have used psychedelic drugs in the past have a lower likelihood of engaging in violence against their intimate partners.
Women more likely to use other preventive health services after mammography
Medicare beneficiaries who undergo breast cancer screening with mammography are more likely than unscreened women to undergo other preventive health services like screening for cervical cancer and osteoporosis, according to a major new study.
CWRU School of Medicine researchers create first artificial human prion
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers have synthesized the first artificial human prion, a dramatic development in efforts to combat a devastating form of brain disease that has so far eluded treatment and a cure.
Transferring quantum information using sound
A team of researchers from TU Wien and Harvard University has found a new way to transfer quantum information.
Nutrient pollution makes ocean acidification worse for coral reefs
A study published recently by a team of researchers, alumni and students from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) showed that local impacts of humans -- nutrient pollution from activities on land -- may accelerate the negative impacts of global ocean acidification on coral reefs.
Coffee helps teams work together, study suggests
Good teamwork begins with a cup of coffee for everyone, a new study suggests.
Large igneous provinces contribute to ups and downs in atmospheric carbon dioxide
Modelling the location of large igneous provinces for the past 400 million years shows that their eruptions and subsequent weathering modulate global climate.
NASA analyzes no. Indian Ocean rainfall of soaking separate cyclones
NASA analyzed rainfall in two tropical cyclones that developed in the Northern Indian Ocean, each bringing heavy rainfall.
More breast cancers found with combined digital screening
A combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis detects 90 percent more breast cancers than digital mammography alone, according to a new study.
Research reveals how Tau aggregates can contribute to cell death in Alzheimer's disease
New evidence suggests a mechanism by which progressive accumulation of Tau protein in brain cells may lead to Alzheimer's disease.
A new material capable of the adsorption of organic pollutants in water
The results show that the material C18-Mica-4 is capable of eliminating the majority of pollutants that were evaluated in urban waste water, as well as surface water and potable water.
New study provides information on the secret life of an enigmatic Antarctic apex predator
Scientists from British Antarctic Survey (BAS) have, for the first time, tracked the lives of leopard seals as they migrate around Antarctica.
Researchers discover how colon cancer mutates to escape the immune system
A UCLA-led study has found how colon cancer alters its genes during development in order to avoid detection by the immune system, creating a specific genetic imprint in the process.
Cornell research illuminates inaccuracies in radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating is a key tool archaeologists use to determine the age of plants and objects made with organic material.
Penn Medicine GI bleeding research points to need for updated Medicare policies
Penn Medicine researchers are calling for greater precision in Medicare performance reporting for patients with GI bleeding following an evaluation of patients with the condition.
Tax hurts investment in medical device research and development
New Iowa State University research shows companies cut funding for research and development in response to a tax imposed on medical devices as part of the Affordable Care Act.
Throw like a girl? No, he or she just hasn't been taught
'You throw like a girl' is a sexist taunt that can instantly sour a kid on athletics and other healthy activities.
Research shows dogs prefer to eat fat, and cats surprisingly tend toward carbs
Dogs gravitate toward high-fat food, but cats pounce on carbohydrates with even greater enthusiasm, according to research into the dietary habits of America's two most popular pets.
Why are migraine patients skipping effective behavioral treatments?
Researchers from NYU School of Medicine found that about half of migraine patients who were referred by a headache center for specific behavioral treatment did not follow through with therapy.
Surprising resurgence of red spruce likely result of cleaner air and warmer winters
When scientists found a resurgence of red spruce in northeastern forests, they had a lot of questions.
Invasive species of coral boasts amazing capacity for regeneration
Colonies of sun coral multiply rapidly, driving native corals out.
Rules about technology use can undermine academic achievement
Parents who restrict their children's use of new media technologies may be acting counterproductively in the long run, particularly if they invoke afterschool homework time as the reason.
Zebrafish expose tumor pathway in childhood muscle cancer
A popular aquarium fish may hold answers to how tumors form in a childhood cancer.
A little water could make a big difference for endangered salmon
A trickle of water flowing through a stream could mean life or death for endangered coho salmon in coastal California.
Study finds aromatic herbs lead to better parenting in starlings
For European starlings, the presence of aromatic herbs in the nest leads to some improved parenting behaviors, according to a new study.
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology: Job strain linked to increased risk of premature death for men with cardiometabolic disease
Having a demanding job and little control over it is associated with an increased risk of premature death in men with coronary heart disease, stroke, or diabetes, according to an observational study tracking more than 100000 men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease from Finland, France, Sweden, and the UK for almost 14 years, published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
Does living near wind turbines negatively impact human health?
Wind turbines are a source of clean renewable energy, but some people who live nearby describe the shadow flicker, the audible sounds and the subaudible sound pressure levels as 'annoying.' They claim this nuisance negatively impacts their quality of life.
UNH researchers shine a light on more accurate way to estimate climate change
By using satellite data from different major land-based ecosystems around the globe, researchers have found that the photosynthesis glow is the same across all vegetation, no matter the location.
Sticky situation: New process turns wood scraps into tape
A team of chemical engineers at the University of Delaware has developed a more sustainable way of making high-performance adhesives.
What the size distribution of organisms tells us about the energetic efficiency of a lake
The size distribution of organisms in a lake facilitates robust conclusions to be drawn on the energy efficiency in the food web, as researchers from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and international colleagues have now demonstrated empirically.
Red tide fossils point to Jurassic sea flood
Dinosaur-age fossilised remains of tiny organisms normally found in the sea have been discovered in inland, arid Australia -- suggesting the area was, for a short time at least, inundated by sea water 40 million years before Australia's large inland sea existed.
Groundwater pumping can increase arsenic levels in irrigation and drinking water
Pumping an aquifer to the last drop squeezes out more than water.
Research on spider glue resolves sticky problem
Ever wonder why paint peels off the wall during summer's high humidity?
A better statistical estimation of known Syrian war victims
Researchers from Rice University and Duke University are using the tools of statistics and data science in collaboration with Human Rights Data Analysis Group to accurately and efficiently estimate the number of identified victims killed in the Syrian civil war.
Blast from the past
Scientists recently reexamined data from the MiniBooNE experiment at Fermilab taken between 2009 and 2011, and they found the first direct evidence of mono-energetic neutrinos, or neutrinos with definite energy, that are energetic enough to produce a muon.
Clinical trials in a dish: A perspective on the coming revolution in drug development
Researchers share perspective about Clinical Trials in a Dish (CTiD), a novel strategy that bridges preclinical testing and clinical trials.
Putting lungs under less stress
Of the 200,000 Americans diagnosed with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) each year, 30 to 50 percent will die.
UCI scientists analyze first direct images of dissolved organic carbon from the ocean
In a first, researchers from the University of California, Irvine - as well as Switzerland's University of Zurich, IBM Research-Zurich and UC Santa Cruz - have obtained direct images of dissolved organic carbon molecules from the ocean, allowing better analysis and characterization of compounds that play an important role in the Earth's changing climate.
Major heart attacks are more deadly during colder months
Heart attacks are more likely to kill you in the winter than in the summer, according to new research presented at the British Cardiovascular Society Conference in Manchester today.
Swimming without an engine
Using nothing but 3D printing, scientists have developed a paddling submarine that requires no engine, propellant or power supply.
Mandatory bundled-payment Medicare programs should stay, Penn study suggests
Hospitals that receive bundled payments for joint replacements either voluntarily or through Medicare's mandatory programs, vary by size and volume, but not in spending or quality, signaling a need for both programs, according to a new study.
Lighting intervention improves sleep and mood for Alzheimer's patients
A tailored lighting intervention in nursing homes can positively impact sleep, mood and behavior for patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to preliminary findings from a new study.
What effect does transcranial magnetic stimulation have on the brain?
Researchers of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have gained new insights on the question of how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) effects functional interconnectivity of neurons.
Neutron tomography: Insights into the interior of teeth, root balls, batteries, and fuel cells
A team of researchers at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and European Spallation Source (ESS) has now published a comprehensive overview of neutron-based imaging processes in the renowned journal Materials Today (impact factor 21.6).
Dogs can be a potential risk for future influenza pandemic
Dogs are a potential reservoir for a future influenza pandemic, according to a study published in the journal mBio.
Scientists reveal structure of amino acid transporter involved in cancer
The human glutamine transporter ASCT2 is upregulated in several forms of cancer.
Many US women don't realize they're seeking reproductive care at Catholic hospitals
More than one-third of women who go to a Catholic hospital for reproductive care aren't aware they're seeking obstetrical and gynecological care at a facility that may have limited health care options due to its religious affiliation.
New theory on why more women than men develop autoimmune diseases
New findings are now being presented on possible mechanisms behind gender differences in the occurrence of rheumatism and other autoimmune diseases.
New tool enables big-scale analysis of single cells
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico of the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CNAG-CRG) in Barcelona, Spain, developed a novel computational tool named BigSCale to analyze millions of single cells simultaneously.
Unzipping graphene nanotubes into nanoribbons
In a new study published in EPJ B, Basant Lal Sharma from the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur provides a detailed analysis of how the flow of heat and electrons is affected at the interface between an 'armchair' shaped carbon nanotube and a zigzagging nanoribbon made up of a single-layer carbon honeycomb sheet of graphene.
You talking to me? Scientists try to unravel the mystery of 'animal conversations'
An international team of academics undertook a large-scale review of research into turn-taking behavior in animal communication, analyzing hundreds of animal studies.
Money or altruism: What motivates people to donate their poop to medicine?
Appealing to a concern for others is the best way to recruit most people to donate their stool for medicine, while cash rewards may be an additional motivator for some potential donors, according to research scheduled for presentation at Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2018.
Data discrepancies may affect understanding of the universe
One of the unsolved mysteries in modern science is why the expansion of the universe appears to be accelerating.
The key triggers of the costly 2017 wildfire season
New University of Colorado Boulder-led research shows that three major 'switches' affecting wildfire -- fuel, aridity, and ignition -- were either flipped on and/or kept on longer than expected last year, triggering one of the largest and costliest US wildfire seasons in recent decades.
Injuries and loss of life boost religious faith after disasters
Weather-related disasters can make people more religious but it depends on the toll they inflict, suggests new UBC research.
Mergers are good news for investors
Shareholder value and market share improve when companies merge, confirms a new study from the University of Waterloo.
Common diabetes drug found safe for most diabetics with kidney disease
Results of a large-scale study suggest that the oral diabetes drug metformin is safe for most diabetics who also have chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Surprising recovery of red spruce shows value of Clean Air Act
Surprising new research shows that red spruce are making a comeback -- and that a combination of reduced pollution mandated by the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act and changing climate are behind the resurgence.
Beyond superstition to general causality: AI nutcracker for real-world problems
Real-world problems in economics and public health can be notoriously hard nuts to find causes for.
Detecting the birth and death of a phonon
EPFL physicists have developed a new technique to probe elementary quantum excitations of atomic vibrations inside a diamond crystal under ambient conditions.
Cedars-Sinai research identifies gut gas linked to diarrhea
Cedars-Sinai investigators have for the first time identified a gas produced in gut that could improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with two common intestinal illnesses -- small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Family blood mystery solved
Back in the 1970s, a Norwegian family was found to have abnormally high red blood cell counts.
Montmorency tart cherry juice lowered blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in older adults
Montmorency tart cherry juice helped lower blood pressure and LDL 'bad' cholesterol in older adults.
It's all in your head: Brain protein targeted for alcoholism cure
University of Houston chemist Joydip Das is reporting a cure for alcoholism could be found in a protein inside the brain that plays a big role in developing tolerance to drinking.
Stunting cell 'antennae' could make cancer drugs work again
Scientists have uncovered a completely new way to make cancers sensitive to treatment -- by targeting antenna-like structures on cells.
Decades of type 1 diabetes linked to mild drop in cognition
People who live with type 1 diabetes for very long duration show signs of mild decreases in cognitive abilities, primarily in memory, compared to those who don't have the disease, Joslin Diabetes Center researchers have shown.
Mayo Clinic researchers take a step closer to developing a DNA test for liver cancer
A group of researchers from Mayo Clinic and Exact Sciences Corporation have completed a phase II study comparing a set of DNA markers to alpha fetoprotein as a method to test for liver cancer.
Distracted people can be 'smell blind' -- according to new University of Sussex study
'Inattentional smell blindness,' or inattentional anosmia, has been proven to exist in a study from the University of Sussex.
Older adults with asthma are happier when they have more say in their care
It's clear an increasing number of people want a say in their medical care.
Religiosity plays a role in educational success of immigrant children
A new study focuses on the role religion plays for the educational success of immigrant children.
PharmaMar presents at ASCO the ADMYRE study's adjusted overall survival with plitidepsin
PharmaMar (MSE:PHM) has presented today how crossover has had an influence on the overall survival of the ADMYRE trial.
Sleep disturbances more common for immigrants than non-immigrants
Preliminary data from a recent study show high levels of emotional distress could be causing immigrants to have more sleep disorder symptoms than non-immigrants.
Blowing bubbles for cancer treatment
Embolization -- the use of various techniques to cut off the blood vessels that feed tissue growth -- has gained traction over the past decades to treat cancerous tumors, and one specific version is gas embolotherapy.
Clear predictors of changing insulin requirements & A1C in youth with type 1 diabetes
20-year longitudinal study conducted by researchers from Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School identifies clear predictors of rising A1C levels in young persons, as well as ways to improve glycemic control in this population.
New insight into Earth's crust, mantle and outer core interactions
A new study by the University of Liverpool, in collaboration with the Universities of Lancaster and Oslo, uses previously unavailable data to confirm a correlation between the movement of plate tectonics on the Earth's surface, the flow of mantle above the Earth's core and the rate of reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, which has long been hypothesized.
Researchers use artificial intelligence to identify, count, describe wild animals
Photographs that are automatically collected by motion-sensor cameras can be automatically described by deep neural networks.
Listening to gut noises could improve diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome
Utilizing newly adapted artificial intelligence, researchers have developed an acoustic belt that offers a new way to diagnose irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by listening to the noises in a patient's gut, according to research presented at Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2018.
More detailed data on thermal conditions of Arctic ground
Understanding the thermal conditions of the ground in the Arctic is of utmost importance in order to assess the effects of climate change on the occurrence of permafrost, on the ecosystems and societies of the Arctic, and the global climate system.
Physicists devise method to reveal how light affects materials
Physicists devised a way to determine the electronic properties of thin gold films after they interact with light.
Arizona work law found to affect US-Mexico migration
A new study used data from a Mexican identification-card program to find that a relatively low-cost employment-focused system can reduce unauthorized migration.
One in four Americans develop insomnia each year
About 25 percent of Americans experience acute insomnia each year, but about 75 percent of these individuals recover without developing persistent poor sleep or chronic insomnia, according to a study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania which will be presented Monday at SLEEP 2018.
NASA finds some fragmented strength in Tropical Storm 05W
NASA obtained an infrared look at Tropical Depression 05W as it continued moving through the South China Sea.
New algorithm keeps data fresh in wireless networks
Algorithm provides networks with the most current information available while avoiding data congestion.
New method enables high quality speech separation
Researchers have developed a novel audio-visual model for isolating and enhancing the speech of desired speakers in a video.
Rigorous study finds widely used treatment for infection fails young cancer patients
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital found ethanol-lock therapy failed to prevent new or recurring infections in cancer patients with central venous catheters and was associated with increased complications.
Fungi-produced pigment shows promise as semiconductor material
Researchers at Oregon State University are looking at a highly durable organic pigment, used by humans in artwork for hundreds of years, as a promising possibility as a semiconductor material.
Bridging the gap between human and animal communication
Cooperative turn-taking has been suggested as an ancient mechanism of the language system bridging the existing gap between the articulate human species and our inarticulate primate cousins.
Yellowstone study explores park's geothermal system
The hot springs at Yellowstone National Park derive their heat from the supervolcano's active magma body that lies buried beneath the surface.
Neurons ripple while brains rest to lock in memories
Researchers at Rice University and Michigan Medicine develop a computational tool to analyze waves of firing neurons in the hippocampus while animals are at rest and determine which neurons represent the recall or reactivation of patterns linked to specific memories.
Study in Fiji finds that removing sea cucumbers spells trouble for shallow coastal waters
The sea cucumber's unimpressive appearance belies the outsized role these creatures play in converting decomposing organic matter into recyclable nutrients and keeping coastal ecosystems healthy and clean, and overfishing them can have negative impacts on coastal marine environments, according to a new study focusing on a species of sea cucumber called a sandfish in the journal PeerJ.
Ribavirin for treating Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever -- latest Cochrane review
In a viral hemorrhagic disease where up to 40 percent of people developing it die, it is remarkable that doctors still do not agree whether the only recognized treatment, an antiviral drug called ribavirin, makes a difference.
Large-scale and sustainable 3D printing with the most ubiquitous natural material
SUTD researchers have recently demonstrated the use of cellulose to sustainably manufacture/fabricate large 3D objects.

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Approaching With Kindness
We often forget to say the words "thank you." But can those two words change how you — and those around you — look at the world? This hour, TED speakers on the power of gratitude and appreciation. Guests include author AJ Jacobs, author and former baseball player Mike Robbins, Dr. Laura Trice, Professor of Management Christine Porath, and former Danish politician Özlem Cekic.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#509 Anisogamy: The Beginning of Male and Female
This week we discuss how the sperm and egg came to be, and how a difference of reproductive interest has led to sexual conflict in bed bugs. We'll be speaking with Dr. Geoff Parker, an evolutionary biologist credited with developing a theory to explain the evolution of two sexes, about anisogamy, sexual reproduction through the fusion of two different gametes: the egg and the sperm. Then we'll speak with Dr. Roberto Pereira, research scientist in urban entomology at the University of Florida, about traumatic insemination in bed bugs.