Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 06, 2018
A laser that smells like a hound
University of Adelaide researchers have created a laser that can 'smell' different gases within a sample.

A common electronic language for magnetic resonance
The standards used to re-transcribed the collected data in organic chemistry is however specific to each laboratory, making it difficult to export the information electronically.

Do arthritis treatments provide mental health benefits?
Drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis may impact mental health by improving pain and stiffness and by targeting inflammatory processes common to arthritis and depression; however, a recent review of published studies demonstrates that relying on rheumatoid arthritis therapies alone may not meaningfully improve patients' mental health.

Targeting strategy may open door to better cancer drug delivery
Bioengineers may be able to use the unique mechanical properties of diseased cells, such as metastatic cancer cells, to help improve delivery of drug treatments to the targeted cells, according to a team of researchers at Penn State.

Different outdoor professions carry different risks for skin cancer
One of the main risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common cancer worldwide, is solar ultraviolet radiation.

Patenting marine genetic resources: Who owns ocean biodiversity?
Marine organisms have evolved to thrive in various ocean environments, resulting in unique adaptations that make them the object of commercial interest.

Early indicators of bone loss after hip replacement discovered
Aresearch team at Rush University Medical Center has identified a pair of biomarkers that indicate which patients are likely to develop osteolysis.

Collaborative team first to identify the perinexus in the human heart
A collaborative research team is on a quest to collapse a tiny pocket between cardiac cells that can cause big problems.

NASA sees strong storms in Tropical Depression 05W as it strengthened
Tropical Depression 05W briefly reached tropical storm status overnight on June 5 into June 6, and then weakened back to a depression at 5 a.m.

How do you weigh a galaxy? Especially the one you're in?
A new technique promises more reliable estimates of the masses of galaxies, according to a paper published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Combination drug therapy effectively treats male infertility
Two drugs that are commonly used off-label in the treatment of male infertility are clomiphene citrate (CC) and anastrozole (AZ); however, data are lacking on the use of combination CC+AZ therapy.

Risk assessment tools may increase incarcerations rates
New research from a Rice University sociologist suggests risk assessment tools may contribute to expanding the number of people caught up in the criminal justice system.

Late Pleistocene human mandibles from the Niah Caves may hint at ancient diets
Three human mandibles may provide new insight into the diet of Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in Borneo, according to a study published June 6, 2018, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Darren Curnoe from the University of New South Wales, Australia, and colleagues.

It's about time: Immediate rewards boost workplace motivation
New research from Kaitlin Woolley shows that immediate rewards increase enjoyment and interest in tasks more compared to rewards at the end of a task.

Recorded calls beat Facebook ads in getting residents to request free smoke alarm
A new study from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found automated phone calls were far more effective than Facebook ads in getting Baltimore City residents to request a smoke alarm through the city's free installation program.

Mangos help promote gut health
Eating mangos found to be more effective in relieving constipation and reducing intestinal inflammation than comparable amount of fiber.

Human encouragement might influence how dogs solve problems
Human encouragement might influence how dogs solve problems.

Inside the brains of killer bees
Africanized honeybees, commonly known as 'killer bees,' are much more aggressive than their European counterparts.

Scientists create 'genetic atlas' of proteins in human blood
An international team of researchers led by scientists at the University of Cambridge and MSD has created the first detailed genetic map of human proteins, the key building blocks of biology.

Zika's negative effects, as seen in human newborns, persist in adults, mouse study shows
Scientists have discovered that Zika virus infection in infant mice results in seizures and long-term deficits in brain structure and behavior that persist into adulthood.

Who should be on the $10 and $20 bills? How race, gender, and politics shape public opinion
Race, gender, political affiliation, and the prejudices and biases associated with them (racism, sexism, and political ideology) seem to be at the forefront of citizen's minds when it comes to preferences for US currency -- specifically, who should be on the $10 and $20 bills.

Drug combination offers more effective care for patients suffering miscarriage
A combination of the drugs mifepristone and misoprostol can help bring closure to some women and their families suffering from miscarriage, and reduces the need for surgical intervention to complete the painful miscarriage process.

Breeding better Brazilian rice
Rice production in Brazil is a multi-billion-dollar industry. It employs hundreds of thousands of people, directly and indirectly.

Social media images of culture can predict economic trends in cities
A vibrant arts, music and science culture -- as measured by images posted to social media site Flickr -- successfully predicted the economic rise of certain neighborhoods in London and New York City.

International 'A' team debuts brain cancer atlas
It takes an 'A' team to make headway against glioblastoma, a highly aggressive type of brain cancer.

'Lipofilling' technique found safe for reconstruction after breast cancer surgery
Autologous fat transfer, also known as 'lipofilling,' is a minimally invasive procedure in which the plastic surgeon uses the patient's own fat obtained by liposuction to perform breast reconstruction.

Education linked to higher risk of short-sightedness
Spending more years in full time education is associated with a greater risk of developing short-sightedness (myopia), finds a study published by The BMJ today.

Salt Lake's light rail trains are air quality sleuths
The TRAX project is the only known transit-based mobile air quality network in North America.

Stroke survivors could gain the most from new blood pressure guidelines
More than half of all strokes can be attributed to uncontrolled high blood pressure.

What would help or hinder patient participation in mitochondrial disease clinical trials?
As clinical trials gear up with the aim of attaining the first FDA-approved treatments for mitochondrial disease, a new study reports for the first time what patients and families say would motivate them for or against participating in such research trials.

Opioid use may affect treatment for alcohol dependence
New research indicates that opioid misuse and the use of cannabis and other drugs may compromise the effectiveness of treatments for alcohol use disorder.

For flickers, looks can be deceiving
Despite the obvious visual differences between the Red-shafted Flicker of the west and the Yellow-shafted Flicker of the east, scientists have never before found genetic differences between them.

Single molecular insulator pushes boundaries of current state of the art
Researchers have synthesized the first molecule capable of insulating at the nanometer scale more effectively than a vacuum barrier.

Simpler model gets to the point with proteins
Rice University researchers introduce a new computational framework to predict the details of protein folding and other dynamic molecular processes.

Urinary markers predict bone problems after hip replacement
In a study published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research, investigators have identified urinary markers that differentiate total hip replacement patients who eventually develop bone tissue destruction, or osteolysis, from patients who do not.

Study examines sickness absence from work among abstainers, low-risk drinkers and at-risk drinkers
In a recent study, people who reported not drinking any alcohol over several years were absent from work due to illness more often than low-risk drinkers.

Stem-cell niche for 10 billion colon cells a day
Researchers at the University of Zurich have discovered the identity of the stem-cell niche of the colon.

Model examines pregnancy's effects on opioid addiction treatment
Buprenorphine (BUP) is approved for the treatment of opioid addiction.

New nuclear medicine method shows promise for better detection of neuroendocrine tumors
Researchers have shown that a new nuclear medicine procedure could safely and more effectively detect cancerous gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors than current methods.

What doctors wear really does matter, study finds
Half of patients surveyed in the clinics and hospitals of ten major medical centers said that what physicians wear is important to them -- and more than one-third said that what a doctor wears influences their satisfaction with their care.

Poor sleep linked to lower cognitive functioning in people with diabetes and prediabetes
A study published in the journal Acta Diabetologica reports that people with diabetes and prediabetes who have lower sleep efficiency -- a measure of how much time in bed is actually spent sleeping -- have poorer cognitive function than those with better sleep efficiency.

Study explores options that optimize profit in broadband satellite constellations
Several large telecommunications companies have proposed plans to provide global broadband services by launching hundreds and even thousands of satellites into orbit.

Organic insect deterrent for agriculture
Traditional insecticides are killers: they not only kill pests, they also endanger bees and other beneficial insects, as well as affecting biodiversity in soils, lakes, rivers and seas.

Study on economics of fishing on the high seas
Using satellite tracking, a team of researchers exposes the economic unprofitability of fishing the high seas and the industry's dependence on government subsidies.

When did animals leave first footprint on Earth?
Scientists from China and the United States reported discovering fossil footprints for animal appendages in the Ediacaran Period (about 635-541 million years ago) in China.

Antibody blocks inflammation, protects mice from hardened arteries and liver disease
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine discovered that they can block inflammation in mice with a naturally occurring antibody that binds oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), molecules on cell surfaces that get modified by inflammation.

Sensor detects whiff of bad breath
Ever wish you could do a quick

Female bats judge a singer by his song
Female lesser short-tailed bats can size up a potential mate just from his singing.

Exposure to smoking before and after birth linked to hearing impairment in toddlers
Exposure to tobacco smoke prenatally and postnatally was associated with hearing impairment in a Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology study of young children in Japan.

Pollution hits the fungi that nourish European trees
Pollution is changing the fungi that provide mineral nutrients to tree roots, which could explain malnutrition trends in Europe's trees.

Flexible solar cells: Will they someday power your devices?
Researchers in Finland and Montreal are looking at the challenges of mass producing and commercializing the now-experimental technology.

New report suggests three main groups of caffeine sensitivity
Coffee drinkers fall into one of three major groups based on their caffeine sensitivity, according to physician and author Dr J.W.

World's most efficient production of succinate from carbon dioxide
Succinate is widely used as a raw ingredient for petrochemicals, and there is high demand for a way of producing succinate that is renewable and environmentally benign.

Double-layered porous nanotubes with spatially separated photoredox surfaces
Solar energy conversion of water into H2 through photocatalysis is envisaged to be an attractive approach for developing clear energy.

Internet search data shows link between anti-Muslim and pro-ISIS searches in the US
In ethnically alike communities where poverty levels run high, anti-Muslim internet searches are strongly associated with pro-ISIS searches, according to a new analysis.

Most clinical trial participants find benefits of sharing personal data outweigh risks
Most participants in clinical trials believe the benefits of broadly sharing person-level data outweigh the risks, according to a new study by Stanford University researchers.

Male vervet monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights
Male vervet monkeys attack members of their own group to prevent them from escalating intergroup encounters into high-risk fights, or to de-escalate ongoing intergroup fights.

New link identified between inflammation and depression in type-1 diabetes
Depression in type-1 diabetes patients is associated with higher levels of the inflammatory protein galectin-3, according to research published in Endocrine Connections.

Link found between neurotransmitter imbalance, brain connectivity in those with autism
Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and MU Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders identified a link between a neurotransmitter imbalance and brain connectivity between regions of the brain that play a role in social communication and language.

As mystery deepens over the cause of Alzheimer's, a UB lab seeks new answers
For more than 20 years, much of the leading research on Alzheimer's has been guided by the 'amyloid hypothesis.' But with a series of failed clinical trials raising questions about this theory, some researchers are looking for deeper explanations into the causes of the disease and how it can be treated.

Camouflaged plants use the same tricks as animals
Plants use many of the same methods as animals to camouflage themselves, a new study shows.

Want narcissists to donate to your cause? Make it about them
When narcissistic individuals are able to imagine themselves in a victim's situation, they are more likely to donate to charity, according to new research from the University at Buffalo School of Management.

New research identifies how blind cavefish lose their eyes
Blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) lose critical eye tissues within a few days after their eyes begin to develop.

Is a stress shot on the horizon?
Rats immunized weekly for three weeks with beneficial bacteria showed increased levels of anti-inflammatory proteins in the brain, more resilience to the physical effects of stress, and less anxiety-like behavior.

Black, Hispanic people may be more likely to have a second hemorrhagic stroke than whites
Black and Hispanic people may be more likely to have another intracerebral hemorrhage, or a stroke caused by bleeding in the brain, than white people, according to a study published in the June 6, 2018, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Killing bacteria by silencing genes may be alternative to antibiotics
A new approach to killing C. difficile that silences key bacterial genes while sparing other bacteria may provide a new way to treat the most common hospital-acquired bacterial infection in the United States, according to researchers.

Prolonged stress can impact quality of sperm, according to Ben-Gurion U. researchers
'Mental stress is known to have an adverse effect on fertility, but there is little research on the impact of stress on sperm quality,' says Dr.

Disaster recovery requires rebuilding livelihoods
The short-term losses people suffer when natural disasters strike can turn into long-term poverty if reconstruction policies don't consider how people are going to make a living.

Scientists stunned by decline of birds during epic Southern African roadtrip
A two year project repeating a famous bird survey by driving over 20, 000km in a 4x4 across Botswana has confirmed researchers' fears: many birds of prey are fast disappearing from one of Africa's last great wilderness areas.

NASA observes the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite saw the Eastern Pacific Ocean's first tropical storm coming together.

Majority of Americans believe it is essential that the US remain a global leader in space
Roughly seven in 10 Americans (72 percent) say it is essential for the US to continue to be a world leader in space exploration.

Inexpensive detector is like 'Velcro®' for cancer cells
Researchers have developed a new type of sensor that acts like Velcro® for prostate cancer cells, sticking them to a modified frosted glass slide, like those used in science classes, so that they can be identified from blood samples.

How plants work on the inside
Vascular tissue in plants distributes water and nutrients, thereby ensuring constant growth.

Aircraft microbiome much like that of homes and offices, study finds
What does flying in a commercial airliner have in common with working at the office or relaxing at home?

Optimal sleep linked to lower risks for dementia and early death
Short and long daily sleep duration were risk factors for dementia and premature death in a study of Japanese adults aged 60 years and older.

Desert bighorn sheep are crossing Interstate 40 in California
Desert bighorn sheep are able to climb steep, rocky terrain with speed and agility.

A deeper understanding of AFib could lower risk
More than 2.5 million Americans are living with Atrial Fibrillation (AFib).

Impact of fishing gear entanglement deduced from whale hormone levels
New validation study analyzing hormone profile shows the duration and negative effects of fishing gear entanglement on the North Atlantic right whale -- one of the most endangered whale species.

California's other gold
Sea urchin roe is an acquired taste. Served as sushi, uni -- the Japanese word for this delicacy -- is actually the reproductive organ of the sea urchin.

Study examines how pathogens affect bird migration
Whether long-distance animal migration facilitates or hampers pathogen transmission depends on how infections affect the routes and timing of migrating hosts.

For disappearing Bicknell's thrushes, statistical models are lifesavers
Bicknell's thrush has been identified as a globally vulnerable Nearctic-Neotropical migratory bird in need of serious conservation efforts.

Avoiding catastrophe: Yeast study reveals clues to maintaining genome size
Study reveals an unexpected role for a well-known protein machinery in maintaining the correct DNA content with implications for cancer and other diseases.

Medical departments of Kazan University work on treatments for hereditary pathologies
Newest results were showcased at the International Myology School in Moscow on May 16th - 19th, 2018.

Transparent, conductive films promising for developing flexible screens
Because silver is less brittle and more chemically resistant than materials currently used to make these electrodes, the new films could offer a high-performance and long-lasting option for use with flexible screens and electronics.

Tumultuous galaxy mergers better at switching on black holes
A new study by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder finds that violent crashes may be more effective at activating black holes than more peaceful mergers.

Excess zinc in muscles contributes to wasting syndrome in cancer
A new study from Columbia University suggests that an overload of zinc in muscle leads to a debilitating wasting syndrome in cancer patients.

Colorado study suggests new combination treatment against relapsed head and neck cancer
'EphB4-ephrin-B2 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials in other disease settings, and our work shows that it might be successful in combination with EGFR inhibition in advanced head and neck cancers as well,' says Sana Karam, M.D., Ph.D.

A new method for solving a series of global optimization problems developed
To create highly effective technical systems and technological processes, in addition to the use of new principles, new materials, new physical effects and other new solutions that determine the overall structure of the object being created, one has to choose the best combination of this object's parameters (geometric dimensions, electrical characteristics, etc.), since any changes in the parameters with a fixed overall object structure can significantly affect the effectiveness indicators.

Lab-grown neurons improve breathing in mice after spinal cord injury
In a pre-clinical study, researchers show that V2a interneurons could one day help paralyzed patients breathe without a ventilator.

Seeing the light? -- Study illuminates how quantum magnets mimic light
A magnetic crystal that behaves like quantum light validates the theory.

Neighborhoods can help buffer impacts from childhood poverty
In one of the first studies to examine the effect of both socioeconomic status and neighborhoods on children's health, researchers at San Francisco State University and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) found that living in higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect children from some of the negative health impacts associated with growing up poor.

Preterm newborns sleep better in NICU while hearing their mother's voice
Hearing a recording of their mother's voice may help neonates maintain sleep while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), according to preliminary data from a new study.

Older breast cancer patients in England less likely to survive
Older women diagnosed with breast cancer in England are less likely to survive their disease than those in Belgium, Poland, Ireland and the Netherlands according to research published today in the British Journal of Cancer.

What does the future hold for the children of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil?
A new study published in Science Translational Medicine uses a mouse model to investigate the potential long-term effects of early-life infection by Zika virus, and indicates that blocking TNF- may be an effective strategy to stop seizures in newborns exposed to Zika congenitally.

Increased electrical activity in eye may relieve short-term dry eye pain
A boost of electrical activity in the eye's mucous membranes may lead to new treatments for the painful condition known as dry eye.

Scientists see inner workings of enzyme telomerase, which plays key roles in aging, cancer
Cancer, diseases related to aging and other illnesses are closely tied to an important enzyme called telomerase.

New data-mining technique offers most-vivid picture of Martian mineralogy
A team of scientists have revealed the mineralogy of Mars at an unprecedented scale, which will help them understand the planet's geologic history and habitability.

New tools reveal prelude to chaos
Engineers at Washington University in St. Louis have developed tools that mathematically describe the kinetics in a system right before it dissolves into randomness.

Emergency physicians debunk 'dry drowning' myths, highlight drowning risk in older swimmers
Parents have been reading -- and sharing -- alarming reports of children who died or nearly died due to

A better way to trace neuronal pathways
Researchers have improved an important technology used to map neural circuits in the brain.

Airlines and passengers save billions through crew planning
Research explains the complex reality of airline crew scheduling and provides an inside look at the techniques used by carriers to avoid delays.

How the brain performs flexible computations
MIT neuroscientists have found that by analyzing neural activity using a mathematical concept known as a dynamical system, they can accurately model how the brain performs tasks that require flexible timing.

Teenage girls are more impacted by sleepiness than teen boys are
Preliminary results of a recent study show that teen girls reported a higher degree of interference of daytime sleepiness on multiple aspects of their school and personal activities than boys.

As solar wind blows, our heliosphere balloons
What happens when the solar wind suddenly starts to blow significantly harder?

End-to-end blood testing device shows capacity to draw sample and provide diagnostic results
Recent research published in a paper by the Biomedical Engineering Department of Rutgers University have developed an end-to-end blood testing device that integrates robotic phlebotomy with downstream sample processing.

Human drug addiction behaviors tied to specific impairments in 6 brain networks
Systematic review of task-related neuroimaging studies found addicted individuals demonstrate increased activity in these networks during drug-related processing but decreases across all other functions.

Sex and social experience affect ultrasonic vocalizations in mice
Male mice produce more vocalizations after being with other mice than after being alone, according to a study published June 6, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Kali Burke from University at Buffalo, SUNY, US, and colleagues.

A typical communication pattern of people with Alzheimer's disease
A research group from Kumamoto University, Japan has performed the first statistical analysis of

Bioengineers identify safer way to make rugby tackles
Video analysis, 3-D motion analysis lab trials and model-based image-matching techniques show that tackling the lower trunk of the ball carrier's body -- not the upper trunk or upper legs -- is safer for head injury prevention.

Fungicide impairs silk production, according to study
By testing an agrochemical designed to increase resistance on the mulberry plants used to feed silkworms, a research verified a rise in caterpillars' mortality and reduction in the size of cocoons. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to