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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 18, 2018


New 3D imaging analysis technique could lead to improved arthritis treatment
An algorithm to monitor the joints of patients with arthritis, which could change the way that the severity of the condition is assessed, has been developed by a team of engineers, physicians and radiologists led by the University of Cambridge.
Study finds a pesticide-free way to combat mosquitos and West Nile
Researchers at the University of Waterloo may have discovered a new, pesticide-free way to limit mosquito populations in some area and reduce the spread of the West Nile virus.
Sensitive new assay finds abnormalities in tumor cells that other techniques may miss
RNA-Seq, a new next-generation assay, can detect gene fusions in solid tumor cells with high accuracy and excellent reproducibility.
When it comes to weight loss in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis, more is better
Researchers previously showed that overweight and obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis can reduce pain by 50 percent and significantly improve function and mobility with a 10 percent or more weight loss over an 18-month period.
Researchers find a promising new approach for treating liver cirrhosis
In a study in The American Journal of Pathology, investigators report that treatment with aleglitazar, a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) agonist, reduced inflammation, vasoconstriction, angiogenesis, mucosal disruption, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α overproduction in cirrhotic rats with PH.
Diabetes may be an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer
A new study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute indicates that recent-onset type 2 diabetes may be early expression of pancreatic cancer.
Research shows how a moderate dose of alcohol protects the heart
Results published in Cardiovascular Research suggest the effect is associated with activation of the enzyme ALDH2, which helps rid the organism of an aldehyde which is a toxic byproduct of alcohol digestion as much as it is a byproduct of heart cells submitted to stress.
Devastating plant virus is revealed in atomic detail
The complex 3D structure of one of the world's most lethal families of plant viruses has been revealed in unprecedented detail by scientists at the University of Leeds.
Genomics offers new treatment options for infants with range of soft tissue tumors
The genetic causes of a group of related infant cancers have been discovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the University of Wuerzburg and their collaborators.
One in 5 parents did not talk to kids about what to do if they got lost at an amusement park
New report indicates several opportunities to reduce safety risks for children in the amusement park environment.
Research finds new way to determine protection of Men B vaccine against different strains
This approach is being assessed by Public Health England for its potential to routinely test all meningococcal disease cases.
Addgene keeps flow of CRISPR plasmids fast and affordable
As a key global enabler of the revolutionary genome editing technology known as CRISPR, the nonprofit organization Addgene has made available more than 100,000 CRISPR plasmids (circular DNA fragments) to 3,400 laboratories worldwide.
Studying heart disease after death can help the living
Autopsy findings provide valuable information about causes and natural history of overall cardiovascular disease.
Lots of news and lots of contacts at ZPID Twin Conference
The Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) had organized the two conferences from June 7-12 at its seat in Trier, Germany.
Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain
New preclinical research shows a gene already linked to a subset of people with autism spectrum disorder is critical to healthy neuronal connections in the developing brain, and its loss can harm those connections to help fuel the complex developmental condition.
Study suggests well-known growth suppressor actually fuels lethal brain cancers
Scientists report finding a potentially promising treatment target for aggressive and deadly high-grade brain cancers like glioblastoma.
Valuing gluten-free foods relates to health behaviors in young adults
In a new study featured in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, researchers found that among young adults valuing gluten-free foods could be indicative of an overall interest in health or nutrition.
Americans view child abuse and neglect as a serious public health problem
A strong majority of Americans view child abuse and neglect as a public health problem in the United States, a sentiment shared across populations with 81 percent of Hispanics, 76 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 74 percent of African-Americans and 67 percent of Asians in agreement, according to a new survey commissioned by Research!America and the National Foundation to End Child Abuse and Neglect (EndCAN).
Bolder targets needed to protect nature for people's sake
University of Queensland researchers have found that humanity is at risk without more diverse, ambitious and area-specific conservation targets.
Adolescent binge drinking disrupts mouse memory in adulthood
Excessive drinking during adolescence may interfere with the activity of brain cells needed for sustaining short term memory, according to new research in adolescent male mice published in JNeurosci.
'Be personal and appreciative': Research shows effective responses to online feedback
As more patients leave feedback on online platforms including social media, new research shows how health and social care organisations can offer value in their response.
Cell technology used to treat osteochondral knee defect
As the publication describes, autologous cells of stromal vascular fraction were transplanted to a 36-year-old man with the use of fibrin matrix.
How the brain plays a role in rheumatoid arthritis inflammation
A new study from researchers at Michigan Medicine explores links between chronic joint inflammation and cognitive impairment.
Researchers create novel combination as potential therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma
Researchers at VCU Massey Cancer Center in Richmond, Virginia, have identified a promising target to reverse the development of high-risk neuroblastoma and potentially inform the creation of novel combination therapies for the disease.
New radiological procedure for the diagnosis of liver disease
Researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have successfully tested a new technology for use in the assessment of overweight adolescents with liver disease.
Dietary supplement use in children, adolescents
About one-third of children and adolescents in the United States use dietary supplements.
Helicopter parenting may negatively affect children's emotional well-being, behavior
It's natural for parents to do whatever they can to keep their children safe and healthy, but children need space to learn and grow on their own, without Mom or Dad hovering over them, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
Neuroscientists map brain's response to cold touch
Carnegie Mellon neuroscientists have mapped the feeling of cool touch to the brain's insula in a mouse model.
Observation of anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect
For the first time in the world, NIMS and Tohoku University jointly observed an anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect--a thermoelectric conversion phenomenon in which simple redirection of the flow of a charge current in a magnetic material induces heating and cooling.
Scientists create continuously emitting microlasers with nanoparticle-coated beads
Researchers have found a way to convert nanoparticle-coated microscopic beads into lasers smaller than red blood cells.
New articles in The CRISPR Journal
The CRISPR Journal, a new peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, announces the publication of its third issue.
Rising sea temperatures threaten survival of juvenile albatross
Changes in sea surface temperature affect the survival of albatross during their first year at sea, resulting in a reduced population growth rate when temperatures are warmer than the current average, a new study published in the Journal of Animal Ecology has revealed.
Violence against women significantly more likely after high-risk sex
A study of the victimization of women who were living in areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in multiple cities across the US has shown that high-risk-sex, characterized by one or more HIV risk factors, was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of physical violence against the female participant within the subsequent six months.
Pancreatic cell size linked to mammalian lifespan, finds zoo animal analysis
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle observed that larger animals tend to live longer than smaller ones.
Novel information about the effects of in vitro fertilization on embryonic growth
In vitro fertilization affects the regulatory region of genes essential for placental and embryonic growth, as well as the birth weight.
Targeting the engine room of the cancer cell
Researchers at Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) have developed a highly innovative computational framework that can support personalized cancer treatment by matching individual tumors with the drugs or drug combinations that are most likely to kill them.
Silence is golden when it comes to how our brains work
It's the comparative silence between the firing spikes of neurons that tells what they are really up to, scientists report.
Gene editing technology may improve accuracy of predicting individuals' heart disease risk
Gene-editing technology may help scientists discern whether genetic variations with undetermined effects are harmless or dangerous.
New study suggests ovarian hormone may make drug withdrawal symptoms worse for women
Researchers found that a form of the estrogen hormone can contribute to drug relapse in females by worsening withdrawal symptoms.
Unique immune-focused AI model creates largest library of inter-cellular communications
New data published in Nature Biotech, represents the largest ever analysis of immune cell signaling research, mapping more than 3,000 previously unlisted cellular interactions, and yielding the first ever immune-centric modular classification of diseases.
Daily fasting works for weight loss
A new study shows that daily fasting is an effective tool to reduce weight and lower blood pressure.
Trojan Horse: How a killer fungus unleashes meningitis and brain infection
In a world first, Australian researchers have revealed how a deadly fungus and primary cause of life-threatening meningitis exploits the immune system like a 'Trojan Horse' to promote infection.
New approach in VR redirected walking to be presented at SIGGRAPH 2018
In the burgeoning world of virtual reality (VR) technology, it remains a challenge to provide users with a realistic perception of infinite space and natural walking capabilities in the virtual environment.
Using gold nanoparticles to trigger sequential unfolding of 3D structures
Researchers have developed a technique that takes advantage of gold nanoparticles to trigger the sequential unfolding of three-dimensional structures using different wavelengths of light.
Graphic warning labels linked to reduced sugary drink purchases
Warning labels that include photos linking sugary drink consumption with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and tooth decay, may reduce purchases of the drinks, according to a new study by researchers from Harvard T.H.
Electrically stimulating the brain may restore movement after stroke
UC San Francisco scientists have improved mobility in rats that had experienced debilitating strokes by using electrical stimulation to restore a distinctive pattern of brain cell activity associated with efficient movement.
Compilation of research discussed at the Global Forum On Nicotine: Warsaw June 16 2018
Below is a summary of the new and recent research discussed at this conference.
Heart disease sufferers not exercizing enough
Evidence shows that people with existing heart problems or who are at risk of developing them, are ignoring medical advice and not taking enough exercise.
Risky opioid prescriptions linked to higher chance of death
Most people who misuse opioids are first exposed to the drugs through prescriptions so improving prescribing is targeted as one way to help curb the nation's opioid abuse epidemic.
Great white sharks dive deep into warm-water whirlpools in the Atlantic
Tracking data from two great white sharks reveals that they spend more time deep inside warm-water eddies, suggesting that's where they like to feed.
Scientists find potential disease-fighting 'warheads' hidden in bacteria
A new study by Scripps Research, published today in Nature Communications, suggests scientists could build better drugs by learning from bacteria-derived molecules called thiocarboxylic acids.
Faster, cheaper, better: A new way to synthesize DNA
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) based at Berkeley Lab have pioneered a new way to synthesize DNA sequences through a creative use of enzymes that promises to be faster, cheaper, and more accurate.
UNH researcher captures best ever evidence of rare black hole
Scientists have been able to prove the existence of small black holes and those that are super-massive but the existence of an elusive type of black hole, known as intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is hotly debated.
In the gaping mouth of ancient crocodiles
A new study by a team of international experts, led by University of Witwatersrand PhD candidate Kathleen Dollman and Professor Jonah Choiniere published today in the American Museum Novitates, endeavoured to further explore the mouth of one of the earliest occurring and least understood groups of crocodilians, the shartegosuchids.
Electrical wire properties of DNA linked to cancer
New research from the Barton lab finds a connection between a cancer mutation and electron-mediated DNA repair.
Recent clinical trial finds tamsulosin not effective in kidney stone passage
Research published in JAMA Internal Medicine found that tamsulosin does not significantly effect patient-reported passage or capture of kidney stones.
New material for splitting water
Solar energy is clean and abundant, but when the sun isn't shining, you must store the energy in batteries or through a process called photocatalysis.
KAIST team develops flexible blue vertical micro LEDs
A KAIST research team developed a crucial source technology that will advance the commercialization of micro LEDs.
Explosive volcanoes spawned mysterious Martian rock formation
Explosive volcanic eruptions that shot jets of hot ash, rock and gas skyward are the likely source of a mysterious Martian rock formation, a new study finds.
Meeting Paris climate targets will require a substantial reallocation of global investment
A new analysis by an international team of scientists led by IIASA shows that low carbon investments will need to markedly increase if the world is to achieve the Paris Agreement aim of keeping global warming well below 2°C.
Chemists achieve major milestone of synthesis: Remote chiral induction
'This new method should allow us to explore a large 'chemical space' that had been essentially off-limits.'
NASA finds Tropical Depression Carlotta's strong storms over Mexico, Eastern Pacific
Tropical Depression Carlotta continues to hug the coast of southwestern Mexico and drop heavy rainfall.
Cementless fly ash binder makes concrete 'green'
Rice University engineers have developed a composite binder made primarily of fly ash, a byproduct of coal-fired power plants, that can replace Portland cement in concrete.
Large outdoor study shows biodiversity improves stability of algal biofuel systems
A diverse mix of species improves the stability and fuel-oil yield of algal biofuel systems, as well as their resistance to invasion by outsiders, according to the findings of a federally funded outdoor study by University of Michigan researchers.
Organic crystals twist, bend, and heal
Crystals are brittle and inelastic? A novel class of smart, bendable crystalline organic materials has challenged this view.
New DNA synthesis technique promises rapid, high-fidelity DNA printing
Today, DNA is synthesized as an organic chemist would, using toxic chemicals and error-prone steps that limit accuracy and thus length to about 200 base pairs.
'Slow earthquakes' on San Andreas Fault increase risk of large quakes, say ASU scientists
A detailed study of the California fault has discovered a new kind of movement that isn't accounted for in earthquake forecasting.
Childhood sibling dynamics may predict differences in college education
The effects of sibling relationships may go beyond childhood bickering and bonding, according to Penn State researchers who found that these relationships may predict similarities and differences in siblings' education later in life.
Use of alternative medicines has doubled among kids, especially teens
Since 2003, the use of alternative medicines among children has doubled.
BIDMC researchers develop decision-making tool to benefit patients with HCV
BIDMC researchers led a retrospective analysis of four randomized clinical trials focused on the effects of DAA therapies in patients with HCV-associated liver failure, and developed a new means of predicting improvement in liver function in response to DAA treatment.
Odors are perceived the same way by hunter-gatherers and Westerners
Previous research has shown the hunter-gatherer Jahai are much better at naming odors than Westerners.
Hunting molecules to find new planets
It's impossible to obtain images of an exoplanet, so dazzling is the light of its star.
When consumers don't want to talk about what they bought
One of the joys of shopping for many people is the opportunity to brag about their purchases to friends and others.
Rewiring plant defence genes to reduce crop waste
Plants could be genetically rewired to better resist disease, helping safeguard crop yields worldwide according to new research by the universities of Warwick and York.
Study examines first birth cohort to receive HPV vaccine: The vaccine works
Girls in the first birth cohort to be offered and receive the HPV vaccine showed a lower degree of dysplasia which may eventually lead to cervical cancer than a birth cohort from 1983.
Constructing new tissue shapes with light
Constructing biological tissues, such as skin, muscle, or bone, in customized shapes is now one step closer.
Scripps graduate student discovers world's first known manta ray nursery
A graduate student at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and colleagues from NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries have discovered the world's first known manta ray nursery.
Virtual reality headsets significantly reduce children's fear of needles
Almost anyone can relate to being afraid of needles and injections.
Rare mutation of gene carried by Quebec family gives insight into how the brain is wired
The study of a Quebec family with an unusual gene provides novel insight into how our brain is built and, according to the McGill led team of scientists, offers a better understanding of psychiatric disorders such as depression, addictions and schizophrenia.
22,000-year-old panda from cave in Southern China belongs to distinct, long-lost lineage
Researchers who've analyzed ancient mitochondrial (mt)DNA isolated from a 22,000-year-old panda found in Cizhutuo Cave in the Guangxi Province of China -- a place where no pandas live today -- have revealed a new lineage of giant panda.
Bees love blue fluorescent light, and not just any wavelength will do
Researchers have learned that a specific wavelength range of blue fluorescent light set bees abuzz.
Researchers explore whether smarter animals are bigger troublemakers
A new paper in the journal Animal Behaviour examines whether smarter animals might be better at learning to live in cities -- but, at the same time, also may come into more conflict with humans.
Algorithm speeds up process for analyzing 3D medical images
In a pair of upcoming conference papers, MIT researchers describe a machine-learning algorithm that can register brain scans and other 3D images more than 1,000 times more quickly using novel learning techniques.
Everything big data claims to know about you could be wrong
When it comes to understanding what makes people tick -- and get sick -- medical science has long assumed that the bigger the sample of human subjects, the better.
Nature programmes could put a spring in your step
A new study shows that watching films set in a natural environment boosts body image.
Plant-based diets improve cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetes patients
New review in the journal Clinical Nutrition finds that plant-based diets improve cardiometabolic risk factors in those with type 2 diabetes.
Blue gene regulation helps plants respond properly to light
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science (CSRS) have discovered a process through which gene expression in plants is regulated by light.

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