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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 26, 2018


Wearable defibrillators may be an alternative to surgically implanted device for children with certain heart rhythm disorders
Study finds external wearable defibrillators are safe and effective in children with ventricular heart rhythm disorders that put them at risk for sudden cardiac death.
More woodland management needed to help save dormice
Managing woodlands to a greater extent could help stop the decline of Britain's dormice, new research suggests.
NASA examines a powerful thunderstorm complex over Oklahoma
When a powerful complex of thunderstorms affected Oklahoma NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite analyzed the power of those storms.
Marshall School of Medicine research team defines possible anti-aging intervention
New research demonstrates that Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification loop (NAKL) is intimately involved in the aging process and may serve as a target for anti-aging interventions.
NASA catches a view of a fading Tropical Cyclone Daniel
Tropical Storm Daniel was weakening when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead on June 24 and by June 26 the storm degenerated into a remnant low pressure area.
Engineer creates new design for ultra-thin capacitive sensors
As part of ongoing acoustic research at Binghamton University, State University at New York Distinguished Professor Ron Miles has created a workable sensor with the least possible resistance to motion.
Is less more? Rehabilitation for elderly people following hip fracture
Following surgery for hip fracture, elderly people undergoing rehabilitation experienced more favorable outcomes when providers were remunerated per patient rather than by the amount of care received, according to the findings of a research article by Vincent Mor of Brown University School of Public Health, United States, and colleagues published in PLOS Medicine.
Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea traced to immune cells
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that immune cells called macrophages can trigger smooth muscle contractions in the intestinal tract, independent of nerve cells.
Why popcorn tastes better when you eat it with chopsticks
If you are not enjoying your favorite things as much as you used to, new research suggests a way to break through the boredom: Try the same old things in new ways.
Study finds significant proportion of older adults are deficient in vitamin B12 and folate
The study suggests that voluntary food fortification is ineffective in preventing deficiency or low status of these vitamins among older people.
Serotonin speeds learning
Why do treatments with antidepressants like Prozac seem to work better when combined with behavioral therapies, which promote the learning of positive behaviors by the depressed patient?
Study solves mystery of genetic-test results for patient with suspected heart condition
Stanford researchers used genetic-editing tools and stem cell technology to uncover whether a genetic mutation linked to a heart rhythm disorder was benign or pathogenic.
The origins of fine-particle pollution in Guangzhou, China
A research team based in Guangzhou collected historical data on haze episodes and classified them according to the associated synoptic weather systems.
How family physicians are paid is linked to their rate of referral to specialists
Researchers at Western University, University of Ottawa and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) show that family physicians who switched from a blended fee-for-service payment scheme to a blended capitation model (a fixed rate per patient per year) increased their referrals to specialists by more than five per cent.
Carbohydrates shape the profile of gut metabolites in piglet model of NEC
Study shows an association between the type of carbohydrates in formula; the products of metabolism or metabolites; and the risk of NEC in a preterm piglet model of the human condition.
Spine surgery patients less likely to be opioid dependent after surgery
Spine surgeons and researchers at UofL, concerned about potential opioid misuse resulting from pain management related to surgery, have discovered positive news in a study of back surgery patients.
Gene editing curbs autism symptoms in mice
UT Health San Antonio researchers slow down exaggerated repetitive behaviors in mice with fragile X syndrome.
New study links poor sleep quality to atrial fibrillation
Poor sleep quality appears to be an important risk factor for atrial fibrillation, report scientists in the first study of its kind to demonstrate a relationship between poor sleep quality independent of sleep apnea and a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF).
New insights into pruning
When an organism develops, non-specific connections between nerve cells degenerate.
Flu's response to new drug explored
The new influenza drug Xofluza, developed by the Japanese pharmaceutical company Shionogi, was approved for clinical use in Japan in February 2018.
Baboons shed light on antimicrobial resistance
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient feature of gut microbial communities and sharing habitat with humans has had an important impact on the structure and function of gut microbiota of non-human primates, according to a study involving wild and captive baboons.
Food insecurity has greater impact on disadvantaged children
In 2016, 12.9 million children lived in food-insecure households. These children represent a vulnerable population since their developing brains can suffer long-term negative consequences from undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.
Bad behavior to significant other in tough times has more impact than positive gestures
Refraining from bad behavior toward a significant other during stressful life events is more important than showing positive behavior, according to a Baylor University study.
Anger overlooked as feature of postnatal mood disorders: UBC study
Women in the postpartum period should be screened for anger in addition to depression and anxiety, new research from the University of British Columbia suggests.
Majority of teenagers need food safety education
A new study from the University of Waterloo highlights a low level of awareness among youth around the proper precautions they need to take when it comes to handling food.
USC researchers find kids sneak smoking substitute into school
An easily-concealed device designed to wean smokers off tobacco is turning up in classrooms as kids puff the discreet JUUL device to get a nicotine dose.
New diagnosis method could help spot head and neck cancers earlier
Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are the most common head and neck cancers, but are often diagnosed late.
Finnish forest management guidelines fail to protect the flying squirrel
A new study determined the habitat requirements for flying squirrels and compared them to those included in the recently amended Forest Act.
A new link between cancer and aging
Human lung cancer cells resist dying by controlling parts of the aging process, according to findings published online May 10th in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
VHIO scientists reveal novel drug-target to strangle sleeping cancer cells
Latest discovery promises new weaponry against dormant tumor cells to counteract resistance and prevent disease relapse.
The placenta slows embryo growth so an injured limb can play catch-up
According to a study publishing June 26 in the open access journal PLOS Biology by Alberto Roselló-Díez, Alexandra Joyner, and colleagues of the Sloan Kettering Institute in New York, during development, mice can stimulate local growth while suppressing overall growth, thereby allowing damaged tissues to catch-up with other tissues, and making sure that bones in opposite limbs lengthen together when one is injured.
Fatigue is a common but underestimated symptom of endometriosis
Two papers published in Human Reproduction journal show that the prevalence of fatigue is more than doubled in women with endometriosis but is underestimated, meaning that doctors should be making greater efforts to discuss and treat this debilitating symptom in these women, and that a history of some types of child abuse is linked to an increased likelihood of endometriosis in adulthood.
UMass Amherst geoscientists offer new evidence for how the Adirondack Mountains formed
The formation mechanism of the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York has long posed a geologic mystery, say seismology researchers at the nearby University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Killer immune cells that halt malaria could hold key to new vaccines
Scientists have revealed that immune cells called natural killer (NK) cells may play a key role in ridding the body of malaria-infected blood cells, a study in eLife reports.
New insight into how Autism might develop in human brain
In a study published in Stem Cell Reports, a McGill University team of scientists led by Dr.
Journal of Hymenoptera Research links Crocodile Dundee, Toblerone, Game of Thrones & Alien
A myriad of species and genera new to science, including economically important wasps drawing immediate attention because of their amusing names and remarkable physical characters, in addition to work set to lay the foundations for future taxonomic and conservation research, together comprise the latest 64th issue of the the open access Journal of Hymenoptera Research.
A Fox code for the face
In the developing face, how do stem cells know whether to become cartilage, bones or teeth?
Experimental drug combined with radiation kills brain tumors in pre-clinical studies
A new study led by scientists at VCU Massey Cancer Center has shown that an experimental drug known as AZ32 selectively sensitizes brain tumors to radiation and significantly extends the survival of mouse models with human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and deadly form of brain cancer.
Lynxes in danger
A new study suggests that humans are putting pressure on the population of these big cats in the Germany-Czech Republic-Austria border area.
History of side-necked turtle diversification revealed
Brazilian paleontologists have elucidated the evolutionary history of today's Yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle and of the oldest turtle in Brazil which inhabited the country 125 million years ago.
New regulatory axis revealed for the cancer relevant matrix metalloprotease MMP14
Membrane-associated metalloprotease, MMP14, plays a significant role in different cancer tissues -- for instance in breast cancer and melanoma patients high MMP14 levels increase the risk to develop metastasis.
Do abortion-related complications differ based on facility where done?
Performing an abortion in an ambulatory surgery center instead of in an office-based setting was not associated with a significant difference in abortion-related complications such as infection and hemorrhage.
Usutu: An African virus under surveillance in Europe
In an article to be published in the journal Médecine/Sciences, researchers from INSERM, CIRAD, ANSES, the University of Montpellier and the Montpellier teaching hospital take stock of the emergence of Usutu virus in Europe, which has been characterized by episodes of increased bird deaths.
When one drug fails, a new door opens for cancer treatment
As cancers find ways to bypass a new therapy, researchers discover the tumor also develops an Achilles heel that can be hit with a different cancer therapy.
Early treatment of advanced prostate cancer with radioligand therapy prolongs life
Research presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) demonstrates for the first time the benefit of providing earlier lutetium-177 (177Lu) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) radioligand therapy to patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
Women know what they want; men get pickier with age
Online dating is a multi-million-dollar growth industry. Research by QUT shows men and women take a different approach to it.
Computational model analysis reveals serotonin speeds learning
A new computational-model designed by researchers at UCL based on data from the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown reveals that serotonin, one of the most widespread chemicals in the brain, can speed up learning.
Narcissistic adolescents may perform better at school -- Queen's University Belfast researcher
A researcher at Queen's University Belfast suggests that the growing rate of narcissism in society could be linked with school achievement.
Mindfulness helps injured athletes improve pain tolerance and awareness
A new study of injured athletes carried out by the University of Kent found they can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the sport rehabilitation process to improve their pain tolerance and awareness.
Twelfth impact structure discovered in Central Finland
A Finnish-Estonian scientific co-operation by Geological Survey of Finland, University of Tartu, and University of Helsinki has led to a discovery of ancient meteorite impact crater in Central Finland.
More post-acute care isn't always better, study finds
New research comparing the health outcomes of Medicare patients recovering from hip fractures in nursing homes found that those who received more efficient care fared slightly better.
Polymer professor develops safer component for lithium batteries
What would happen if a lithium battery failed in an electric car or a much-needed biomedical device?
Fluciclovine PET/CT locates recurrent prostate cancer and advises management
The addition of fluorine-18 (18F)-fluciclovine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to the diagnostic work-up of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer locates previously undetected lesions and changes treatment management for the majority of patients, according to a clinical trial report presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI).
Timings and behaviour influence worm's response to force
How worms respond to signals such as taps or touches depends on details of the signal, including whether it increases or decreases, and on what the animal is doing at the time, says Andrew Leifer and his team of researchers at Princeton University, US.
Research on cancer-frying nanoparticles heats up
Need to kill tumors? Just add heat. That's the promise of heated magnetic nanoparticles, a futuristic-sounding technology that could one day be used to fry and eradicate cancer cells without harming healthy tissue elsewhere in the body.
In women, even mild sleep problems may raise blood pressure
For women, even mild sleep problems can raise blood pressure, finds a new study.
Researchers develop synthetic T cells, mimics form and function of human version
UCLA researchers have developed synthetic T lymphocytes, or T cells, that are near-perfect facsimiles of human T cells.
Novel micropacemaker takes new approach to faulty heart rhythms
Investigators at Children's Hospital Los Angeles and the University of Southern California have demonstrated the feasibility of implanting a micropacemaker system in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart -- a breakthrough that may open up new cardiac pacing options for children and adults.
High-strength MRI may release mercury from amalgam dental fillings
Exposure to ultra-high-strength MRI may release toxic mercury from amalgam fillings in teeth, according to a new study.
Missed opportunities for HIV testing
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least annual testing for people at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs.
Antidepressants may increase risk of death by 20 percent for those with progressive lung disease
Antidepressant use in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a 20 percent increase in likelihood of death and a 15 percent increase in likelihood of hospitalization due to related symptoms, finds a new study led by researchers at St.
RUDN-based cardiologists studied new aspects of vascular ageing
A team of scientists from the Medical Institute of RUDN University compared two factors of vascular ageing -- CF-PWV and CAVI.
New studies illustrate need for rigorous review of infection preventionist staffing models across healthcare systems
Severe gaps in staffing and outdated coverage benchmarks point to the critical need for evaluating and updating standards for infection preventionist (IP) staffing levels, according to two new studies that explored infection prevention and control resourcing across a variety of healthcare settings.
Bicycle-related injuries send 25 children to emergency departments every hour
A new study conducted by researchers in the Center for Injury Research and Policy of the Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital found that from January 2006 through December 2015, more than 2.2 million children age 5-17 years were treated in US hospital emergency departments for bicycle-related injuries.
Research shows graphene forms electrically charged crinkles
Gently compressed stacks of graphene form sharp crinkles that carry an electric charge, which could be useful in nanoscale self-assembly and other applications.
Trade challenges from wealthy countries may impede noncommunicable disease prevention in LMICs
National regulations aimed at preventing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in smaller, low- or middle-income countries may be influenced by challenges made through the World Trade Organization (WTO) by wealthier countries, according to a study publishing this week in PLOS Medicine.
Scientists use hydrophone to listen in on methane seeps in ocean
A research team has successfully recorded the sound of methane bubbles from the seafloor off the Oregon coast, opening the door to using acoustics to identify -- and perhaps quantify -- this important greenhouse gas in the ocean.
Cleveland clinic- led study shows leadless pacemaker patients experience less complications
Patients receiving leadless pacemakers experience overall fewer short-term and mid-term complications than those receiving traditional transvenous pacemakers, a Cleveland Clinic-led research study found.
Fluorescence imaging technique goes from micro to macro, moves closer to clinic
Researchers have scaled up a powerful fluorescence imaging technique used to study biological processes on the cellular level.
Immune cells that create and sustain chronic inflammatory bowel disease identified
In preclinical experiments, Laurie Harrington and colleagues have discovered a subset of immune cells that create and sustain chronic inflammatory bowel disease.
Protein catch-22: Unravelling the roles of ataxin-2 in health and disease
Ataxin-2 is an essential protein of the nervous system. Authors of the study focus on a particular domain of Ataxin-2 known as the intrinsically disordered region (IDR) which was hitherto largely unknown. he study would have important bearings into the diverse scenarios disrupting normal brain functions.
Closing the gap: On the road to terahertz electronics
A team headed by the TUM physicists Alexander Holleitner and Reinhard Kienberger has succeeded for the first time in generating ultrashort electric pulses on a chip using metal antennas only a few nanometers in size, then running the signals a few millimeters above the surface and reading them in again a controlled manner.
What nipple size means for evolutionary biology
Nipple size varies markedly from woman to woman, whereas male nipples are more uniform.
Human insulin as safe and effective to treat type 2 diabetes as costlier insulin analogs
Patients with Type 2 diabetes who were treated with the newer generation of insulin analog drugs did not have substantially better outcomes than those treated with less costly human insulin, according to a study by Yale School of Medicine researchers and colleagues at Kaiser Permanente.
Zika in high resolution
The highest-resolution image yet of the Zika virus, or any enveloped virus thus far, appears June 26 in the journal Structure.
Defining the brain mosaic in fruit flies and humans
Similar to a mosaic floor where different patterned tiles come together to make a composite and holistic image, our brains too consist of billions of unique neurons that finally connect together and generate coordinated brain activity.
Researchers report success culturing Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis
The spiral-shaped bacterium that causes syphilis was so dependent on its human host that, until now and despite a century of work, it couldn't be cultured in a lab dish.
Twisted meta-molecules as they really are
Physicists at the University of Bath have devised a new and highly sensitive method to truly test the chirality of a material, eliminating the risk of false positives from competing effects.
Progress toward improved Wilson's disease drug
Researchers at CSHL, working in collaboration with DepYmed Inc., a CSHL spinout company, today report that they have conducted promising preclinical experiments on a compound that could be used to treat Wilson's disease and possibly other disorders -- including certain types of cancer -- in which levels of copper in the body are elevated, causing or contributing to pathology.
Scripps Research scientists find new way to block alcohol addiction and ease withdrawal
According to a new study by Scripps Research scientists, activating a receptor found in brain cells may help treat alcohol addiction and ease some withdrawal symptoms.
Trial from Niger finds village-wide prophylactic antibiotics contained spread of meningitis
Distribution of single doses of the oral antibiotic ciprofloxacin to residents of rural villages in the African meningitis belt reduced the number of meningitis cases during a 2017 meningitis epidemic, according to a new study in PLOS Medicine by Matthew Coldiron and colleagues from Epicentre and Médecins Sans Frontières in France, Switzerland and Niger.
A bright light in a dark room
Engineers work in quantifiable realism -- an object exists and can be measured.
SNMMI image of the year: PSMA PET imaging of theranostic for advanced prostate cancer
Studies of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer have demonstrated high response rates to radionuclide therapy targeting PSMA with the radionuclide lutetium-177.
New tech improves ability to reflect sound back to its source
Researchers have developed a device that reflects sound in the direction it came from, rather than deflecting it at an angle.
There is more going on in myotonic dystrophy type 1 than just alternative splicing
A novel mouse model shows that, although many of the characteristics of DM1 result from alternative splicing defects, in addition there are other mechanisms at play and therefore other potential targets to treat this disease.
Social awkwardness scuppers standing meetings
Standing during meetings could help keep office workers healthy, but new research from King's College London and Brunel University London suggests it's hard to resist keeping our seats when standing up breaks social rules.
An involved board of directors, a key component in innovation in family SMEs
The research by the UPV/EHU reveals that the mere fact that family SMEs have a board of directors does not guarantee that innovation will be implemented.
Tragic death of baby highlights need for vitamin D public health policy change
UK vitamin D supplementation policy needs to change to protect the health and lives of babies, pregnant women and dark skinned individuals, say University of Birmingham researchers.
Texas A&M research opens doors to expanded DNA studies
Dr. Wonmuk Hwang, associate professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M University, is researching the mechanics of DNA, the blueprint of the human body.
Relational mobility may influence your interpersonal behaviors
A large-scale analysis has suggested it's easier for people to form and replace relationships in North America, Europe and Latin America, compared to Asia and the Middle East, what causes these differences, and how they may influence people's thoughts and behavior.
Reinforced adversarial neural model for drug discovery and longevity biotechnology industry
Insilico introduces RANC architecture for de novo molecular design. The engine generates more unique and diverse structures as well as clusters with the lengths close to the reference samples, keeping the distributions of key molecular descriptors as in the training sets.
Inflammation discovery opens window to better rehabilitation possibilities
Inflammation plays a key role in improving the ability to relearn motor skills lost as a result of spinal cord injuries, such as grasping objects, new University of Alberta research shows.
Frankfurt physicists set limits on size of neutron stars
How large is a neutron star? Previous estimates varied from eight to sixteen kilometres.
Blockade at the receptor
When Chlamydia attacks the human body the immune system starts its defence mechanisms.
In search of biomarkers to detect patients with latent 'Plasmodium vivax' infection
Proteins derived from the latent liver stage of Plasmodium vivax can be detected in small extracellular vesicles that circulate in blood, according to a study led by ISGlobal, an institution supported by 'la Caixa' Foundation.
Women TEDx speakers receive more polarized comments than men
BYU researchers found that though most comments on TEDx and TED-Ed videos are neutral, women receive more of both positive and negative comments than men.
Poliovirus therapy for recurrent glioblastoma has three year survival rate of 21 percent
A genetically modified poliovirus therapy developed at Duke Cancer Institute shows significantly improved long-term survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma, with a three-year survival rate of 21 percent in a phase 1 clinical trial.
Researchers discover volcanic heat source under glacier
A researcher from the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography and five other scientists have discovered an active volcanic heat source beneath the Pine Island Glacier in Antarctica.
Study: Teaching grad students to teach effectively doesn't compromise research careers
A new Portland State University study suggests that universities should do more to invest in training graduate students in 21st century teaching methods, and that doing so does not mean that they would be any less prepared for a career in research.
New study confirms higher cancer rate in women with dense breast tissue
Researchers using automated breast density measurements have found that women with mammographically dense breast tissue have higher recall and biopsy rates and increased odds of screen-detected and interval breast cancer, according to a large new study.
Most accurate picture of Zika yet creates potential for therapeutics
Researchers have created the most accurate picture of Zika to date, finding probable drug-binding pockets on the surface of the virus and paving the way for vaccine design.
UA genetics research verifies purity of the Mexican wolf
Researchers used the latest in genomic technologies to determine whether the endangered Mexican wolf had hybridized with domestic dogs.
Substance found in grapes prevents agglomeration of a mutant protein that leads to cancer
A novel Brazilian study published in Oncotarget is the first to show the action of resveratrol, a bioactive compound present in grapes and red wine, on the inhibition of aggregates of the mutant p53 protein.
Tropical 'banana eater' birds lived in North America 52 million years ago
A fossil of an ancestor of modern tropical birds has been found in North America, proving they also used to live in the Northern Hemisphere, say scientists at the Milner Centre for Evolution at the University of Bath.
Decision to live together negatively affects wealth accumulation
Living together is often a first step before marriage, or for a growing number of millennials, an alternative to tying the knot.
Detection of arboreal feeding signs by Asiatic black bears
Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) climbs the trees to eat fruits by breaking branches, and arboreal feeding signs (AFS) are formed in trees.
Novel genetic method improves efficiency of enzyme
Researchers at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Georgia developed a new genetic engineering technique to dramatically improve an enzyme's ability to break down biomass.
Unraveling role of tumor suppressor in gene expression & ovarian tumorigenesis
The tumor suppressor protein ARID1A controls global transcription in ovarian epithelial cells, according to new research conducted at The Wistar Institute, which provided mechanistic insight into tumorigenesis mediated by ARID1A loss in ovarian cancer.
Digital vs. print publications: New study shows playing favorites can hurt overall sales
By 2015, e-book sales had grown to comprise 20 percent of all book sales.
USPSTF recommendation statement on screening for osteoporosis to prevent fractures
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in women 65 years and older and in postmenopausal women younger than 65 years at increased risk of osteoporosis.
What caused the mass extinction of Earth's first animals?
Fossil records tell us that the first macroscopic animals appeared on Earth about 575 million years ago.
Fight-or-flight response triggers white bloods cells, increases heart attack risk in diabetics
New research from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine shows that white bloods cells, which typically heal infections and injuries, can become overactive and cause inflammation in plaques in blood vessels, making them vulnerable to rupture and hemorrhage in people with diabetes.
Of hearts and giants: Moving a cardiac regulatory protein to the right place
An international research team revealed a nuclear localization role for a conserved short stretch of a cardiac muscle regulator.

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