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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 05, 2018


Age and education affect job changes, study finds
New research reveals that people are more likely to change jobs when they are younger and well educated, though not necessarily because they are more open to a new experience.
Researchers links coastal nuisance flooding to special type of slow-moving oce
A team of international researchers has found a link between seasonal fluctuations in sea level to a long-time phenomenon -- Rossby Waves.
New study pinpoints ways to improve quality of food & nutrition research
In a study published today in PLOS ONE, experts analyzed reams of past food and nutrition research to help identify and spur action in areas where meaningful improvements can be made in the design and execution of future food and nutrition studies.
Figures reveal £1.77bn mental health treatment gap for children and young people
A radical new Government Strategy focused on preventing, and not just treating, mental ill health in young people is required as a report by the University of Birmingham reveals today that an additional £1.77bn funding and 23,800 staff are needed to plug the current treatment gap.
NASA's Terra satellite apots second Atlantic Tropical Depression
The second tropical cyclone of the North Atlantic Hurricane season formed in the Central Atlantic Ocean and far from land.
Machine learning to assist in building muscle
Sarcopenia (from Greek 'flesh poverty'), is one of the major age-related processes and involves the loss of skeletal muscle and its function.
Implanting diamonds with flaws offers key technology for quantum communications
Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications.
Gonorrhea researchers identify novel route to vaccine, new antibiotic
Researchers have identified a protein that powers the virulence of the bacteria that causes gonorrhea, opening the possibility of a new target for antibiotics and, even better, a vaccine.
Abnormal branched-chain amino acid breakdown may raise diabetes risk
A new study suggests that the irregular metabolism of branched-chain amino acids -- components of proteins found in many foods -- may be partially to blame for progression to type 2 diabetes.
Complex brain circuitry revealed using new single-cell sequencing technology
Researchers at TGen and Circuit Therapeutics Inc. are studying the brain's striatum, which not only is responsible for controlling how we move, but also contributes to the brain's decision-making and the initiation of action.
Training in musical improvisation may teach your brain to think differently
Skilled improvisers were better than musicians with limited improvisational experience at distinguishing between chords that can be used interchangeably in a piece of music and those that cannot, a new study by Columbia researchers finds.
University of Minnesota research derives muscle stem cells from teratomas
Researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical School have developed a process to regenerate skeletal muscle cells in mice with muscular dystrophy.
Research finds three major failings in some apps used for the diagnosis of skin cancer
In the scramble to bring successful apps for the diagnosis of skin cancer to market there is a concern that a lack of testing is risking public safety, according to research led by the University of Birmingham.
Web-based support system may help people lose weight and keep it off
In a randomized long-term lifestyle change trial, an Internet-based health behavior change support system (HBCSS) was effective in improving weight loss and reduction in waist circumference for up to 2 years.
Progress in addressing a severe skin disease that affects dogs and humans
Both dogs and humans can suffer from ichthyosis, a disorder in which the skin becomes very dry, scaly, and prone to secondary infections.
Cultural practices may cause dermatologic side effects and complications
Population diversity and widespread immigration predispose physicians to encounter patients with a variety of backgrounds and cultural practices.
Ancient dog cancer still around today after 10,000 years
Dogs have been man's best friend for more than 10,000 years, but a new study shows it has been a doggone tough road to get here: their ancestors in the Americas likely came from Siberia, and these early dog populations almost totally disappeared, but not before leaving a cancerous tumor that is still found in their canine descendants today.
Berry-gorging bears disperse seeds through scat and feed small mammals
Mice and voles scurry to bear scats to forage for seeds, finding nutritional value in the seeds and in some cases further dispersing them.
First dogs in the Americas arrived from Siberia, disappeared after European contact
A study reported in the journal Science offers an enhanced view of the origins and ultimate fate of the first dogs in the Americas.
New target in certain leukemias discovered, could be treated with existing drug
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have discovered a target in several types of leukemia that could be treated with an existing Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for other types of blood cancers.
'Molecular movie' captures chemical reaction on atomic scale
A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction -- the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer.
SLAC's ultra-high-speed 'electron camera' catches molecules at a crossroads
An extremely fast 'electron camera' at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has produced the most detailed atomic movie of the decisive point where molecules hit by light can either stay intact or break apart.
Vitamin D deficiency affects many pregnant women
Only one in five women follows the recommendations for taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy.
New software designed for rapid, automated identification of dendritic spines
Researchers at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience release open source software, connecting and building the neuroscience coding community.
New world record for direct solar water-splitting efficiency
An international team of researchers has now succeeded in raising the efficiency of producing hydrogen from direct solar water-splitting to a record 19 per cent.
New wasp species with a giant stinger discovered in Amazonia
Researchers from the University of Turku, Finland have discovered a new wasp species in the Amazon which has an exceptionally large stinger that surprised even the scientists.
Biorefineries will have only minimal effects on wood products and feedstocks markets
A new report from researchers from IIASA, Luleå University of Technology, and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden has shown that more biorefineries, which produce biobased fuels and chemicals, will have only a small effect on the availability and pricing of wood products and feedstocks.
What does global climate have to do with erosion rates?
Geoscientists have been intrigued by a potential link between erosion rates at the Earth's surface and changes in global climate.
Urban greenways can reduce neighborhood carbon emissions
A new study from the University of British Columbia provides some of the first direct proof that urban greenways reduce carbon emissions.
New research detects brain cell that improves learning
The workings of memory and learning have yet to be clarified, especially at the neural circuitry level.
Gene therapy method developed to target damaged kidney cells
Research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Stem cell therapy drug may protect against smoke-related COPD symptoms
A drug used in stem cell therapy to treat certain cancers may also protect against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury.
UV narrow-band photodetector based on indium oxide nanocrystals
An international team of researchers from Russia and India has created a narrow-band UV photodetector based on indium oxide nanocrystals embedded in a thin film of aluminum oxide.
When spiders balloon through the air, it's (literally) electric
Spiders can travel many hundreds of miles through the air by releasing silk and floating away.
Oxygen therapy could help combat dementia in individuals with lung disease
Breathing in additional oxygen improves the function of blood vessels in the brain of people with breathing difficulties caused by lung conditions, according to new research published in Experimental Physiology.
Texas A&M AgriLife study shows BPA risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease
A recent study in a preclinical model of inflammatory bowel disease shows dietary exposure to bisphenol-A, or BPA, found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, can increase mortality and worsen its symptoms.
Limited shoulder function is leading factor for rotator cuff surgery, research shows
For patients with rotator cuff tears, improving shoulder function is the most important reason for moving forward with surgical repair, according to research presented today at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Annual Meeting in San Diego.
Jupiter's moons create uniquely patterned aurora on the gas giant planet
New images from the Juno spacecraft show an unusual 'footprint' of Jupiter's moons on their parent planet's aurora.
New study: Oxygen loss in the coastal Baltic Sea is 'unprecedentedly severe'
The Baltic Sea is home to some of the world's largest dead zones, areas of oxygen-starved waters where most marine animals can't survive.
Opioid epidemic responses overlook gender
Yale health experts warn that current efforts to confront the growth of opioid addiction and overdose deaths must better incorporate an understanding of how women fit into this epidemic.
Isoglucose and sucrose
Isoglucose, also known as high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), is used in the food industry as a substance to sweeten processed foods such as soft drinks, creams, cakes, confectionery, yogurts etc.
A bird's eye view of the Arctic
Drones and other unmanned technologies can cost-effectively collect weather data in harsh or remote environments and contribute to better weather and climate models, according to a new study from CIRES and NOAA researchers.
'Skinny fat' in older adults may predict dementia, Alzheimer's risk
A first-of-its-kind study has found that 'skinny fat' -- the combination of low muscle mass and strength in the context of high fat mass -- may be an important predictor of cognitive performance in older adults.
Expansion of agricultural land reduces CO2 absorption
Plants absorb some of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.
Extended tamoxifen therapy may increase risk of endometrial cancer
There is clear evidence that extended adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for 10 years reduces local recurrence and improves breast cancer-free survival in women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Prostate cancer ultrasound treatment as effective as surgery or radiotherapy
Using high energy ultrasound beams to destroy prostate cancer tumours may be as effective as surgery or radiotherapy, but with fewer side effects.
Bacteria-powered solar cell converts light to energy, even under overcast skies
UBC researchers have found a cheap, sustainable way to build a solar cell using bacteria that convert light to energy.
Researchers detect Higgs boson coupling with top quark
Detection of Higgs-top quark interaction at LHC by CMS and Atlas international collaborations, with Brazilian researchers participating, confirms theoretical predictions of Standard Model of particle physics.
Semiconductor quantum transistor opens the door for photon-based computing
Researchers at the University of Maryland have demonstrated the first single-photon transistor using a semiconductor chip.
The tricks to playing extra time in the World Cup
With England's latest thriller going to extra time, what can teams do to overcome the increased fatigue and stress of that extra 30 minutes and be able to play again in just four days?
Stopping a tiny -- and deadly -- fly in its tracks
New research presents a technique that could help treat African sleeping sickness, which impacts millions in sub-Saharan Africa and -- in its late stages -- can be fatal.
Revving up innate control of viral infection requires a three-cell ignition
The innate NK-cell response requires a rather carefully choreographed interaction of three cell types.
Obesity affects prostate cancer test results
University of Adelaide research shows that the results of the most widely used test for prostate cancer may be affected by obesity.
A molecular label: traceability for medical implants
A team of researchers at CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université and Université Paris 13 has demonstrated effective molecular labelling to unequivocally identify biomedical implants, even after a prolonged period inside the living being.
Data-sharing website may speed the response to new illegal drugs
The NPS DataHub allows forensic chemists to share data on new drug analogs, including their chemical structures and signatures, which are the keys to identifying them in the lab.
Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis can reliably detect trisomy 21
NIPD can reduce the number of invasive tests and hence the number of test-related miscarriages in women whose foetuses are at an increased risk of trisomy 21.
Ancient genome analyses reveal mosaic pattern of goat domestication thousands of years ago
Goat domestication was a mosaic -- not a singular -- process, with capture from the wild impacting genetic diversity in different regions of the Fertile Crescent.
Researchers upend conventional wisdom on thermal conductivity
Researchers from around the United States have reported that a crystal grown from two relatively common mineral elements -- boron and arsenic -- demonstrates far higher thermal conductivity than any other semiconductors and metals currently in use, including silicon, silicon carbide, copper and silver.
Mighty mitochondria flex their DNA power to help nucleus run the cell
USC researchers discovered humble mitochondria are sometimes boss over the cell nucleus.
Older patients with knee pain may benefit from allograft transplant technique
Knee pain in active patients over 40 is often difficult to treat but according to researchers presenting their work today at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) Annual Meeting in San Diego utilizing a special kind of allograft may be a step in the right direction.
Study examines salmon poisoning disease in grizzly bears
Salmon in the northwestern continental US often carry a fluke containing bacteria that can produce a deadly disease in bears called salmon poisoning disease (SPD).
Nanofiber-based wound dressings induce production of antimicrobial peptide
Nanofiber-based wound dressings loaded with vitamin D spur the production of an antimicrobial peptide, a key step forward in the battle against surgical site infections, or SSIs.
Ex-smokers crave lost identity, study shows
Ex-smokers may not be able to resist lighting up again in order to recover a sense of 'who they are' -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia.
MGMT promoter methylation associated with improved survival for patients with WHO Grade II Gliomas
Further exploration into the endpoints of the NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424 trial resulted in the discovery that MGMT promoter methylation is an independent prognostic biomarker of high-risk, low-grade glioma treated with temozolomide and radiation.
Exciton limits are meant to be broken: OLED surpasses 100 percent exciton production efficiency
Researchers at Kyushu University's Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA) have demonstrated an OLED that uses singlet fission to boost the percentage of excitons created per pair of electrical charges to over 100 percent.
Detecting esophageal cancer cells
Researchers at the University of Texas at Arlington's College of Nursing and Health Innovation have developed a new nanoparticle-based platform for simultaneous imaging and treatment of esophageal cancer.
Post-tropical cyclone Prapiroon's remnants moving over northern Japan
The remnants of Post-Tropical Cyclone Prapiroon were spotted by NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite as they were moving over Japan's Hokkiado Prefecture in northern Japan.
Hydrangeas and the science of do-overs (video)
In a previous video, the Reactions team attempted to demonstrate the color-changing science of hydrangeas by using aluminum citrate to try to turn cut flowers from red to blue.
Content of illicit cannabis extracts used to treat children with epilepsy revealed
A pioneering study has found carers who turned to medicinal cannabis to treat children with epilepsy overwhelmingly (75 percent) considered the extracts as 'effective'.
Reconstruction of Grand Banks event sheds light on geohazard threats to seafloor infrastructure
As part of an international team, a researcher from the University of Liverpool reconstructed the 1929 Grand Banks underwater avalanche to better understand these common geohazards, which threaten critical seafloor infrastructure.
Spiders go ballooning on electric fields
The aerodynamic capabilities of spiders have intrigued scientists for hundreds of years.
Researchers compare drugs for treating severe hypertension in pregnancy
A recent meta-analysis of published studies has compared the efficacy and safety of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy.
Rethinking neurodegenerative disease treatment: Target multiple pathological proteins
Targeting multiple proteins at once may be the real key to treating neurodegenerative diseases, according to a recent study published in Brain by Penn Medicine researchers.
Amyloid beta protein protects brain from herpes infection by entrapping viral particles
A Massachusetts General Hospital study has found the mechanism by which amyloid beta -- the protein deposited into plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease -- protects from the effects of herpes viruses commonly found in the brain.
High-power electronics keep their cool with new heat-conducting crystals
The inner workings of high-power electronic devices must remain cool to operate reliably.
An aggressor is not necessarily a bully -- and the distinction matters
There is a difference between general aggressive behavior and bullying.
Abdominal obesity linked to lower urinary tract symptoms
In a recent LUTS study, men with central (or abdominal) obesity were at increased risk of experiencing lower urinary tract symptoms, and increased waist-to-hip ratio was associated with worsened straining and weak stream.
Fibre-optic transmission of 4000 km made possible by ultra-low-noise optical amplifiers
Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers.
Described 28 years post collection, new grass species makes a strong case for conservation
Originally collected 28 years ago in Ecuador, new species Poa laegaardiana has been just described, only to find out its prospects for surviving in its type location seem bleak due to intense farming in the area.
Establishing system for 911 video calling poses design challenges
A team of researchers led by Simon Fraser University professor Carman Neustaedter suggests that while there may be obvious benefits to implementing video calling for 911, there are also technical and social challenges to ensuring the system works optimally.
Cost-effectiveness study of risk-based screenings for breast cancer
A cost-effectiveness study used a hypothetical group of women in the United Kingdom to compare risk-based breast cancer screening programs with a standard age-based screening program and no screening.
Study reveals privacy issues in smartphone headache apps
Headache diaries are a mainstay of migraine management, and many commercial smartphone apps have been developed to help people track their pain.
Potential new drug for two life-threatening diseases
Derived from nature, a potential new drug to treat two life-threatening tropical diseases has been discovered as a result of collaboration between two Welsh universities.
Online reviews of spine surgeons -- Staff and office factors may negatively affect ratings
Spine surgeons earn high ratings for their skill and good clinical outcomes on internet review sites - but are more likely to receive negative ratings and comments on factors pertaining to clinic staff, billing, and wait times, reports a landmark study in Spine.
Exposure of hummingbirds and bumble bees to pesticides
New research reveals that hummingbirds and bumble bees are being exposed to neonicotinoid and other pesticides through routes that are widespread and complex.
NASA finds one small area of strong storms in Tropical Storm Fabio
Infrared imagery from NASA revealed that only one small area of storms remained in Tropical Storm Fabio.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP sees Typhoon Maria affecting Guam
The Pacific island of Guam continued to experience the effects of Typhoon Maria on July 5 as NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed a large band of storms over the island.
Study examines alcohol's effects on sexual aggression
A new Aggressive Behavior study has examined alcohol's 'in the moment' effects on sexual aggression, or the acute effects of alcohol on men's decisions about how to respond to sexual refusals in a dating simulation.
Neuronal 'barcodes' shape complex networks in the brain
The brain is an enormously complex organ. Understanding how billions of brain cells succeed in making precise connections is a major challenge for neuroscientists.
Scientists develop highly sensitive molecular optical pressure sensor
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany and at the Université de Montréal in Canada have developed a molecular system capable of very precise optical pressure measurements.
Genetic trails of the New World's oldest dogs and Near East goat domestication
The first dogs of North America arrived alongside humans and were not domesticated from North American wolves, but rather, from a Siberian ancestor, a new report says.
Immunotherapy for deadly bacteria shows early promise
Lehigh University's Marcos Pires and his team have designed a strategy aimed at tagging Gram-negative bacteria for destruction via small molecule conjugates they have created that specifically home to bacterial cell surfaces and trigger an immune response.
Scientists teach the neural network to carry out video facial recognition -- using a single photo
Researchers at the Higher School of Economics have proposed a new method of recognizing people on video with the help of a deep neural network.
Photonic capsules for injectable laser resonators
A KAIST research group presented photonic capsules for injectable laser resonators using microfluidic technology.
Biomarker for salt sensitivity of blood pressure discovered
For the first time researchers have identified a genetic marker (GNAI2) that is associated with the risk of salt sensitivity in blood pressure (BP) regardless of age or gender.
Heat-conducting crystals could help computer chips keep their cool
As consumers demand smaller, faster and more powerful electronic devices that draw more current and generate more heat, the issue of heat management is reaching a bottleneck.
Consumption of fast food linked with asthma and other allergic diseases
A new Respirology review and analysis of published studies reveals a link between fast food consumption and an increased likelihood of having asthma, wheeze, and several other allergic diseases such as pollen fever, eczema, and rhino-conjunctivitis.
ESMO and ASCO call on governments to improve cancer services and reduce cancer deaths
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the world's two leading organizations for oncology professionals, today issued a joint statement calling upon governments to renew political commitment to improve cancer services and reduce cancer deaths.
When rabbits and hares are introduced to new areas: Factors to consider
Throughout history, humans have deliberately translocated rabbits and hares (leporids) around the world, so they now occupy every continent (except Antarctica).
FSU research: Zika suppresses virus-fighting cells
Professor of Biological Science Hengli Tang and his postdoctoral researcher Jianshe Lang take a deep dive into the differences between Zika and the dengue virus.
Ancient American dogs almost completely wiped out by arrival of European breeds
The arrival of Europeans to the Americas, beginning in the 15th century, all but wiped out the dogs that had lived alongside native people on the continent for thousands of years, according to new research published in Science.
High rate of nearsightedness among children in China
Nearsightedness (myopia) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide.
How to start a nanomotor?
Most people have never heard of them, and yet every living being needs them to survive: fine protrusions of cells known as cilia.
Non-opioid drug relieves pain in mice, targets immune cells
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that inhibiting a receptor on immune cells called macrophages may help relieve pain in some patients, particularly those with chronic neuropathic pain, such as those with conditions such as diabetic neuropathy.
SBRT may be effective, safe alternative for patients, medically inoperable early-stage lung cancer
JAMA Oncology recently published data from NRG Oncology's RTOG 0618 trial [clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00551369], which shows that the utilization of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) as a treatment for medically operable lung cancer is associated with favorable primary tumor control and local control rates.
The rising price of Medicare Part D's 10 most costly medications
Researchers at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego have found that the cost for the 10 'highest spend' medications in Medicare Part D -- the US federal government's primary prescription drug benefit for older citizens -- rose almost one-third between 2011 and 2015, even as the number of persons using these drugs dropped by the same amount.
Inferior vena cava filter trends over 2 decades
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and retrieval procedures have markedly declined over the last decade from previous large growth in Medicare beneficiaries, according to a new Harvey L.
Rays of hope for development of materials for 3D displays and medical applications
Scientists at Osaka University aligned two hexahelicenes in various orientations, theoretically examined, and proposed that S- and X-shaped double hexahelicenes aligned in right symmetry were a key to improve the properties of helicenes.
Study finds new brain pathway for escaping predators
How the zebrafish brain perceives and reacts to predators has been determined by researchers at the University of Queensland.
Synthesis of tetrapeptides and screening of their antioxidant properties
Tetrapeptide Pro-Ala-Gly-Tyr (PAGY) and its analogues, namely, Pro-Ser-Gly-Tyr (PSGY), Pro-Ala-Phe-Tyr (PAFY), Pro-Phe-Phe-Tyr (PFFY) and Pro-Ala-Ile-Tyr (PAIY), were successfully synthesized via a solid phase peptide synthesis method with the Fmoc/t-Bu strategy.
Precision genomics point the way to mutations associated with accelerated aging
Mayo Clinic researchers are using precision genomics to search for undiscovered, inheritable genetic mutations that cause accelerated aging.
Investigative report on FDA advisory panels from Science's news department
An investigative report from Charles Piller, a contributing correspondent in the News department at Science, uncovers little recognized and unpoliced potential conflicts of interest among those who serve on FDA advisory panels to review drugs are under-reported.
Some of the world's poorest people are bearing the costs of tropical forest conservation
Researchers from Bangor University in the UK and the University of Antananarivo in Madagascar show that new conservation restrictions in Madagascar bring very significant costs to local people (representing up to 85 percent of local annual incomes).
New assay reveals biophysical properties that allow certain proteins to infect others
Scientists at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have identified a physical basis for the spread of corrupted proteins known as prions inside cells.
'Blind' Cheetah 3 robot can climb stairs littered with obstacles
MIT's Cheetah 3 robot can now leap and gallop across rough terrain, climb a staircase littered with debris, and quickly recover its balance when suddenly yanked or shoved, all while essentially blind.
Hungry? A newly discovered neural circuit may be the cause
A particular subset of neurons located in an enigmatic region of the hypothalamus plays a central role in regulating feeding and body weight in mice, a new study reveals.
Current ACL return to sport criteria fails to identify second injury risk, say researchers
Returning to your sport after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and not suffering a second injury is often difficult but for a kid who suffers an ACL injury figuring out how to prevent reinjury is even more tricky, say researchers presented today at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Annual Meeting in San Diego.
Results for female ACL graft repair methods differ among younger athletes, say researchers
Female athletes are two to eight more times likely to injure their ACL than males, however utilizing one graft repair treatment method in females may be more beneficial than another, according to researchers presenting their work today at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) Annual Meeting in San Diego.
Young athletes' ACL injury risk increases with fatigue, new research shows
ACL injuries are one of the most common sports injuries affecting adolescent athletes, leading to lost playing time and high healthcare costs.

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